Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for TPPP Gene

Aliases for TPPP Gene

  • Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein 2 3 5
  • Brain Specific Protein P25 Alpha 2 3
  • 25 KDa Brain-Specific Protein 3 4
  • P25-Alpha 3 4
  • TPPP/P25 3 4
  • TPPP1 3 4
  • P24 3 4
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) Inhibitor P24 3
  • Tubulin Polymerization-Promoting Protein 3
  • P25alpha 3
  • P25 3

External Ids for TPPP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TPPP Gene

  • GC05M000713
  • GC05M000714

Summaries for TPPP Gene

GeneCards Summary for TPPP Gene

TPPP (Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TPPP include Lymphoid Interstitial Pneumonia and Dementia, Lewy Body. Among its related pathways are SIDS Susceptibility Pathways and Glial Cell Differentiation. GO annotations related to this gene include microtubule binding and tubulin binding. An important paralog of this gene is TPPP3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPPP Gene

  • May play a role in the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules, microtubule bundling and the stabilization of existing microtubules, thus maintaining the integrity of the microtubule network. May play a role in mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope breakdown.

Gene Wiki entry for TPPP Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TPPP Gene

Genomics for TPPP Gene

Regulatory Elements for TPPP Gene

Enhancers for TPPP Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH05F000692 0.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE 9.7 +0.4 388 1.5 ZSCAN5A KLF1 KLF17 SIN3A BCL11B ZIC2 ZNF335 GLIS2 ZBTB48 POLR2A TPPP PIR34715
GH05F000781 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 4.9 -90.9 -90883 5.0 ATF1 SIN3A ZNF121 GLIS2 KLF7 REST ZNF592 ZNF610 GLIS1 MYNN LOC728613 ENSG00000271119 BRD9 ZDHHC11 TPPP PIR45253 ZDHHC11B
GH05F000669 0.8 FANTOM5 4.6 +23.8 23792 0.4 CTCF ZNF2 BCL11B FOSL1 GLIS2 POLR2A PATZ1 ZBTB10 SMARCC1 NR3C1 ZDHHC11 TPPP LOC101929895 ENSG00000271781
GH05F000671 1.5 FANTOM5 ENCODE 2.6 +20.8 20847 2.3 ATF1 PKNOX1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 ZNF121 GLIS2 ELK1 ZNF207 ZNF143 ENSG00000271781 CEP72 LOC100288152 EXOC3 TPPP LOC101929895
GH05F000752 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 2.4 -63.1 -63078 7.9 HDGF TBP ARID4B YBX1 RAD21 THRB ZNF48 RARA ZNF143 ZNF207 ZDHHC11B ZDHHC11 LOC100288152 SLC9A3 EXOC3 BRD9 TPPP PIR51794 PIR41835
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TPPP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TPPP Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001866558 295 2201 KLF1 KLF17 SIN3A BCL11B ZIC2 ZNF335 GLIS2 ZBTB48 POLR2A PATZ1

Genomic Location for TPPP Gene

659,862 bp from pter
693,395 bp from pter
33,534 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TPPP Gene

Genes around TPPP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TPPP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TPPP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TPPP Gene

Proteins for TPPP Gene

  • Protein details for TPPP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin polymerization-promoting protein
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for TPPP Gene

    219 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23694 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Binds tubulin; binding is inhibited by GTP (By similarity). Interacts with GSK3 (By similarity). Interacts with MAPK1 (By similarity). Interacts with GAPDH; the interaction is direct (By similarity). Interacts with LIMK1 (via the PDZ domain); the interaction is direct.
    • Unstructured protein. Interacts with aggregated SNCA and may have a pro-aggregatory role in synucleinopathies.
    • Sequence=AAH40496.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for TPPP Gene

Post-translational modifications for TPPP Gene

  • Poor substrate for GSK3 (By similarity). Phosphorylated by LIMK1 on serine residues. Phosphorylation may alter the tubulin polymerization activity.
  • Glycosylation at Ser 152
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TPPP Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TPPP Gene

