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TPRN Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 47
GCID: GC09M140086

Taperin

(Previous names: chromosome 9 open reading frame 75, deafness, autosomal...)
(Previous symbols: C9orf75, DFNB79)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
taperin1 2
C9orf751 2 3 5
DFNB791 2 5
Chromosome 9 Open Reading Frame 751
Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 791

External Ids:    HGNC: 268941   Entrez Gene: 2862622   Ensembl: ENSG000001760587   OMIM: 6133545   UniProtKB: Q4KMQ13   

Export aliases for TPRN gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifer: GC09M109546


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TPRN Gene:
This locus encodes a sensory epithelial protein. It was defined by linkage analysis in three Pakistani families to
lie between D9S1818 (centromeric) and D9SH6 (telomeric). Mutations at this locus have been associated with
autosomal recessive deafness. (provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010)

GeneCards Summary for TPRN Gene:
TPRN (taperin) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TPRN include dfnb79 nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness, and deafness, autosomal recessive 79. GO annotations related to this gene include phosphatase binding. An important paralog of this gene is PPP1R18.




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000009.12  NC_018920.2  NT_008470.20  
Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for TPRN
         Other transcription factors

Browse SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TPRN

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TPRN


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 9q34.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  9q34.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 9q34.3

TPRN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TPRN gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 9         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC09M140086:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
140,086,069 bp from pter      End:
140,098,645 bp from pter
Size:
12,577 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TPRN_HUMAN, Q4KMQ1 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Taperin  
Size: 711 amino acids; 75556 Da
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAI11501.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended;
Secondary accessions: B7ZKU5 Q5VSG5 Q5VSG6 Q6IPP2 Q8NCH2
Alternative splicing: 4 isoforms:  Q4KMQ1-1   Q4KMQ1-2   Q4KMQ1-3   Q4KMQ1-4   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TPRN: NX_Q4KMQ1

Explore proteomics data for TPRN at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TPRN Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_001121700.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000327617   ENSP00000387100   ENSP00000313704  

    TPRN Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for TPRN


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR025903 Phostensin/Taperin_N_dom
     IPR026671 PPP1R18/Tprn
     IPR025907 Phostensin/Taperin_PP1-bd_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q4KMQ1

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q4KMQ1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TPRN_HUMAN, Q4KMQ1
    Similarity: Belongs to the taperin family


    TPRN for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003674molecular_function ND--
    GO:0019902phosphatase binding IEA--
         
    TPRN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 MGI phenotypic allele for Tprn (no phenotypes)

    TPRN for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
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    miRNA
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    hsa-mir-92a-3p (MIRT049039), hsa-mir-615-3p (MIRT039802)

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    2 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TPRN:
    hsa-miR-1825 hsa-miR-512-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTPRN 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TPRN

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TPRN_HUMAN, Q4KMQ1: Cell projection, stereocilium (By similarity). Note=Localized prominently at the taper
    regions of hair cell stereocilia (By similarity)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    nucleus3
    cytosol2
    plasma membrane1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 cellular component term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0032420stereocilium ISS--

    TPRN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TPRN
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TPRN

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 4 interactants - click image to see more details)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TPRN (Q4KMQ12, 3 ENSP000003137044) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 10)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CLIC1O002992, 3MINT-62696 MINT-62598 MINT-62772 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000206394O002992, 3MINT-62696 MINT-62598 MINT-62772 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000223639O002992, 3MINT-62696 MINT-62598 MINT-62772 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000226248O002992, 3MINT-62696 MINT-62598 MINT-62772 I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000226417O002992, 3MINT-62696 MINT-62598 MINT-62772 I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 1 biological process term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007605sensory perception of sound IMP--

    TPRN for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TPRN



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TPRN gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_173691.3  NM_001128228.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TPRN:

    Taperin
    Hs.323445  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC065498
    5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000333046 ENST00000409012(uc004clu.3 uc004clt.3) ENST00000477345
    ENST00000541945 ENST00000321773
    miRNA
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    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TPRN using miScript Target Protectors
    2 qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TPRN:
    hsa-miR-1825 hsa-miR-512-3p
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTPRN 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TPRN

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK074735.1 BC023530.2 BC048807.1 BC065498.1 BC071831.1 BC098411.1 BC111500.1 BC128601.1 
    BC143385.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.110913  DT.97845903  DT.40292082  DT.92423534  DT.100748789  DT.121161123  DT.100722408 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 387):

    BU579839 BU073098 N56989 D12235 AI640139 AI380466 BC009283 BM795264 
    N26662 BQ013315 BM811261 BC065498 AI470639 BM468437 BQ012595 AI918062 
    BU732301 BU856968 BM703014 BQ010954 BM726701 BI258937 BG054749 BM128715 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TPRN expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    TPRN Expression
    About this image


    TPRN expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Myelinating Oligodendrocyte Cells Forebrain White Matter
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
     
     Gall Bladder (Hepatobiliary System)
    TPRN Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TPRN Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.323445

