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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

TRO Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 57
GCID: GC0XP054946

Trophinin

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
trophinin1 2     MAGE Superfamily Protein2
MAGED32 3     magphinin2
MAGE-D3 Antigen2 3     Melanoma Antigen, Family D, 32
MAGE-d32     KIAA11143

External Ids:    HGNC: 123261   Entrez Gene: 72162   Ensembl: ENSG000000674457   OMIM: 3001325   UniProtKB: Q128163   

Export aliases for TRO gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XP051799 GC0XP052885 GC0XP053552 GC0XP053914 GC0XP054830 GC0XP054963 GC0XP051998


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for TRO Gene:
This gene encodes a membrane protein that mediates cell adhesion between trophoblastic cells and the epithelial
cells of the endometrium. The encoded protein participates in cell signalling during embryo implantation, and may
also be involved in cancer formation. This gene is located near several other closely related genes on chromosome
X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. (provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012)

GeneCards Summary for TRO Gene: 
TRO (trophinin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TRO include teratocarcinoma, and ectopic pregnancy. GO annotations related to this gene include protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is MAGEC2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816
Function: Could be involved with bystin and tastin in a cell adhesion molecule complex that mediates an initial
attachment of the blastocyst to uterine epithelial cells at the time of the embryo implantation. Directly
responsible for homophilic cell adhesion

Gene Wiki entry for TRO Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000023.10  NC_018934.2  NT_011630.14  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TRO gene promoter:
         AP-1   ATF-2   ZIC2/Zic2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTRO promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for TRO

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat TRO


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xp11.22-p11.21   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xp11.21   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xp11.22-p11.21

TRO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TRO gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XP054946:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
54,946,895 bp from pter      End:
54,957,864 bp from pter
Size:
10,970 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Trophinin  
Size: 1431 amino acids; 143716 Da
Subunit: Directly binds bystin, and indirectly tastin
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAA79334.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Sequence=BAA83066.3; Type=Erroneous initiation;
Secondary accessions: Q96SX2 Q9NU89 Q9UPN8
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q12816-1   Q12816-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TRO: NX_Q12816

Explore proteomics data for TRO at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q12816

  • TRO Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    TRO Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001034794.1  NP_001258112.1  NP_001258113.1  NP_057241.2  NP_808224.1  NP_808225.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000388947   ENSP00000387676   ENSP00000404645   ENSP00000411717   ENSP00000412588  
     ENSP00000173898   ENSP00000318278   ENSP00000404794   ENSP00000364169   ENSP00000364162  
     ENSP00000382641   ENSP00000405043   ENSP00000407996   ENSP00000406574   ENSP00000364181  
     ENSP00000392841   ENSP00000404767   ENSP00000405311   ENSP00000405126  

    Human Recombinant Protein Products for TRO: 
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    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
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    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for TRO 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IEA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS7758945
    GO:0005887integral to plasma membrane TAS7758945

    TRO for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    TRO Antibody Products: 
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for TRO 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for TRO


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR002190 MAGE

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q12816

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q12816

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002190 MAGE protein

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816
    Similarity: Contains 1 MAGE domain


    TRO for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816
    Function: Could be involved with bystin and tastin in a cell adhesion molecule complex that mediates an initial
    attachment of the blastocyst to uterine epithelial cells at the time of the embryo implantation. Directly
    responsible for homophilic cell adhesion

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TRO:
    trophinin,cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelium,interacting with bystin,tastin,escaping X
    inactivation potential involved in embryo implantation

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI9560222
         
    TRO for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Tro):
     mortality/aging  normal 

    TRO for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-out Trotm1Mfu for TRO

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for TRO 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for TRO

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TRO 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TRO 

    miRNA
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    1 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNA that regulate TRO:
    hsa-miR-450b-5p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TRO


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section



    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for TRO

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 8)

    5/8 Interacting proteins for TRO (Q128161, 2, 3 ENSP000001738984) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 8)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    BYSLQ138951, 3, ENSP000002303404EBI-950001,EBI-358049 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000230340
    USP7Q930092, 3, ENSP000003435354MINT-2863870 I2D: score=3 STRING: ENSP00000343535
    FOSP011003, ENSP000003062454I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000306245
    TROAPQ128153, ENSP000002579094I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000257909
    UBCP0CG483, ENSP000003448184I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000344818
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007156homophilic cell adhesion TAS7758945
    GO:0007566embryo implantation TAS7758945
    GO:0030308negative regulation of cell growth IEA--

    TRO for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    TRO for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for TRO (TROP)

    1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for TRO gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tyrosine 10.2 3 17495530 (1), 19159951 (1), 17360433 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about TRO / TROP

