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Aliases for TRO Gene

Aliases for TRO Gene

  • Trophinin 2 3 5
  • MAGE-D3 Antigen 3 4
  • MAGED3 3 4
  • Melanoma Antigen, Family D, 3 3
  • MAGE Superfamily Protein 3
  • Magphinin 3
  • KIAA1114 4
  • MAGE-D3 3

External Ids for TRO Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TRO Gene

  • GC0XP051799
  • GC0XP052885
  • GC0XP053552
  • GC0XP053914
  • GC0XP054830
  • GC0XP054963
  • GC0XP054946
  • GC0XP051998

Summaries for TRO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TRO Gene

  • This gene encodes a membrane protein that mediates cell adhesion between trophoblastic cells and the epithelial cells of the endometrium. The encoded protein participates in cell signalling during embryo implantation, and may also be involved in cancer formation. This gene is located near several other closely related genes on chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

GeneCards Summary for TRO Gene

TRO (Trophinin) is a Protein Coding gene. An important paralog of this gene is MAGEC3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRO Gene

  • Could be involved with bystin and tastin in a cell adhesion molecule complex that mediates an initial attachment of the blastocyst to uterine epithelial cells at the time of the embryo implantation. Directly responsible for homophilic cell adhesion.

Gene Wiki entry for TRO Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TRO Gene

Genomics for TRO Gene

Regulatory Elements for TRO Gene

Enhancers for TRO Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TRO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TRO Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TRO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TRO Gene

Chromosome:
X
Start:
54,920,462 bp from pter
End:
54,931,436 bp from pter
Size:
10,975 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TRO Gene

Genes around TRO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TRO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TRO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TRO Gene

Proteins for TRO Gene

  • Protein details for TRO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q12816-TROP_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Trophinin
    Protein Accession:
    Q12816
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1AKE9
    • B1AKF1
    • F5GY27
    • Q96SX2
    • Q9NU89
    • Q9UPN8

    Protein attributes for TRO Gene

    Size:
    1431 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    143716 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Directly binds bystin, and indirectly tastin.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAA79334.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAA83066.3; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for TRO Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TRO Gene

Proteomics data for TRO Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TRO Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 453
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TRO Gene

Domains & Families for TRO Gene

Gene Families for TRO Gene

Protein Domains for TRO Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
ProtoNet:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q12816

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TROP_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 MAGE domain.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 MAGE domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TRO: view

Function for TRO Gene

Molecular function for TRO Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
trophinin,cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelium,interacting with bystin,tastin,escaping X inactivation potential involved in embryo implantation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Could be involved with bystin and tastin in a cell adhesion molecule complex that mediates an initial attachment of the blastocyst to uterine epithelial cells at the time of the embryo implantation. Directly responsible for homophilic cell adhesion.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TRO: view

Animal Models for TRO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TRO:

miRNA for TRO Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TRO

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TRO Gene

Localization for TRO Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TRO Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TRO gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 3
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TRO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS 7758945
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRO: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRO Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TRO Gene

SuperPathways for TRO Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TRO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007156 homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules TAS 7758945
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRO: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for TRO Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TRO Gene

(1) Drugs for TRO Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TRO: view

Transcripts for TRO Gene

Unigene Clusters for TRO Gene

Trophinin:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TRO Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f · 1g · 1h · 1i · 1j ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e · 6f · 6g · 6h · 6i ·
SP1: - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7:
SP8: - - - - - - - -
SP9:
SP10:
SP11: - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - - - - - - -
SP14: - - - - - - -
SP15: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP16: - - - - - -
SP17: - - - - - -
SP18: - - - - - -
SP19: - - - - -
SP20: - - - - -
SP21: - - - - -
SP22: - - -
SP23: - - - - - -
SP24: - - - - - - - - -
SP25: - - - - - - -
SP26: - - - - -
SP27: - - -
SP28:

ExUns: 6j · 6k · 6l · 6m · 6n ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b · 16c · 16d ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: - - -
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP16:
SP17:
SP18:
SP19:
SP20:
SP21:
SP22:
SP23:
SP24:
SP25:
SP26:
SP27:
SP28:

Relevant External Links for TRO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TRO
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TRO

Expression for TRO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TRO Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TRO Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TRO Gene Hs.633653

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TRO Gene

Q12816-TROP_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Strong expression at implantation sites. Found in the placenta from the sixth week of pregnancy. Was localized in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi and in endometrial decidual cells at the uteroplacental interface. After week 10, the level decreased and then disappeared from placental villi. Also found in macrophages.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TRO: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for TRO Gene

Orthologs for TRO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TRO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TRO 35
  • 85.01 (n)
  • 73.6 (a)
-- 36
  • 31 (a)
ManyToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TRO 35
  • 81.05 (n)
  • 69.64 (a)
TRO 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tro 35
  • 71.29 (n)
  • 63.58 (a)
Tro 16
Tro 36
  • 49 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TRO 35
  • 96.26 (n)
  • 95.05 (a)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100912141 35
  • 71.1 (n)
  • 63.56 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 43 (a)
ManyToMany
-- 36
  • 36 (a)
ManyToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 41 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MAGE 36
  • 41 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 40 (a)
OneToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ndnl2 36
  • 37 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for TRO:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TRO Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TRO (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TRO (if available)

Paralogs for TRO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TRO: view

Variants for TRO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TRO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs17297490 - 54,928,936(+) GTGCT(A/G)GTATT intron-variant, reference, missense
rs60674633 - 54,922,725(+) TCAAC(C/G/T)GGCCT intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs747741642 -- 54,923,105(+) TCAGC(C/T)AGTTC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon
rs747746615 -- 54,930,661(+) GTGGC(C/T)TCAGC intron-variant, reference, missense
rs747834891 -- 54,930,807(+) GGACC(C/G)AGTTC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TRO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv435891 CNV Deletion 17901297
esv2740175 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for TRO Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 53.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.07; 50.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TRO Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
TRO
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TRO

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRO Gene

Disorders for TRO Gene

Relevant External Links for TRO

Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TRO
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TRO

No disorders were found for TRO Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TRO Gene

Publications for TRO Gene

  1. Trophinin and tastin, a novel cell adhesion molecule complex with potential involvement in embryo implantation. (PMID: 7758945) Fukuda M.N. … Nozawa S. (Genes Dev. 1995) 3 4 23 67
  2. An overview of the MAGE gene family with the identification of all human members of the family. (PMID: 11454705) Chomez P. … Lucas S. (Cancer Res. 2001) 2 3 23
  3. Enhanced expression of trophinin promotes invasive and metastatic potential of human gallbladder cancer cells. (PMID: 18846386) Chang X.Z. … Cao X.C. (J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 2009) 3 23
  4. Nuclear localization of magphinins, alternative splicing products of the human trophinin gene. (PMID: 17559068) Aoyama J. … Yamaguchi N. (J. Cell. Biochem. 2008) 3 23
  5. Induction of trophinin in human endometrial surface epithelia by CGbeta and IL-1beta. (PMID: 18078818) Sugihara K. … Fukuda M.N. (FEBS Lett. 2008) 3 23

Products for TRO Gene

Sources for TRO Gene

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