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TRO Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 59
GCID: GC0XP054946

Trophinin

  See TRO-related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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This gene clusters with an RNA gene
Subcategory (RNA class): lncRNA

Quality score for the ORGUL clustered with this gene is 3

Aliases
trophinin1 2     MAGE Superfamily Protein2
MAGED32 3     magphinin2
MAGE-D3 Antigen2 3     Melanoma Antigen, Family D, 32
MAGE-d32     KIAA11143

External Ids:    HGNC: 123261   Entrez Gene: 72162   Ensembl: ENSG000000674457   OMIM: 3001325   UniProtKB: Q128163   
ORGUL members:         

Export aliases for TRO gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XP051799 GC0XP052885 GC0XP053552 GC0XP053914 GC0XP054830 GC0XP054963 GC0XP051998


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TRO Gene:
This gene encodes a membrane protein that mediates cell adhesion between trophoblastic cells and the epithelial
cells of the endometrium. The encoded protein participates in cell signalling during embryo implantation, and may
also be involved in cancer formation. This gene is located near several other closely related genes on chromosome
X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. (provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012)

GeneCards Summary for TRO Gene:
TRO (trophinin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TRO include teratocarcinoma, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. An important paralog of this gene is MAGEC2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816
Function: Could be involved with bystin and tastin in a cell adhesion molecule complex that mediates an initial
attachment of the blastocyst to uterine epithelial cells at the time of the embryo implantation. Directly
responsible for homophilic cell adhesion

Gene Wiki entry for TRO Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000023.10  NT_011630.15  NC_018934.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TRO gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   ZIC2/Zic2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTRO promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TRO

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TRO


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xp11.22-p11.21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xp11.21   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xp11.22-p11.21

TRO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TRO gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XP054946:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
54,946,895 bp from pter      End:
54,957,864 bp from pter
Size:
10,970 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Trophinin  
Size: 1431 amino acids; 143716 Da
Subunit: Directly binds bystin, and indirectly tastin
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAA79334.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Sequence=BAA83066.3; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Secondary accessions: Q96SX2 Q9NU89 Q9UPN8
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q12816-1   Q12816-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TRO: NX_Q12816

Explore proteomics data for TRO at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys453
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TRO Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001034794.1  NP_001258112.1  NP_001258113.1  NP_057241.2  NP_808224.1  NP_808225.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000388947   ENSP00000387676   ENSP00000404645   ENSP00000411717   ENSP00000412588  
     ENSP00000173898   ENSP00000318278   ENSP00000404794   ENSP00000364162   ENSP00000382641  
     ENSP00000405043   ENSP00000407996   ENSP00000406574   ENSP00000364181   ENSP00000392841  
     ENSP00000404767   ENSP00000405311   ENSP00000405126  

    TRO Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
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    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for TRO

     
    Search eBioscience for Proteins for TRO 

     
    Search antibodies-online for proteins for TRO 

     
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    TRO Antibody Products:

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    antibodies-online antibodies for TRO (2 products) 

    TRO Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
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    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for TRO
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for TRO
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for TRO 
    antibodies-online kits for TRO (2 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR028810 MAGED2
     IPR002190 MAGE

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q12816

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q12816

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002190 MAGE protein

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816
    Similarity: Contains 1 MAGE domain


    Find genes that share domains with TRO           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816
    Function: Could be involved with bystin and tastin in a cell adhesion molecule complex that mediates an initial
    attachment of the blastocyst to uterine epithelial cells at the time of the embryo implantation. Directly
    responsible for homophilic cell adhesion

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TRO:
    trophinin,cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelium,interacting with bystin,tastin,escaping X
    inactivation potential involved in embryo implantation

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI9560222
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TRO           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Tro):
     mortality/aging  normal 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with TRO           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Trotm1Mfu for TRO

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for TRO

    miRNA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TRO:
    hsa-mir-183-5p (MIRT047116)

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    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate TRO:
    hsa-miR-450b-5p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TRO

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TRO


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane4
    nucleus2
    cytosol1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IEA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS7758945
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane TAS7758945

    Find genes that share ontologies with TRO           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including TRO: 
              Neurotrophins & Receptors in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TRO

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 8)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TRO (Q128161, 2, 3 ENSP000001738984) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 8)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    BYSLQ138951, 3, ENSP000002303404EBI-950001,EBI-358049 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000230340
    USP7Q930092, 3, ENSP000003435354MINT-2863870 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000343535
    FOSP011003, ENSP000003062454I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000306245
    TROAPQ128153, ENSP000002579094I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000257909
    UBCP0CG483, ENSP000003448184I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000344818
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007156homophilic cell adhesion TAS7758945
    GO:0007566embryo implantation TAS7758945
    GO:0030308negative regulation of cell growth IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TRO           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TRO (TROP)