Domains & Families for TPPP Gene

Gene Families for TPPP Gene

Protein Domains for TPPP Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TPPP Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the TPPP family.
  • Belongs to the TPPP family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TPPP: view

Function for TPPP Gene

Molecular function for TPPP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May play a role in the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules, microtubule bundling and the stabilization of existing microtubules, thus maintaining the integrity of the microtubule network. May play a role in mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope breakdown.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TPPP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15590652
GO:0008017 microtubule binding ISS --
GO:0015631 tubulin binding IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPPP: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TPPP: view

Animal Models for TPPP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TPPP:
  • Tppp tm1.1(KOMP)Vlcg

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TPPP Gene

Localization for TPPP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPPP Gene

Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Nucleus. Note=Localizes to glial Lewy bodies in the brains of individuals with synucleinopathies.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TPPP Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TPPP gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TPPP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 18028908
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 18028908
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005874 colocalizes_with microtubule IDA 18028908
GO:0043209 myelin sheath IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPPP: view

Pathways & Interactions for TPPP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TPPP: view

Pathways by source for TPPP Gene

2 BioSystems pathways for TPPP Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TPPP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001578 microtubule bundle formation ISS --
GO:0031334 positive regulation of protein complex assembly ISS --
GO:0032273 positive regulation of protein polymerization IDA 15590652
GO:0046785 microtubule polymerization ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPPP: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TPPP Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TPPP Gene

(3) Drugs for TPPP Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
CHM 1 Pharma Tubulin polymerization inhibitor 0
BNC105P Pharma inhibitor microtubule polymerization inhibitor, Vascular disrupting agents (VDA) 0

(1) ApexBio Compounds for TPPP Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
CHM 1 Tubulin polymerization inhibitor 154554-41-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TPPP: view

Transcripts for TPPP Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TPPP Gene

Unigene Clusters for TPPP Gene

Tubulin polymerization promoting protein:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TPPP Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TPPP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TPPP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TPPP Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TPPP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x5.2), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x4.5), Brain - Cortex (x4.5), Brain - Hippocampus (x4.4), and Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TPPP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (32.7) and Frontal cortex (28.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TPPP Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TPPP Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TPPP Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TPPP Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TPPP Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TPPP: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for TPPP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TPPP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TPPP 34 35
  • 98.33 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TPPP 34 35
  • 90.13 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TPPP 35
  • 87 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tppp 34
  • 86.89 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TPPP 34 35
  • 86.79 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tppp 34 16 35
  • 85.28 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TPPP 35
  • 69 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TPPP 34 35
  • 69.4 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TPPP 35
  • 76 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii TPPP 35
  • 61 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4893 34 35
  • 55.06 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006948 34
  • 50.81 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C32E8.3 35
  • 36 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 51 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TPPP was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TPPP Gene

Gene Tree for TPPP (if available)
Gene Tree for TPPP (if available)

Paralogs for TPPP Gene

Paralogs for TPPP Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for TPPP Gene using alignment to 1 proteins: Pseudogenes for TPPP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TPPP: view