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for TRO gene (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001039705.2  NM_001271183.1  NM_001271184.1  NM_016157.3  NM_177556.2  NM_177557.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TRO:

    Trophinin
    Hs.633653  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001039705
    18/25 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 25):
    ENST00000411534 ENST00000452830 ENST00000442098 ENST00000430420 ENST00000453081
    ENST00000173898(uc004dtq.3 uc011mok.2) ENST00000319167(uc004dts.3)
    ENST00000445561(uc004dtt.3) ENST00000375029(uc004dtu.3) ENST00000375022(uc011moj.1 uc004dtr.3)
    ENST00000399736(uc004dtv.3) ENST00000440072 ENST00000484031 ENST00000431115
    ENST00000474933 ENST00000440759 ENST00000375041(uc004dtw.3) ENST00000449980

    miRNA
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    1 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNA that regulate TRO:
    hsa-miR-450b-5p
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
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                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of TRO 
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      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TRO

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB029037.2 AF349719.1 AF349720.1 AF349721.1 AF349722.1 AK001300.1 AK027489.1 AK027861.1 
    AK225841.1 AK296329.1 AK299568.1 BC026914.1 NR_073148.1 NR_073149.1 U04811.2 

    24/27 DOTS entries (see all 27):

    DT.121321756  DT.121321862  DT.100788600  DT.121321932  DT.97844275  DT.121321902  DT.92463531  DT.100723626 
    DT.116173  DT.99981015  DT.121321765  DT.121321895  DT.121321798  DT.100788597  DT.121321856  DT.95367460 
    DT.86852389  DT.92463518  DT.100788594  DT.102842475  DT.121321823  DT.121321824  DT.100023201  DT.121321817 

    24/172 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 172):

    NM_177556 AI457932 BP368681 BQ233449 AI889349 AI334337 BU782648 AI684324 
    BM665398 AL543791 NM_177555 BM806622 AW513106 NM_016157 BQ267842 AA113829 
    CB153182 BM905232 BC026914 CB152998 BU160766 AI420719 H65534 NM_177558 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/28 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TRO (see all 28)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f · 1g · 1h · 1i · 1j ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e · 6f · 6g · 6h · 6i ·
    SP1:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -                                                         
    SP2:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -                                                         
    SP3:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -     -           -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -     -   
    SP4:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                                         
    SP5:                                                  -     -     -     -     -     -                 -                                                         

    ExUns: 6j · 6k · 6l · 6m · 6n ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b · 16c · 16d ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18
    SP1:                                                                                      -           -                       -     -                     
    SP2:                                                                                      -           -                       -     -     -     -         
    SP3:  -     -     -     -     -     -     -                                               -           -                       -     -                     
    SP4:                                                                                      -           -                       -     -     -     -         
    SP5:                                                                                      -           -                                                   


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TRO

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TRO expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      TRO embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGATGGAAAA
    TRO Expression
    About this image


    TRO expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/6 selected tissues (see all 6) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
             superior temporal gyrus   
     
     Blood Brain Barrier (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Endothelial Cells Blood Brain Barrier
     
     Peripheral Nervous System (Nervous System)
             PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM   
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Mature Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Cells Retinal Pigmented Epithelium

    See TRO Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for TRO

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.633653

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TROP_HUMAN, Q12816
    Tissue specificity: Strong expression at implantation sites. Found in the placenta from the sixth week of
    pregnancy. Was localized in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi and in endometrial
    decidual cells at the uteroplacental interface. After week 10, the level decreased and then disappeared from
    placental villi. Also found in macrophages

        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including TRO: 
              Neurotrophins & Receptors in human mouse rat

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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for TRO gene from 4/10 species (see all 10)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tro1 , 5 trophinin1, 5 65.74(n)1
    55.45(a)1
      X (68.46 cM)5
    561911  NM_001002272.21  NP_001002272.11 
     1506453045 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves MAGE6
    Mage protein
    41(a)
    1 → many
    JH376257.1(2550-4829)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    39(a)
    1 → many
    1(205667349-205679701)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii ndnl26
    necdin-like 2
    35(a)
    1 → many
    23(13012414-13025121)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TRO (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TRO (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for TRO gene
    MAGEC22  MAGEA9B2  MAGEB52  MAGEB162  MAGEB12  MAGEB42  MAGEC12  MAGED42  
    MAGEA82  MAGED22  MAGEA122  MAGEA92  MAGEB172  MAGEB102  MAGEA62  MAGED12  
    MAGEA22  MAGEA32  MAGEB22  NDN2  MAGEB32  MAGED4B2  MAGEA42  MAGEA12  
    MAGEA102  MAGEB182  MAGEA2B2  MAGEB62  MAGEL22  MAGEA112  NDNL22  MAGEF12  
    18/37 SIMAP similar genes for TRO using alignment to 20 protein entries:     TROP_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    MAGEH1    MAGED2    MAGEL2    MAGED4    MAGED4B    MAGED1
    NDNL2    MAGEA1    MAGEA9    NDN    MAGEA9B    MAGEA10
    MAGEA2B    MAGE-B1    MAGEB1    MAGEA2    MAGEA3    MAGEF1