    1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for TRO gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tyrosine 10.2 3 17495530 (1), 19159951 (1), 17360433 (1)



    Find genes that share compounds with TRO           About GenesLikeMe



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TRO gene (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001039705.2  NM_001271183.1  NM_001271184.1  NM_016157.3  NM_177556.2  NM_177557.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TRO:

    Trophinin
    Hs.633653  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001039705
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 24):
    ENST00000411534 ENST00000452830 ENST00000442098 ENST00000430420 ENST00000453081
    ENST00000173898(uc004dtq.3 uc011mok.2) ENST00000319167(uc004dts.3)
    ENST00000445561(uc004dtt.3) ENST00000375022(uc011moj.1 uc004dtr.3)
    ENST00000399736(uc004dtv.3) ENST00000440072 ENST00000484031 ENST00000474933
    ENST00000431115 ENST00000440759 ENST00000375041(uc004dtw.3) ENST00000449980
    ENST00000416704
    miRNA
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    1 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNA that regulate TRO:
    hsa-miR-450b-5p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TRO
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 5): TRO (NM_001042369)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TRO
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TRO
    Primer
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TRO
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TRO
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TRO

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB029037.2 AF349719.1 AF349720.1 AF349721.1 AF349722.1 AK001300.1 AK027489.1 AK027861.1 
    AK225841.1 AK296329.1 AK299568.1 BC026914.1 NR_073148.1 NR_073149.1 U04811.2 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 27):

    DT.121321756  DT.121321862  DT.100788600  DT.121321932  DT.97844275  DT.121321902  DT.92463531  DT.100723626 
    DT.116173  DT.99981015  DT.121321765  DT.121321895  DT.121321798  DT.100788597  DT.121321856  DT.95367460 
    DT.86852389  DT.92463518  DT.100788594  DT.102842475  DT.121321823  DT.121321824  DT.100023201  DT.121321817 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 172):

    AI805953 AA995148 AF349720 N94961 AF349719 BM678449 BP368681 AW513106 
    AI567105 BQ267648 NM_177556 N67950 BU154657 CB153182 F12635 BM669219 
    AA598982 CR591436 NM_177557 H65534 AI362960 BM806622 AI420719 AW189249 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TRO (see all 28)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f · 1g · 1h · 1i · 1j ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e · 6f · 6g · 6h · 6i ·
    SP1:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -                                                         
    SP2:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -                                                         
    SP3:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -   
    SP4:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                                         
    SP5:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                                         

    ExUns: 6j · 6k · 6l · 6m · 6n ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b · 16c · 16d ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18
    SP1:                                                                                      -           -                       -     -                     
    SP2:                                                                                      -           -                       -     -     -     -         
    SP3:  -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                               -           -                       -     -                     
    SP4:                                                                                      -           -                       -     -     -     -         
    SP5:                                                                                      -           -                                                   


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TRO

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TRO expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGATGGAAAA
    TRO Expression
    About this image


    TRO expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 5) fully expand
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Mature Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Cells Retinal Pigmented Epithelium
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Mature Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Cells Retinal Pigmented Epithelium
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
    TRO Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TRO Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.633653

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816
    Tissue specificity: Strong expression at implantation sites. Found in the placenta from the sixth week of
    pregnancy. Was localized in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi and in endometrial
    decidual cells at the uteroplacental interface. After week 10, the level decreased and then disappeared from
    placental villi. Also found in macrophages

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Array including TRO: 
              Neurotrophins & Receptors in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TRO

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for TRO gene from Selected species (see all 11)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tro1 , 5 trophinin1, 5 71.29(n)1
    63.58(a)1
      X (68.46 cM)5
    561911  NM_001002272.21  NP_001002272.11 
     1506453045 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MAGE6
    Gallus gallus necdin-like 2 (NDNL2), mRNA.
    41(a)
    1 → many
    JH376257.1(2550-4829)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    40(a)
    1 → many
    1(205667349-205679701)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ndnl26
    necdin-like 2
    37(a)
    1 → many
    23(13012414-13025121) ENSDARG00000058212


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TRO (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TRO (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TRO gene
    MAGEC22  MAGEA9B2  MAGEB52  MAGEB162  MAGEB12  MAGEB42  MAGEC12  MAGED42  
    MAGEA82  MAGED22  MAGEA122  MAGEA92  MAGEB172  MAGEB102  MAGEA62  MAGED12  
    MAGEA22  MAGEA32  MAGEB22  NDN2  MAGEB32  MAGED4B2  MAGEA42  MAGEA12  
    MAGEA102  MAGEB182  MAGEA2B2  MAGEB62  MAGEL22  MAGEA112  NDNL22  MAGEF12  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for TRO using alignment to 19 protein entries:     TROP_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    MAGEH1    MAGEL2    MAGED2    MAGED4    MAGED4B    NDNL2
    MAGEA1    NDN    MAGEA9    MAGEA9B    MAGED1    MAGEA10
    MAGEA2B    MAGE-B1    MAGEA2    MAGEA3    MAGEB1    MAGEF1

