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TTL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 52
GCID: GC02P113239

Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase1 2
EC 6.3.2.253 8
2410003M22Rik2
Tubulin--Tyrosine Ligase2
Tubulin-Tyrosine Ligase2

External Ids:    HGNC: 215861   Entrez Gene: 1504652   Ensembl: ENSG000001149997   OMIM: 6082915   UniProtKB: Q8NG683   

Export aliases for TTL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02P113146 GC02P113334 GC02P112956 GC02P105693


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TTL Gene:
TTL is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the posttranslational modification of alpha-tubulin (see MIM 602529).
Alpha-tubulin within assembled microtubules is detyrosinated over time at the C terminus. After microtubule
disassembly, TTL restores the tyrosine residues and consequently participates in a cycle of tubulin
detyrosination and tyrosination (Erck et al., 2003 (PubMed 14571137)).(supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008)

GeneCards Summary for TTL Gene:
TTL (tubulin tyrosine ligase) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include tubulin-tyrosine ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TTLL4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TTL_HUMAN, Q8NG68
Function: Catalyzes the post-translational addition of a tyrosine to the C-terminal end of detyrosinated
alpha-tubulin (By similarity)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000002.11  NT_005403.18  NC_018913.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TTL gene promoter:
         HFH-3   AhR   Brachyury   HNF-3beta   Arnt   FOXI1   TFIID   Zic1   COMP1   Pax-4a   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTTL promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TTL

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TTL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2q13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2q13   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2q13

TTL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TTL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02P113239:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
113,239,731 bp from pter      End:
113,299,316 bp from pter
Size:
59,586 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TTL_HUMAN, Q8NG68 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tubulin--tyrosine ligase  
Size: 377 amino acids; 43212 Da
Cofactor: Magnesium (By similarity)
Cofactor: Potassium (By similarity)
Subunit: Monomer (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: Q585T3 Q7Z302 Q8N426

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TTL: NX_Q8NG68

Explore proteomics data for TTL at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for TTL (Q8NG68) (see all 11)
     SVFPPPD  WFPESYVI  SVEPAIST  SRTDEREFFL 


    See TTL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_714923.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000233336  

    TTL Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals TTL Protein
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    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for TTL

     
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    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for TTL 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR004344 TTL/TTLL_fam

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q8NG68

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q8NG68

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB004344 Tubulin-tyrosine ligase

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TTL_HUMAN, Q8NG68
    Similarity: Belongs to the tubulin--tyrosine ligase family
    Similarity: Contains 1 TTL domain


    Find genes that share domains with TTL           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TTL_HUMAN, Q8NG68
    Function: Catalyzes the post-translational addition of a tyrosine to the C-terminal end of detyrosinated
    alpha-tubulin (By similarity)
    Catalytic activity: ATP + detyrosinated alpha-tubulin + L-tyrosine = alpha-tubulin + ADP + phosphate

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TTL:
    tetracycline transporter-like

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 6.3.2.251 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004835tubulin-tyrosine ligase activity IEA--
    GO:0005524ATP binding IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TTL           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         5 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Ttl):
     behavior/neurological  cellular  mortality/aging  nervous system  respiratory system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with TTL           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Ttltm1Wehl for TTL

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TTL
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for TTL

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TTL
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TTL

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TTL:
    hsa-mir-149-5p (MIRT045574), hsa-mir-296-3p (MIRT038458), hsa-mir-877-3p (MIRT036928), hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049681), hsa-mir-320c (MIRT036172)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TTL using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TTL (see all 42):
    hsa-miR-3678-3p hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-146a hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-486-3p hsa-let-7g hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-424
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTTL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TTL
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TTL

    Gene Editing
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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): TTL (NM_005371)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TTL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TTL

    Cell Line
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    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for TTL 
    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TTL


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton3
    cytosol1
    nucleus1

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TTL
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TTL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 12)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TTL (ENSP000002333364) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 12)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    DCP1BENSP000002806654STRING: ENSP00000280665
    ELAVL1ENSP000003852694STRING: ENSP00000385269
    ATAD5ENSP000003131714STRING: ENSP00000313171
    RFC1ENSP000002614244STRING: ENSP00000261424
    APOA1BPENSP000003572184STRING: ENSP00000357218
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000226microtubule cytoskeleton organization IEA--
    GO:0006464cellular protein modification process IEA--
    GO:0030516regulation of axon extension IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TTL           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TTL

    6 HMDB Compounds for TTL    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    ADPadenosindiphosphorsaeure (see all 8)58-64-0--
    Adenosine triphosphate5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine (see all 24)56-65-5--
    L-Tyrosine(-)-a-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (see all 28)60-18-4--
    MagnesiumMagnesium (see all 2)7439-95-4--
    PhosphateNFB Orthophosphate (see all 13)14265-44-2--
    PotassiumK+ (see all 16)7440-09-7--

    2 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TTL gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tyrosine 52.9 11 14571137 (2), 15118838 (1), 7510228 (1), 17409447 (1) (see all 8)
    glutamate 27.4 2 14571137 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with TTL           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TTL gene: 
    NM_153712.4  

    Unigene Cluster for TTL:

    Tubulin tyrosine ligase
    Hs.358997  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BX649144
    4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000233336(uc002thu.3) ENST00000485537 ENST00000476615 ENST00000460450

    miRNA
    Products:
         