    TRO for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/249 SNPs in TRO are shown (see all 249)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs2001163721,2
    C--54957702(+) AAAGTA/TCATCC 11 V ut31 syn10--------
    rs1847208311,2
    --54958009(+) CAGGAA/TAGAGG 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1887847081,2
    --54958094(+) GCAAAC/TGGAGA 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1816991891,2
    --54958096(+) AAACGC/GAGAGG 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1871610071,2
    --54958137(+) AATCAA/CTGGTG 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1894856521,2
    --54958234(+) CATATC/TGTATA 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1815562831,2
    --54958243(+) TAGACC/TGTGGG 8 -- ds50010--------
    rs1900615111,2
    --54962422(+) CATCAC/GAGTGA 7 -- us2k10--------
    rs1465662461,2
    --54962444(+) ACAGAA/CTGGGA 7 -- us2k10--------
    rs1921933691,2
    --54962510(+) GAACTC/GAAACA 8 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TRO (54946895 - 54957864 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for TRO:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2740175CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv435891CNV Deletion17901297


    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TRO

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): TRO
    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TRO

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 300132    OMIM disorders: --

    20/23 diseases for TRO (see all 23):    About MalaCards
    teratocarcinoma    ectopic pregnancy    juvenile rheumatoid arthritis    testicular cancer
    trichuriasis    prader-willi syndrome    endometrial carcinoma    gallbladder cancer
    fibrous histiocytoma    histiocytoma    germ cell tumors    infertility
    melanoma    rheumatoid arthritis    hepatitis b    arthritis
    lung cancer    colorectal cancer    sarcoma    ovarian cancer


    TRO for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    8 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TRO gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    teratocarcinoma 62.6 2 11089559 (1), 9560222 (1)
    prader-willi syndrome 59.4 1 19159951 (1)
    testicular cancer 48.7 1 15205339 (1)
    endometrial carcinoma 31.1 1 11089559 (1)
    infertility 12.9 5 12297480 (5)
    cancer 11.3 4 18769125 (2), 17254769 (1), 17597582 (1)
    tumors 3.18 10 17487845 (2), 11299965 (1), 12375337 (1), 15205339 (1)
    metastasis 1.25 6 15205339 (3), 18846386 (1), 17254769 (1)

    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TRO (1 document)

    Export disorders for TRO gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for TRO gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 58):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TRO)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Trophinin and tastin, a novel cell adhesion molecule complex with potential involvement in embryo implantation. (PubMed id 7758945)1, 2, 9 Fukuda M.N....Nozawa S. (1995)
    2. An overview of the MAGE gene family with the identification of all human members of the family. (PubMed id 11454705)1, 3, 9 Chomez P....Lucas S. (2001)
    3. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. (PubMed id 15772651)1, 2 Ross M.T.... Bentley D.R. (2005)
    4. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (2004)
    5. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (PubMed id 10470851)1, 2 Kikuno R....Ohara O. (1999)
    6. Assignment of trophoblast/endometrial epithelium cell adhesion molecule trophinin gene TRO to human chromosome bands Xp11.22-->p11.21 by in situ hybridization. (PubMed id 9533028)1, 3 Pack S.D....Fukuda M.N. (1997)
    7. The role of trophinin, an adhesion molecule unique to human trophoblasts, in progression of colorectal cancer. (PubMed id 17487845)1, 9 Harada O....Nakayama J. (2007)
    8. Implantation-dependent expression of trophinin by maternal fallopian tube epithelia during tubal pregnancies: possible role of human chorionic gonadotrophin on ectopic pregnancy. (PubMed id 14633596)1, 9 Nakayama J....Fukuda M.N. (2003)
    9. The trophinin gene encodes a novel group of MAGE proteins, magphinins, and regulates cell proliferation during gametogenesis in the mouse. (PubMed id 11590179)1, 9 Saburi S....Fukuda M.N. (2001)
    10. Enhanced expression of trophinin promotes invasive and metastatic potential of human gallbladder cancer cells. (PubMed id 18846386)1, 9 Chang X.Z....Cao X.C. (2009)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 7216 HGNC: 12326 AceView: TRO Ensembl:ENSG00000067445 euGenes: HUgn7216
    ECgene: TRO H-InvDB: TRO

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
    HUGE: KIAA1114

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TRO Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for TRO gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TRO

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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