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TPO Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 70
GCID: GC02P001396

Thyroid Peroxidase

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Thyroid Peroxidase1 2     MSA2
EC 1.11.1.83 8     Thyroid Microsomal Antigen2
TDH2A2 5     thyroperoxidase2
TPX2 5     EC 1.11.18

External Ids:    HGNC: 120151   Entrez Gene: 71732   Ensembl: ENSG000001157057   OMIM: 6067655   UniProtKB: P072023   

Export aliases for TPO gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC02P001422 GC02P001360


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TPO Gene:
This gene encodes a membrane-bound glycoprotein. The encoded protein acts as an enzyme and plays a central role in
thyroid gland function. The protein functions in the iodination of tyrosine residues in thyroglobulin and
phenoxy-ester formation between pairs of iodinated tyrosines to generate the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and
triiodothyronine. Mutations in this gene are associated with several disorders of thyroid hormonogenesis,
including congenital hypothyroidism, congenital goiter, and thyroid hormone organification defect IIA. Multiple
transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene, but the full-length nature of
some variants has not been determined. (provided by RefSeq, May 2011)

GeneCards Summary for TPO Gene:
TPO (thyroid peroxidase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TPO include hypothyroidism, and mucinoses. GO annotations related to this gene include peroxidase activity and calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is LPO.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PERT_HUMAN, P07202
Function: Iodination and coupling of the hormonogenic tyrosines in thyroglobulin to yield the thyroid hormones
T(3) and T(4)




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000002.12  NT_005334.17  NC_018913.2  NT_187529.1  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TPO gene promoter:
         AML1a   STAT3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTPO promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TPO

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TPO


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 2p25   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  2p25.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 2p25

TPO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TPO gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 2         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC02P001396:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
1,377,995 bp from pter      End:
1,547,483 bp from pter
Size:
169,489 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PERT_HUMAN, P07202 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Thyroid peroxidase precursor  
Size: 933 amino acids; 102963 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 calcium ion per heterodimer (By similarity)
Cofactor: Binds 1 heme B (iron-protoporphyrin IX) group covalently per heterodimer (By similarity)
Subunit: Interacts with DUOX1, DUOX2 and CYBA
Secondary accessions: P09934 P09935 Q8IUL0 Q8NF94 Q8NF95 Q8NF96 Q8NF97 Q8TCI9
Alternative splicing: 8 isoforms:  P07202-1   P07202-2   P07202-3   P07202-4   P07202-5   P07202-6   P07202-7   P07202-8   
(Lacks exons 10 and 14)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TPO: NX_P07202

Explore proteomics data for TPO at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylated1
  • Heme is covalently bound through a H(2)O(2)-dependent autocatalytic process. Heme insertion is important for the
    delivery of protein at the cell surface1
  • Cleaved in its N-terminal part1
  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys879
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn129, Asn307, Asn342, Asn569
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Selected DME Specific Peptides for TPO (P07202) (see all 12)
     QRGRDHG  PCFLAGD  TCLANKYR  RDHGLPGYN 


    See TPO Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (6 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_000538.3  NP_001193673.1  NP_001193674.1  NP_783650.1  NP_783652.1  NP_783653.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000371704   ENSP00000329869   ENSP00000371636   ENSP00000390994   ENSP00000371633  
     ENSP00000405788   ENSP00000400033   ENSP00000419461   ENSP00000389659   ENSP00000337263  
     ENSP00000318820   ENSP00000263886   ENSP00000332044   ENSP00000444840  
    Reactome Protein details: P07202

    TPO Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    TPO Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for TPO


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 9):
     IPR002007 Haem_peroxidase_animal
     IPR001881 EGF-like_Ca-bd_dom
     IPR000742 EG-like_dom
     IPR013032 EGF-like_CS
     IPR010255 Haem_peroxidase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P07202

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P07202

    5 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB000152 Aspartic acid and asparagine hydroxylation site
    IPB000436 Sushi domain/SCR domain/CCP module
    IPB001881 EGF-like calcium-binding
    IPB002007 Animal haem peroxidase signature
    IPB010255 Haem peroxidase


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PERT_HUMAN, P07202
    Similarity: Belongs to the peroxidase family. XPO subfamily
    Similarity: Contains 1 EGF-like domain
    Similarity: Contains 1 Sushi (CCP/SCR) domain


    TPO for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: PERT_HUMAN, P07202
    Function: Iodination and coupling of the hormonogenic tyrosines in thyroglobulin to yield the thyroid hormones
    T(3) and T(4)
    Catalytic activity: 2 iodide + H(2)O(2) + 2 H(+) = 2 iodine + 2 H(2)O
    Catalytic activity: [Thyroglobulin]-L-tyrosine + iodide + H(2)O(2) = [thyroglobulin]-3-iodo-L-tyrosine + 2 H(2)O
    Catalytic activity: [Thyroglobulin]-3-iodo-L-tyrosine + iodide + H(2)O(2) = [thyroglobulin]-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine
    + 2 H(2)O
    Catalytic activity: 2 [thyroglobulin]-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine + H(2)O(2) = [thyroglobulin]-L-thyroxine +
    [thyroglobulin]-aminoacrylate + 2 H(2)O
    Catalytic activity: [Thyroglobulin]-3-iodo-L-tyrosine + [thyroglobulin]-3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine + H(2)O(2) =
    [thyroglobulin]-3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine + [thyroglobulin]-aminoacrylate + 2 H(2)O