Variants for TPPP Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TPPP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs10035635 -- 670,172(+) CCCTC(C/T)GAGGA intron-variant
rs10038240 -- 671,259(+) GGGGG(G/T)GGGGC intron-variant
rs10052115 -- 700,644(+) TCTTA(C/T)CTGCA splice-donor-variant
rs10054597 -- 669,273(+) GGCGC(C/T)GGTGA intron-variant
rs10062584 -- 675,323(+) GTGGC(C/T)GGGGg intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TPPP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1000e199 CNV deletion 23128226
dgv115e19 CNV loss 19470904
dgv131e203 CNV gain+loss 21179565
dgv1560e212 CNV loss 25503493
dgv1561e212 CNV gain 25503493
dgv18n31 CNV gain 19718026
dgv195e55 CNV gain 17911159
dgv196e55 CNV gain 17911159
dgv197e55 CNV gain 17911159
dgv198e55 CNV gain 17911159
dgv3187e59 CNV duplication 20981092
dgv5521n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv5522n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv5523n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv5524n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv5525n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv5526n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv5527n100 CNV gain+loss 25217958
dgv5528n100 CNV loss 25217958
dgv7n29 CNV gain 16826518
dgv908e201 CNV deletion 23290073
dgv922n67 CNV gain 20364138
dgv923n67 CNV gain 20364138
dgv9497n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv9498n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv9499n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv1005452 CNV loss 20482838
esv1335572 CNV deletion 17803354
esv1432368 CNV deletion 17803354
esv1611660 CNV deletion 17803354
esv2259846 CNV deletion 18987734
esv24225 CNV gain+loss 19812545
esv2439668 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2675669 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2729349 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2729351 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2729353 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2729355 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2729357 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2729358 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2729359 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2752071 CNV gain 17911159
esv2759316 CNV gain+loss 17122850
esv29941 CNV loss 18421352
esv3295607 CNV deletion 24192839
esv33266 CNV gain+loss 17666407
esv3575804 CNV gain 25503493
esv3575808 CNV gain 25503493
esv3603760 CNV loss 21293372
esv3603761 CNV loss 21293372
esv3894105 CNV gain+loss 25118596
esv3894107 CNV gain 25118596
esv3894108 CNV loss 25118596
esv988665 CNV loss 20482838
esv993461 CNV deletion 20482838
nsv1019215 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1032584 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1033593 CNV gain 25217958
nsv10654 CNV gain+loss 18304495
nsv1073412 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1122097 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1132598 CNV duplication 24896259
nsv1133013 OTHER inversion 24896259
nsv1139361 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1142626 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1142628 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1146615 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv1147234 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv1161198 CNV duplication 26073780
nsv1161199 CNV duplication 26073780
nsv1161200 OTHER complex 26073780
nsv328023 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv329077 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv329251 CNV insertion 16902084
nsv329408 CNV deletion 16902084
nsv428459 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv436080 CNV insertion 17901297
nsv461894 CNV gain 19166990
nsv4675 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv4677 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv471627 CNV gain+loss 15918152
nsv509042 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv510933 OTHER complex 20534489
nsv519836 CNV loss 19592680
nsv525620 CNV gain 19592680
nsv596629 CNV gain 21841781
nsv596703 CNV gain 21841781
nsv596709 CNV gain 21841781
nsv596710 CNV gain 21841781
nsv596711 CNV gain 21841781
nsv596712 CNV loss 21841781
nsv596714 CNV gain 21841781
nsv596719 CNV gain 21841781
nsv596724 CNV loss 21841781
nsv596725 CNV gain 21841781
nsv818307 CNV loss 17921354
nsv819793 CNV gain 19587683
nsv822929 CNV loss 20364138
nsv822931 CNV gain 20364138
nsv822939 CNV gain 20364138
nsv950622 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for TPPP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.09; 22.18% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TPPP Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPPP Gene

Disorders for TPPP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for TPPP Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
lymphoid interstitial pneumonia
  • lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia
dementia, lewy body
  • lewy body dementia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TPPP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TPPP

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TPPP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TPPP Gene

Publications for TPPP Gene

  1. Phosphorylation blocks the activity of tubulin polymerization- promoting protein (TPPP): identification of sites targeted by different kinases. (PMID: 17693641) Hlavanda E. … Ovadi J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007) 3 4 22 64
  2. Tubulin polymerization promoting proteins (TPPPs): members of a new family with distinct structures and functions. (PMID: 17105200) Vincze O. … Ovadi J. (Biochemistry 2006) 2 3 4 64
  3. p25alpha Stimulates alpha-synuclein aggregation and is co-localized with aggregated alpha-synuclein in alpha-synucleinopathies. (PMID: 15590652) Lindersson E. … Jensen P.H. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 2 3 4 64
  4. A novel human gene whose product shares significant homology with the bovine brain-specific protein p25 on chromosome 5p15.3. (PMID: 10083737) Seki N. … Saito T. (J. Hum. Genet. 1999) 2 3 4 64
  5. Genome-wide association identifies multiple ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci. (PMID: 20228799) McGovern D.P. … Seielstad M. (Nat. Genet. 2010) 3 46 64

Products for TPPP Gene

Sources for TPPP Gene

Loading form....