    Find genes that share paralogs with TRO           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TRO (see all 249)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs2001163721,2
    C--54957702(+) AAAGTA/TCATCC 11 V ut31 syn10--------
    rs1847208311,2
    --54958009(+) CAGGAA/TAGAGG 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1887847081,2
    --54958094(+) GCAAAC/TGGAGA 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1816991891,2
    --54958096(+) AAACGC/GAGAGG 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1871610071,2
    --54958137(+) AATCAA/CTGGTG 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1894856521,2
    --54958234(+) CATATC/TGTATA 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1815562831,2
    --54958243(+) TAGACC/TGTGGG 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1900615111,2
    --54962422(+) CATCAC/GAGTGA 7 -- us2k10--------
    rs1465662461,2
    --54962444(+) ACAGAA/CTGGGA 7 -- us2k10--------
    rs1921933691,2
    --54962510(+) GAACTC/GAAACA 8 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TRO (54946895 - 54957864 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for TRO:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2740175CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv435891CNV Deletion17901297

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TRO
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): TRO

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TRO
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TRO

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 300132    OMIM disorders: --

    4 diseases for TRO:    
    About MalaCards
    teratocarcinoma    juvenile rheumatoid arthritis    gallbladder cancer    endometrial carcinoma


    Find genes that share disorders with TRO           About GenesLikeMe

    8 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TRO gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    teratocarcinoma 62.6 2 11089559 (1), 9560222 (1)
    prader-willi syndrome 59.4 1 19159951 (1)
    testicular cancer 48.7 1 15205339 (1)
    endometrial carcinoma 31.1 1 11089559 (1)
    infertility 12.9 5 12297480 (5)
    cancer 11.3 4 18769125 (2), 17254769 (1), 17597582 (1)
    tumors 3.18 10 17487845 (2), 11299965 (1), 12375337 (1), 15205339 (1)
    metastasis 1.25 6 15205339 (3), 18846386 (1), 17254769 (1)

    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TRO (1 document)

    Export disorders for TRO gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TRO gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 59):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TRO)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Trophinin and tastin, a novel cell adhesion molecule complex with potential involvement in embryo implantation. (PubMed id 7758945)1, 2, 9 Fukuda M.N....Nozawa S. (Genes Dev. 1995)
    2. An overview of the MAGE gene family with the identification of all human members of the family. (PubMed id 11454705)1, 3, 9 Chomez P.... Lucas S. (Cancer Res. 2001)
    3. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. (PubMed id 15772651)1, 2 Ross M.T.... Bentley D.R. (Nature 2005)
    4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    5. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (PubMed id 10470851)1, 2 Kikuno R.... Ohara O. (DNA Res. 1999)
    6. Assignment of trophoblast/endometrial epithelium cell adhesion molecule trophinin gene TRO to human chromosome bands Xp11.22--&gt;p11.21 by in situ hybridization. (PubMed id 9533028)1, 3 Pack S.D....Fukuda M.N. (Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 1997)
    7. The role of trophinin, an adhesion molecule unique to human trophoblasts, in progression of colorectal cancer. (PubMed id 17487845)1, 9 Harada O....Nakayama J. (Int. J. Cancer 2007)
    8. Implantation-dependent expression of trophinin by maternal fallopian tube epithelia during tubal pregnancies: possible role of human chorionic gonadotrophin on ectopic pregnancy. (PubMed id 14633596)1, 9 Nakayama J....Fukuda M.N. (Am. J. Pathol. 2003)
    9. The trophinin gene encodes a novel group of MAGE proteins, magphinins, and regulates cell proliferation during gametogenesis in the mouse. (PubMed id 11590179)1, 9 Saburi S....Fukuda M.N. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    10. Enhanced expression of trophinin promotes invasive and metastatic potential of human gallbladder cancer cells. (PubMed id 18846386)1, 9 Chang X.Z....Cao X.C. (J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 7216 HGNC: 12326 AceView: TRO Ensembl:ENSG00000067445 euGenes: HUgn7216
    ECgene: TRO H-InvDB: TRO

    (According to HUGE)
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    HUGE: KIAA1114

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TRO Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section

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    Patent Information for TRO gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TRO

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from genOway)
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