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Aliases for TREX1 Gene

Aliases for TREX1 Gene

  • Three Prime Repair Exonuclease 1 2 3
  • 3-5 Exonuclease TREX1 3 4
  • DNase III 3 4
  • HERNS 3 6
  • AGS1 3 6
  • CRV 3 6
  • Three-Prime Repair Exonuclease 1 3
  • Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome 1 2
  • 3 Repair Exonuclease 1 3
  • Deoxyribonuclease III 3
  • EC 3.1.11.2 4
  • DRN3 3

External Ids for TREX1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TREX1 Gene

  • AGS1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TREX1 Gene

  • GC03P048289
  • GC03P047770
  • GC03P048448
  • GC03P048463
  • GC03P048482

Summaries for TREX1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TREX1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a nuclear protein with 3' exonuclease activity. The encoded protein may play a role in DNA repair and serve as a proofreading function for DNA polymerase. Mutations in this gene result in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, chilblain lupus, Cree encephalitis, and other diseases of the immune system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

GeneCards Summary for TREX1 Gene

TREX1 (Three Prime Repair Exonuclease 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TREX1 include vasculopathy, retinal, with cerebral leukodystrophy and chilblain lupus. Among its related pathways are Chks in Checkpoint Regulation and Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and single-stranded DNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is TREX2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TREX1 Gene

  • Major cellular 3-to-5 DNA exonuclease which digests single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with mismatched 3 termini. Prevents cell-intrinsic initiation of autoimmunity. Acts by metabolizing DNA fragments from endogenous retroelements, including L1, LTR and SINE elements. Unless degraded, these DNA fragments accumulate in the cytosol and activate the IFN-stimulatory DNA (ISD) response and innate immune signaling. Prevents chronic ATM-dependent checkpoint activation, by processing ssDNA polynucleotide species arising from the processing of aberrant DNA replication intermediates. Inefficiently degrades oxidized DNA, such as that generated upon antimicrobial reactive oxygen production or upon absorption of UV light. During GZMA-mediated cell death, contributes to DNA damage in concert with NME1. NME1 nicks one strand of DNA and TREX1 removes bases from the free 3 end to enhance DNA damage and prevent DNA end reannealing and rapid repair.

Gene Wiki entry for TREX1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TREX1 Gene

Genomics for TREX1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TREX1 Gene

Genomic Location for TREX1 Gene

Start:
48,465,046 bp from pter
End:
48,467,645 bp from pter
Size:
2,600 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TREX1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TREX1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TREX1 Gene

Proteins for TREX1 Gene

  • Protein details for TREX1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NSU2-TREX1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Three-prime repair exonuclease 1
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NSU2
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCN9
    • Q8TEU2
    • Q9BPW1
    • Q9Y4X2

    Protein attributes for TREX1 Gene

    Size:
    369 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38923 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Note=Binds 2 Mg(2+) per subunit. The second magnesium ion interacts with only one residue. Substitution with Mn(2+) results in partial activity.;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Interacts (via proline-rich region) with TCERG1/CA150 (via the second WW domain). Component of the SET complex, composed of at least ANP32A, APEX1, HMGB2, NME1, SET and TREX1. Within this complex, directly interacts with SET; this interaction does not result in TREX1 inhibition. Also interacts with NME1, but only following translocation to the nucleus. Directly interacts with UBQLN1 (via ubiquitin-like domain); the interaction may control TREX1 subcellular location.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAD48774.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for TREX1 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TREX1 Gene

Proteomics data for TREX1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TREX1 Gene

  • Ubiquitinated, but not targeted to proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitination may be important for interaction with UBQLN1.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys230
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TREX1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TREX1 (TREX1)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TREX1 Gene

Domains for TREX1 Gene

Protein Domains for TREX1 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TREX1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9NSU2

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TREX1_HUMAN :
  • Q9NSU2
Family:
  • Belongs to the exonuclease superfamily. TREX family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TREX1: view

No data available for Gene Families for TREX1 Gene

Function for TREX1 Gene

Molecular function for TREX1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: Exonucleolytic cleavage in the 3- to 5-direction to yield nucleoside 5-phosphates
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Major cellular 3-to-5 DNA exonuclease which digests single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with mismatched 3 termini. Prevents cell-intrinsic initiation of autoimmunity. Acts by metabolizing DNA fragments from endogenous retroelements, including L1, LTR and SINE elements. Unless degraded, these DNA fragments accumulate in the cytosol and activate the IFN-stimulatory DNA (ISD) response and innate immune signaling. Prevents chronic ATM-dependent checkpoint activation, by processing ssDNA polynucleotide species arising from the processing of aberrant DNA replication intermediates. Inefficiently degrades oxidized DNA, such as that generated upon antimicrobial reactive oxygen production or upon absorption of UV light. During GZMA-mediated cell death, contributes to DNA damage in concert with NME1. NME1 nicks one strand of DNA and TREX1 removes bases from the free 3 end to enhance DNA damage and prevent DNA end reannealing and rapid repair.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Induced by cytosolic DNA. Induced by inflammatory stimuli such as IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma in B cells and also by LPS and viral and bacterial DNA (via TLR9) in dendritic cells and macrophages (By similarity).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TREX1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TREX1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003676 nucleic acid binding --
GO:0003690 double-stranded DNA binding --
GO:0003697 single-stranded DNA binding TAS 10391904
GO:0004527 exonuclease activity --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TREX1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TREX1: view

Animal Models for TREX1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TREX1:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TREX1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TREX1 Gene

Localization for TREX1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TREX1 Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm, cytosol. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=Retained in the cytoplasm through the C-terminal region (By similarity). In response to DNA damage, translocates to the nucleus where it is specifically recruited to replication foci. Translocation to the nucleus also occurs during GZMA-mediated cell death. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TREX1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TREX1 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TREX1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005635 nuclear envelope NAS 10391904
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TREX1: view