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TTL using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TTL (see all 42):
    hsa-miR-3678-3p hsa-let-7d hsa-miR-146a hsa-miR-15a hsa-miR-486-3p hsa-let-7g hsa-miR-124 hsa-miR-424
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTTL 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TTL
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TTL
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TTL (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TTL
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): TTL (NM_005371)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TTL
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TTL
    Primer
    Products:
        
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for TTL
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TTL
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TTL
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TTL
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TTL

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK026673.1 AK126378.1 AK126549.1 BC036331.1 BC036707.2 BC036819.1 BC046913.1 BX538316.1 
    BX647135.1 BX649144.1 

    10 DOTS entries:

    DT.100657812  DT.100748679  DT.217851  DT.101974757  DT.86850481  DT.99929613  DT.100748680  DT.103648 
    DT.95166168  DT.95262591 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 257):

    BC036819 BX114610 AI057587 BM985222 AA731278 AI638430 BQ086213 BQ000802 
    AW498857 BQ102470 BU620331 AI073967 CR626151 AL537142 BX282660 AI580261 
    W67381 CR626853 AI655870 T33306 CR599730 AI075222 BX117060 AI076216 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TTL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: CTTTCTAAAA
    TTL Expression
    About this image


    TTL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Medulla Oblongata
     
     Spinal Cord (Nervous System)
    TTL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TTL Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.358997
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TTL

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for TTL gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Ttl1 , 5 tubulin tyrosine ligase1, 5 88.77(n)1
    95.23(a)1
      2 (62.65 cM)5
    697371  NM_027192.21  NP_081468.11 
     1290659425 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TTL1 tubulin tyrosine ligase 79.13(n)
    88.86(a)
      416711  NM_001199392.2  NP_001186321.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TTL6
    tubulin tyrosine ligase
    86(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343437.1(42093-71966)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia ttl1 tubulin tyrosine ligase 74.2(n)
    81.38(a)
      100135000  NM_001113677.1  NP_001107149.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii Dr.114112 Transcribed sequences 73.77(n)    AL721659.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes PBY1(YBR094W)4 Putative tubulin tyrosine ligase associated with P-bodies   --   2(432036-434297) 852391  NP_009652.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TTL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TTL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TTL gene
    TTLL42  TTLL102  ENSG000002611472  TTLL32  TTLL12  TTLL52  TTLL112  TTLL92  
    TTLL72  TTLL62  TTLL82  TTLL22  TTLL132  ARPC4-TTLL32  

    Find genes that share paralogs with TTL           About GenesLikeMe


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TTL
    PGOHUM00000240246 PGOHUM00000240857


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TTL (see all 956)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1511800801,2
    Cuntested1113260555(+) ACTGCC/G/TTCAGA 2 A syn10--------
    rs1465111521,2
    --113237825(+) GAGAAG/TCTCTT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1152345321,2
    F--113237853(+) GTTGCC/TGTGAG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.09WA 118
    rs1410491411,2
    C--113237869(+) ATCACA/GCCATT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs3709884171,2
    C--113237913(+) TAACAC/GACACA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1902376671,2
    --113238183(+) GCTCGC/TTACAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1143797351,2
    C,F--113238298(+) GTGGCA/GCAGGA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.05WA 118
    rs1151001391,2
    C,F--113238346(+) TGGTGG/AGAGTG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.04NA 120
    rs1828071411,2
    C--113238527(+) AAGATG/TCCCTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs67479851,2
    C,F,A,H--113238530(+) ATGCCC/TTGATG 1 -- us2k128Minor allele frequency- T:0.17NS EA NA WA CSA 3134

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TTL (113239731 - 113299316 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 3 variations for TTL:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv1013CNV Insertion18451855
    nsv524578CNV Loss19592680
    nsv874877CNV Loss21882294

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TTL
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TTL

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 608291    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with TTL           About GenesLikeMe

    2 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TTL gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    cancer 6.93 4 17409447 (1), 16541425 (1), 19459643 (1)
    tumors 0 13 9405300 (4), 16954346 (2), 17409447 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TTL
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TTL (1 document)

    Export disorders for TTL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TTL gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 24):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TTL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Evidence for genes on chromosome 2 contributing to alcohol dependence with conduct disorder and suicide attempts. (PubMed id 20468071)1, 4 Dick D.M....Bierut L. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2010)
    2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    3. Tubulin detyrosination is a frequent occurrence in breast cancers of poor prognosis. (PubMed id 11431336)1, 3 Mialhe A....Job D. (Cancer Res. 2001)
    4. Cloning and genomic organization of the TTL gene on mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 2q13. (PubMed id 14571137)1, 9 Erck C....Wehland J. (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 2003)
    5. N-terminal acetylome analyses and functional insights of the N- terminal acetyltransferase NatB. (PubMed id 22814378)2 Van Damme P....Aldabe R. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012)
    6. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    7. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of HuR by heat shock. (PubMed id 19322201)1 Abdelmohsen K....Gorospe M. (EMBO J. 2009)
    8. The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA consortium. (PubMed id 17974005)2 Bechtel S.... Schupp I. (BMC Genomics 2007)
    9. Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. (PubMed id 15815621)2 Hillier L.W.... Wilson R.K. (Nature 2005)
    10. Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation. (PubMed id 15146197)1 Brandenberger R.... Stanton L.W. (Nat. Biotechnol. 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    Aliases
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 150465 HGNC: 21586 AceView: TTL Ensembl:ENSG00000114999 euGenes: HUgn150465
    ECgene: TTL H-InvDB: TTL

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TTL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for TTL Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TTL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TTL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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