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Aliases for TRHR Gene

Aliases for TRHR Gene

  • Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 3
  • Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 5
  • Thyroliberin Receptor 3 4
  • TRH-R 3 4

External Ids for TRHR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TRHR Gene

  • GC08P110167
  • GC08P109768
  • GC08P110056
  • GC08P110168
  • GC08P105422

Summaries for TRHR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TRHR Gene

  • This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Upon binding to TRH, this receptor activates the inositol phospholipid-calcium-protein kinase C transduction pathway. Mutations in this gene have been associated with generalized thyrotropin-releasing hormone resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GeneCards Summary for TRHR Gene

TRHR (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TRHR include Resistance To Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Syndrome and Hypothyroidism. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GPR39.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRHR Gene

  • Receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone. This receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.

Tocris Summary for TRHR Gene

  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors are Gq/11-protein-coupled receptors that promote thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) release. Two TRH receptor subtypes, TRH1 and TRH2, have been identified in rats but only TRH1 has been found in humans.

Gene Wiki entry for TRHR Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TRHR Gene

Genomics for TRHR Gene

Regulatory Elements for TRHR Gene

Enhancers for TRHR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TRHR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TRHR Gene

109,086,342 bp from pter
109,119,584 bp from pter
33,243 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TRHR Gene

Genes around TRHR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TRHR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TRHR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TRHR Gene

Proteins for TRHR Gene

  • Protein details for TRHR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2M339

    Protein attributes for TRHR Gene

    398 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45085 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for TRHR Gene

Proteomics data for TRHR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TRHR Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 3 and Asn 10
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TRHR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TRHR Gene

Domains & Families for TRHR Gene

Gene Families for TRHR Gene

Protein Domains for TRHR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TRHR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TRHR: view

Function for TRHR Gene

Molecular function for TRHR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor,neurotransmitter and neuro regulator,involved in the thyroid hormones secretion and metabolic pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone. This receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TRHR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TRHR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for TRHR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TRHR:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TRHR

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TRHR Gene

Localization for TRHR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRHR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TRHR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TRHR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TRHR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRHR: view

Pathways & Interactions for TRHR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TRHR: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TRHR Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TRHR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TRHR Gene

(8) Drugs for TRHR Gene - From: DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
taltirelin Pharma Full agonist, Agonist Synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog 0
MeTRH Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist 0
calcium Nutra 0

(6) Additional Compounds for TRHR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(1) Tocris Compounds for TRHR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Taltirelin Synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog 103300-74-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TRHR: view

Transcripts for TRHR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TRHR Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(5) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for TRHR Gene

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TRHR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TRHR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TRHR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TRHR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TRHR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x17.6).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TRHR Gene Hs.3022

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TRHR: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for TRHR Gene

Orthologs for TRHR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TRHR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TRHR 35
  • 92.96 (n)
  • 95.98 (a)
  • 96 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TRHR 35
  • 94.47 (n)
  • 97.49 (a)
  • 97 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Trhr 35
  • 90.48 (n)
  • 94.64 (a)
Trhr 16
Trhr 36
  • 94 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TRHR 35
  • 99.5 (n)
  • 99.75 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Trhr 35
  • 89.8 (n)
  • 95.41 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TRHR 36
  • 90 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TRHR 36
  • 80 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TRHR 35
  • 76.19 (n)
  • 82.65 (a)
  • 82 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TRHR 36
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia trhr 35
  • 74.17 (n)
  • 81.07 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia trhr-A 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii trhra 35
  • 66.57 (n)
  • 71.23 (a)
trhra 36
  • 66 (a)
trhrb 36
  • 64 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GPRNPR1 35
  • 47 (n)
  • 39.93 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta ETHR 36
  • 22 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C30F12.6 37
  • 39 (a)
npr-15 36
  • 23 (a)
npr-33 36
  • 19 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TRHR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TRHR Gene

Gene Tree for TRHR (if available)
Gene Tree for TRHR (if available)

Paralogs for TRHR Gene

Paralogs for TRHR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TRHR: view

Variants for TRHR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TRHR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs5774 - 109,087,542(+) CTGAA(A/C)CAAAC reference, missense
rs13306060 - 109,088,016(+) AATAT(G/T)AGCAC reference, missense
rs7830607 -- 109,085,058(+) atggc(A/G)tgatc upstream-variant-2KB
rs7832552 -- 109,103,447(+) AGGTA(C/T)GAATG intron-variant
rs7839384 -- 109,116,805(+) CTGAG(A/T)GTAGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TRHR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv891271 CNV Gain 21882294
esv269909 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv272700 CNV Insertion 20981092
esv1010309 CNV Insertion 20482838
esv270168 CNV Insertion 20981092

Variation tolerance for TRHR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.79; 16.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TRHR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRHR Gene

Disorders for TRHR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for TRHR Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
resistance to thyrotropin-releasing hormone syndrome
  • central hypothyroidism due to trh receptor deficiency
  • thyroid deficiency
  • somatotroph adenoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TRHR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for TRHR Gene

isolated central hypothyroidism with TSH and PRL levels unresponsive to TRH (inactivating mutations of TRHR)

Relevant External Links for TRHR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TRHR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRHR Gene

Publications for TRHR Gene

  1. Pituitary adenomas of patients with acromegaly express thyrotropin- releasing hormone receptor messenger RNA: cloning and functional expression of the human thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. (PMID: 8396925) Yamada M. … Mori M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1993) 3 4 23 67
  2. Assignment of human thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor gene to chromosome 8. (PMID: 8128317) Yamada M. … Mori M. (Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 1993) 2 3 23
  3. Role of helix 8 of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor in phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinase. (PMID: 19906838) Gehret A.U. … Hinkle P.M. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2010) 3 23
  4. Importance of regions outside the cytoplasmic tail of G-protein-coupled receptors for phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. (PMID: 20345371) Gehret A.U. … Hinkle P.M. (Biochem. J. 2010) 3 23
  5. Genome-wide association and replication studies identified TRHR as an important gene for lean body mass. (PMID: 19268274) Liu X.G. … Deng H.W. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2009) 3 23

Products for TRHR Gene

Sources for TRHR Gene