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Aliases for TUBA3D Gene

Aliases for TUBA3D Gene

  • Tubulin, Alpha 3d 2 3
  • Alpha-Tubulin Isotype H2-Alpha 2 3
  • Tubulin Alpha-2 Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin Alpha-3C/D Chain 3
  • Alpha-Tubulin 3C/D 4
  • Alpha-Tubulin 2 4
  • H2-ALPHA 3
  • TUBA2 4

External Ids for TUBA3D Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBA3D Gene

  • GC02P131952
  • GC02P132233
  • GC02P124227

Summaries for TUBA3D Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TUBA3D Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the alpha tubulin family. Tubulin is a major component of microtubules, which are composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimers and microtubule-associated proteins in the cytoskeleton. Microtubules maintain cellular structure, function in intracellular transport, and play a role in spindle formation during mitosis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for TUBA3D Gene

TUBA3D (Tubulin, Alpha 3d) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and GPCR Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is TUBA3C.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBA3D Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

Tocris Summary for TUBA3D Gene

  • Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized, at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other beta-subunits are exposed (+). Microtubules act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, and provide a backbone for cell organelles and vesicles to move on, a process that requires motor proteins. The major microtubule motor proteins are kinesin, which generally moves towards the (+) end of the microtubule, and dynein, which generally moves towards the (-) end. Microtubules also form the spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis.

No data available for Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TUBA3D Gene

Genomics for TUBA3D Gene

Regulatory Elements for TUBA3D Gene

Genomic Location for TUBA3D Gene

131,476,007 bp from pter
131,482,934 bp from pter
6,928 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TUBA3D Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TUBA3D Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TUBA3D Gene

Proteins for TUBA3D Gene

  • Protein details for TUBA3D Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin alpha-3C/D chain
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NJQ0
    • Q5W099
    • Q6PEY3
    • Q96F18

    Protein attributes for TUBA3D Gene

    450 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49960 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells

    Alternative splice isoforms for TUBA3D Gene


neXtProt entry for TUBA3D Gene

Proteomics data for TUBA3D Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TUBA3D Gene

  • Acetylation of alpha chains at Lys-40 stabilizes microtubules and affects affinity and processivity of microtubule motors. This modification has a role in multiple cellular functions, ranging from cell motility, cell cycle progression or cell differentiation to intracellular trafficking and signaling (By similarity).
  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Also monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella) whereas glutamylation is prevalent in neuronal cells, centrioles, axonemes, and the mitotic spindle. Both modifications can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of such modifications is still unclear but they regulate the assembly and dynamics of axonemal microtubules (Probable).
  • Undergoes a tyrosination/detyrosination cycle, the cyclic removal and re-addition of a C-terminal tyrosine residue by the enzymes tubulin tyrosine carboxypeptidase (TTCP) and tubulin tyrosine ligase (TTL), respectively.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys60, Lys96, Lys163, Lys280, Lys304, Lys326, Lys336, Lys338, Lys352, Lys370, Lys394, and Lys401
  • Glycosylation at Asn380
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TUBA3D Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBA3D Gene

Domains for TUBA3D Gene

Gene Families for TUBA3D Gene

  • TUB :Tubulins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TUBA3D Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q13748
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBA3D: view

Function for TUBA3D Gene

Molecular function for TUBA3D Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBA3D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0005525 GTP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBA3D: view

miRNA for TUBA3D Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TUBA3D

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TUBA3D Gene

Localization for TUBA3D Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBA3D Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TUBA3D Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TUBA3D gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBA3D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005874 microtubule IEA --
GO:0043234 protein complex --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBA3D: view

Pathways for TUBA3D Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBA3D: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBA3D Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006184 obsolete GTP catabolic process --
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS --
GO:0007017 microtubule-based process IEA --
GO:0044267 cellular protein metabolic process TAS --
GO:0051084 de novo posttranslational protein folding TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBA3D: view

Compounds for TUBA3D Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBA3D Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
ABT 751 Inhibitor of microtubule polymerization; antimitotic and antitumor [141430-65-1]
Colchicine Inhibitor of tubulin [64-86-8]
Docetaxel Microtubule stabilizer [114977-28-5]
Harmine Potent and selective Dyrk1A inhibitor [442-51-3]
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules [143-67-9]
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBA3D: view

Transcripts for TUBA3D Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TUBA3D Gene

(28) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for TUBA3D Gene

Tubulin, alpha 3d:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBA3D Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TUBA3D Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TUBA3D Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TUBA3D Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TUBA3D Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (29.8) and Heart - Left Ventricle (15.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TUBA3D Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBA3D Gene Hs.503749

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBA3D Gene

Tissue specificity: Testis specific.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TUBA3D: view

Orthologs for TUBA3D Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TUBA3D Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBA3E 35
  • 98.67 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBA1D 35
  • 85.91 (n)
  • 97.73 (a)
  • 97 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC100855995 35
  • 82.48 (n)
  • 88.81 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tuba3b 36
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 95 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 95 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 99 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 100 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100490289 35
  • 84.7 (n)
  • 97.73 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tuba1l 35
  • 83.86 (n)
  • 97.73 (a)
tuba7l 36
  • 94 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta alphaTub84D 36
  • 97 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tba-1 36
  • 86 (a)
tba-5 36
  • 83 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TUB1 36
  • 74 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TUA5 35
  • 71.31 (n)
  • 84.25 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0574800 35
  • 75.04 (n)
  • 83.79 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11340 36
  • 98 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TUBA3D:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TUBA3D Gene

Gene Tree for TUBA3D (if available)
Gene Tree for TUBA3D (if available)

Paralogs for TUBA3D Gene

Paralogs for TUBA3D Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TUBA3D: view

Variants for TUBA3D Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TUBA3D Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1247e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv7327 OTHER Inversion 18451855
esv2670824 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv524021 CNV Loss 19592680
dgv1252e1 CNV Complex 17122850
dgv1254e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv428404 CNV Loss 18775914
dgv1256e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv34412 CNV Gain 17911159
dgv4312n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv4313n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv520930 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv818082 CNV Gain 17921354
dgv476n27 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv459396 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv470486 CNV Loss 18288195
nsv875115 CNV Gain 21882294
esv34704 CNV Gain 17911159
essv2396 CNV CNV 17122850
dgv1257e1 CNV Complex 17122850
essv1836 CNV CNV 17122850
dgv4314n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv875120 CNV Loss 21882294
essv7878 CNV CNV 17122850
dgv1258e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv834376 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv10183 CNV Loss 18304495

Relevant External Links for TUBA3D Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TUBA3D Gene

Disorders for TUBA3D Gene

No disorders were found for TUBA3D Gene.

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBA3D Gene

Publications for TUBA3D Gene

  1. Six mouse alpha-tubulin mRNAs encode five distinct isotypes: testis- specific expression of two sister genes. (PMID: 3785200) Villasante A. … Cowan N.J. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1986) 2 3
  2. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PMID: 12477932) Strausberg R.L. … Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002) 3
  3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3
  4. HIV-1 Tat protein enhances microtubule polymerization. (PMID: 15691386) de Mareuil J. … Loret E.P. (Retrovirology 2005) 3
  5. HIV-1 Tat, apoptosis and the mitochondria: a tubulin link? (PMID: 15698476) Giacca M. (Retrovirology 2005) 3

Products for TUBA3D Gene

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TUBA3D
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TUBA3D
    • Block miRNA regulation of TUBA3D using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for TUBA3D Gene

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