Pathways for TREX1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TREX1: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Interacting Proteins for TREX1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TREX1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000738 DNA catabolic process, exonucleolytic --
GO:0006259 DNA metabolic process ISS --
GO:0006260 DNA replication NAS 10391904
GO:0006281 DNA repair TAS 10393201
GO:0006298 mismatch repair NAS 10391904
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TREX1: view

Compounds for TREX1 Gene

(1) HMDB Compounds for TREX1 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Magnesium
  • Magnesium
7439-95-4

(4) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TREX1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
phosphoglycolate 80.8 1
phosphonate 54.8 1
phosphoinositide 32.3 1
oligonucleotide 13.1 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TREX1: view

Transcripts for TREX1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TREX1 Gene

Three prime repair exonuclease 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TREX1

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TREX1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TREX1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TREX1
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TREX1

Expression for TREX1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TREX1 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, and MaxQB for TREX1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TREX1 Gene Hs.707026

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TREX1 Gene

Q9NSU2-TREX1_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Detected in thymus, spleen, liver, brain, heart, small intestine and colon.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TREX1: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TREX1 Gene

Orthologs for TREX1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TREX1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TREX1 35
  • 98.74 (n)
  • 98.37 (a)
TREX1 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TREX1 35
  • 81.63 (n)
  • 76.75 (a)
TREX1 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TREX1 35
  • 85.65 (n)
  • 81.96 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Trex1 35
  • 80.09 (n)
  • 73.8 (a)
Trex1 16
Trex1 36
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TREX1 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TREX1 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Trex1 35
  • 80.72 (n)
  • 75.08 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TREX1 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.1185 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3165 36
  • 21 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for TREX1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TREX1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TREX1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TREX1 (if available)

Paralogs for TREX1 Gene

Paralogs for TREX1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for TREX1 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TREX1: view

Variants for TREX1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TREX1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs11797 Benign 48,467,186(-) AGGCT(A/G)TAGCT synonymous-codon, reference
rs2279076 -- 48,466,276(+) GCAGC(C/T)GAGTC intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs3135940 -- 48,466,176(+) CTGAC(A/G)AGCAG intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs3135941 -- 48,466,268(+) GAGAG(C/T)GTGCA intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs3135942 -- 48,466,423(+) ACCCT(C/G)TCAGA intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TREX1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv834684 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv508917 CNV Insertion 20534489

Relevant External Links for TREX1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
TREX1
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TREX1
Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB)
TREX1

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TREX1 Gene

Disorders for TREX1 Gene

(4) OMIM Diseases for TREX1 Gene (606609)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

TREX1_HUMAN
  • Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 1 (AGS1) [MIM:225750]: A form of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, a genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by cerebral atrophy, leukoencephalopathy, intracranial calcifications, chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis, increased CSF alpha-interferon, and negative serologic investigations for common prenatal infection. Clinical features as thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and elevated hepatic transaminases along with intermittent fever may erroneously suggest an infective process. Severe neurological dysfunctions manifest in infancy as progressive microcephaly, spasticity, dystonic posturing and profound psychomotor retardation. Death often occurs in early childhood. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16845398, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17357087, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17846997, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20131292, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20799324}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [MIM:152700]: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17660818, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20131292}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Enhanced immune sensing of oxidized DNA may be involved in the phototoxicity experienced by SLE patients. Exposure to UV-light produces DNA oxidative damage. Oxidized DNA being a poor TREX1 substrate, it accumulates in skin, leading to enhanced auto-immune reactivity and eventually skin lesions (PubMed:23993650). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23993650}.
  • Chilblain lupus 1 (CHBL1) [MIM:610448]: A rare cutaneous form of lupus erythematosus. Affected individuals present with painful bluish-red papular or nodular lesions of the skin in acral locations precipitated by cold and wet exposure at temperatures less than 10 degrees centigrade. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17357087, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17440703}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Vasculopathy, retinal, with cerebral leukodystrophy (RVCL) [MIM:192315]: A microvascular endotheliopathy resulting in central nervous system degeneration and retinopathy, with progressive loss of vision, stroke, motor impairment, and cognitive decline. The ocular manifestations are characterized by telangiectasias, microaneurysms and retinal capillary obliteration starting in the macula. Diseased cerebral white matter has prominent small infarcts that often coalesce to pseudotumors. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17660820}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for TREX1 Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TREX1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
werner syndrome 61.3 1
cancer 0 1

Relevant External Links for TREX1

GeneTests
TREX1
GeneReviews
TREX1
Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TREX1
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TREX1
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TREX1: view

Publications for TREX1 Gene

  1. Structure and expression of the TREX1 and TREX2 3'-->5' exonuclease genes. (PMID: 11278605) Mazur D.J. … Perrino F.W. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 23
  2. The crystal structure of TREX1 explains the 3' nucleotide specificity and reveals a polyproline II helix for protein partnering. (PMID: 17293595) de Silva U. … Hollis T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007) 3 4 23
  3. TREX1 polymorphisms associated with autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (PMID: 18092167) Hur J.W. … Bae S.C. (Rheumatol. Int. 2008) 3 23 48
  4. Identification and expression of the TREX1 and TREX2 cDNA sequences encoding mammalian 3'-->5' exonucleases. (PMID: 10391904) Mazur D.J. … Perrino F.W. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 2 3 4
  5. A human DNA editing enzyme homologous to the Escherichia coli DnaQ/MutD protein. (PMID: 10393201) Hoess M. … Lindahl T. (EMBO J. 1999) 2 3 4

Products for TREX1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for TREX1

Sources for TREX1 Gene

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