Aliases for TRPM2 Gene
External Ids for TRPM2 Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for TRPM2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TRPM2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene forms a tetrameric cation channel that is permeable to calcium, sodium, and potassium and is regulated by free intracellular ADP-ribose. The encoded protein is activated by oxidative stress and confers susceptibility to cell death. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms. Additional transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
GeneCards Summary for TRPM2 Gene
TRPM2 (Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily M Member 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are TRP channels and Ectoderm Differentiation. GO annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and calcium channel activity. An important paralog of this gene is TRPM8.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRPM2 Gene
Isoform 1: Nonselective, voltage-independent cation channel that mediates Na(+) and Ca(2+) influx, leading to increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels (PubMed:11960981, PubMed:12594222, PubMed:11385575, PubMed:11509734, PubMed:11804595, PubMed:15561722, PubMed:16601673, PubMed:19171771, PubMed:20660597, PubMed:27383051, PubMed:27068538). Extracellular calcium passes through the channel and increases channel activity by binding to the cytoplasmic domain and stabilizing the channel in an open conformation (PubMed:19171771). Also contributes to Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores in response to ADP-ribose (PubMed:19454650). Plays a role in numerous processes that involve signaling via intracellular Ca(2+) levels (Probable). Besides, mediates the release of lysosomal Zn(2+) stores in response to reactive oxygen species, leading to increased cytosolic Zn(2+) levels (PubMed:25562606, PubMed:27068538). Activated by moderate heat (35 to 40 degrees Celsius) (PubMed:16601673). Activated by intracellular ADP-ribose, beta-NAD (NAD(+)) and similar compounds, and by oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (PubMed:11960981, PubMed:11385575, PubMed:11509734, PubMed:11804595, PubMed:15561722, PubMed:16601673, PubMed:19171771, PubMed:27383051, PubMed:27068538). The precise physiological activators are under debate; the true, physiological activators may be ADP-ribose and ADP-ribose-2-phosphate (PubMed:20650899, PubMed:25918360). Activation by ADP-ribose and beta-NAD is strongly increased by moderate heat (35 to 40 degrees Celsius) (PubMed:16601673). Likewise, reactive oxygen species lower the threshold for activation by moderate heat (37 degrees Celsius) (PubMed:22493272). Plays a role in mediating behavorial and physiological responses to moderate heat and thereby contributes to body temperature homeostasis. Plays a role in insulin secretion, a process that requires increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels (By similarity). Required for normal IFNG and cytokine secretion and normal innate immune immunity in response to bacterial infection. Required for normal phagocytosis and cytokine release by macrophages exposed to zymosan (in vitro). Plays a role in dendritic cell differentiation and maturation, and in dendritic cell chemotaxis via its role in regulating cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels (By similarity). Plays a role in the regulation of the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and filopodia formation in response to reactive oxygen species via its role in increasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) levels (PubMed:27068538). Confers susceptibility to cell death following oxidative stress (PubMed:12594222, PubMed:25562606).
Isoform 2: Lacks cation channel activity. Does not mediate cation transport in response to oxidative stress or ADP-ribose.
Isoform 3: Lacks cation channel activity and negatively regulates the channel activity of isoform 1. Negatively regulates susceptibility to cell death in reposponse to oxidative stress.