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TPRN_HUMAN, Q4KMQ1
    Tissue specificity: Expression is detected in fetal cochlea

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TPRN

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for TPRN gene from Selected species (see all 11)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tprn1 , 5 taperin1, 5 76.52(n)1
    73.54(a)1
      2 (17.11 cM)5
    970311  NM_175286.41  NP_780495.21 
     252626185 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TPRN1 taperin 63.35(n)
    55.72(a)
      417259  XM_415534.4  XP_415534.4 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TPRN6
    taperin
    36(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL344097.1(31422-41564)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia LOC1017314081 taperin-like 52.58(n)
    42.7(a)
      101731408  XM_004917558.1  XP_004917615.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tprn6
    taperin
    24(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(62905707-62946700) ENSDARG00000076063


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TPRN (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TPRN (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TPRN gene
    PPP1R182  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for TPRN using alignment to 3 protein entries:     TPRN_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    C9orf75

    TPRN for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TPRN (see all 268)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 9 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1410905681,2
    --140085699(+) TGCTGC/TCCTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1815777711,2
    --140085939(+) CAGATC/TGGGGT 1 -- int10--------
    rs1385918291,2
    --140085966(+) TGGCAC/TAGACG 1 -- int10--------
    rs735636781,2
    C,F--140085970(+) ATAGAC/TGTGCA 1 -- int12Minor allele frequency- T:0.06WA EA 238
    rs132926481,2
    C,F,H--140085991(+) CACTGT/GACCCC 1 -- int124Minor allele frequency- G:0.21NS EA NA WA CSA 2354
    rs132885911,2
    C,F,H--140086022(+) GACCTG/CCCCCT 1 -- int115Minor allele frequency- C:0.23NS EA NA WA CSA 792
    rs1496404361,2
    --140086031(+) CTGCTC/TCCTTC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1843875351,2
    --140086107(+) TCAGAA/GGCAGG 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1483475001,2
    --140086119(+) AAGACA/GCCACT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs11285651,2
    C--140086132(-) GCCCTC/TTGTGA 1 -- ut31 ese32Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TPRN (140086069 - 140098645 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for TPRN (see all 30):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2422220CNV Deletion17116639
    dgv8416n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8439n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8445n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8441n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8428n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8456n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv894521CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8450n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv8423n71CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TPRN
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TPRN
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TPRN

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 613354   
    OMIM disorders: 613307  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TPRN_HUMAN, Q4KMQ1
  • Deafness, autosomal recessive, 79 (DFNB79) [MIM:613307]: A form of non-syndromic deafness characterized
    by progressive and severe sensorineural hearing loss. There are no symptoms of vestibular dysfunction. Note=The
    disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 9 diseases for TPRN:    
    About MalaCards
    dfnb79 nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness    deafness, autosomal recessive 79    deafness, autosomal recessive 76    nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness, autosomal recessive
    nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness    nonsyndromic deafness    multiple myeloma    obesity
    myeloma

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TPRN:
    Nonsyndromic deafness

    TPRN for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for TPRN gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TPRN gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 18):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TPRN)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Targeted capture and next-generation sequencing identifies C9orf75, encoding taperin, as the mutated gene in nonsyndromic deafness DFNB79. (PubMed id 20170899)1, 2, 3 Rehman A.U....Friedman T.B. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    2. Mutations in TPRN cause a progressive form of autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. (PubMed id 20170898)1, 2, 3 Li Y.... Wollnik B. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    3. Protein phosphatase 1I^ isoforms linked interactions in the brain. (PubMed id 23080069)1 Esteves S.L....da Cruz e Silva E.F. (J. Mol. Neurosci. 2013)
    4. The c.42_52del11 mutation in TPRN and progressive hearing loss in a family from Pakistan. (PubMed id 23340767)1 Bashir R....Naz S. (Biochem. Genet. 2013)
    5. Protein phosphatase 1I+ interacting proteins in the human brain. (PubMed id 22321011)1 Esteves S.L....da Cruz e Silva E.F. (OMICS 2012)
    6. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population. (PubMed id 23251661)1 Comuzzie A.G....Butte N.F. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    7. Identification of the human testis protein phosphatase 1 interactome. (PubMed id 21382349)1 Fardilha M....da Cruz e Silva E.F. (Biochem. Pharmacol. 2011)
    8. Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver. (PubMed id 21988832)1 Wang J....Yang X. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2011)
    9. System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation. (PubMed id 21406692)2 Rigbolt K.T....Blagoev B. (Sci. Signal. 2011)
    10. DFNB79: reincarnation of a nonsyndromic deafness locus on chromosome 9q34.3. (PubMed id 19603065)1 Khan S.Y....Friedman T.B. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2010)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 286262 HGNC: 26894 AceView: MGC14327andC9orf75 Ensembl:ENSG00000176058 euGenes: HUgn286262
    ECgene: TPRN H-InvDB: TPRN

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TPRN Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TPRN gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TPRN

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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