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TPO:
    thyroid peroxidase,thyroid hormone synthesis (iodide organification) and metabolism pathway

         Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB): EC 1.11.1.81 2 EC 1.11.12

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004447iodide peroxidase activity IEA--
    GO:0004601peroxidase activity TAS3475693
    GO:0005509calcium ion binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding ----
    GO:0020037heme binding IEA--
         
    TPO for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for TPO:
     Decreased number of cells in m  Increased Salmonella enterica   Increased circadian period len 

         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Tpo):
     endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hearing/vestibular/ear  hematopoietic system  homeostasis/metabolism 
     immune system  limbs/digits/tail  mortality/aging  skeleton  vision/eye 

    TPO for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TPO
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TPO
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TPO

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TPO:
    hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT030038), hsa-mir-335-5p (MIRT018757)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TPO using miScript Target Protectors
    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TPO
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTPO 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TPO

    Gene Editing
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 6): TPO (NM_001206744)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for TPO
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TPO
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TPO

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TPO


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    PERT_HUMAN, P07202: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein
    PERT_HUMAN, P07202: Isoform 3: Cell surface
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane4
    cytosol2
    endoplasmic reticulum2
    extracellular2
    golgi apparatus2
    mitochondrion2
    nucleus2
    lysosome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA--
    GO:0005739mitochondrion IEA--
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0005887integral component of plasma membrane TAS2548579
    GO:0009986cell surface IEA--

    TPO for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TPO About   (see all 9)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Metabolism
    Metabolism0.38
    Metabolic pathways0.38
    2Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives
    Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives
    Thyroxine biosynthesis0.00
    Amine-derived hormones0.00
    3Allograft rejection
    Autoimmune thyroid disease0.61
    4PEDF Induced Signaling
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction0.43
    5Insulin secretion
    Thyroid hormone synthesis0.36

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    1 BioSystems Pathway for TPO
        Thyroxine (Thyroid Hormone) Production


    1 Reactome Pathway for TPO
        Thyroxine biosynthesis


    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for TPO) (see all 7):
        Tyrosine metabolism
    Metabolic pathways
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway
    Hematopoietic cell lineage

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PERT_HUMAN, P07202
    Pathway: Hormone biosynthesis; thyroid hormone biosynthesis


    TPO for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TPO: 

              Amino Acid Metabolism II in human mouse rat
              Oxidative Stress in human mouse rat
              Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

    Interactions:

        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TPO

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 14)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TPO (P072023 ENSP000003298694) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 14)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TXNDC11Q6PKC33, ENSP000002830334I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000283033
    DUOX1Q9NRD93, ENSP000003179974I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000317997
    DDCENSP000003506164STRING: ENSP00000350616
    GOT1ENSP000003595394STRING: ENSP00000359539
    GOT2ENSP000002452064STRING: ENSP00000245206
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006590thyroid hormone generation TAS--
    GO:0006979response to oxidative stress ----
    GO:0034641cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0035162embryonic hemopoiesis IDA--
    GO:0042446hormone biosynthetic process IEA--

    TPO for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TPO (PERT)

    Selected HMDB Compounds for TPO (see all 14)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    2-Aminoacrylic acidDehydroalanine (see all 6)----
    3,5-Diiodo-L-tyrosine3,5-Diiodotyrocine (see all 5)300-39-0--
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--
    Heme(protoporphyrinato)iron (see all 19)14875-96-8--
    Hydrogen peroxideHydrogen peroxide (see all 44)7722-84-1--
    HypothiocyaniteCyanosulfoxylate;Hypothiocyanite;OSCN-Hypothiocyanite ion;N,6-didehydro-3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-Adenosine 63296-34-4--
    IodideIodide (see all 10)20461-54-5--
    IodineI2 (see all 8)7553-56-2--
    IodotyrosineMonoiodotyrosine (see all 12)70-78-0--
    IronArmco iron (see all 19)7439-89-6--

    4 DrugBank Compounds for TPO    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    CarbimazoleAthyromazole (see all 6)22232-54-8targetinhibitor7952157 18055877 1278093 6706930 11752352 7528484 17042691 476986
    MethimazoleMercaptazole (see all 16)60-56-0targetinhibitor1663395 1320313 12755690 10365684 11752352 11241400
    PropylthiouracilProcasil (see all 15)51-52-5targetinhibitor12755690 10365684 17379648 11752352 2656250 11241400
    Dextrothyroxine-- 51-49-0target--16617153

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TPO gene (see all 81)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    iodide 88.7 206 7711505 (5), 11061528 (3), 8369653 (3), 9924196 (3) (see all 94)
    thyroxine 87.7 147 2081735 (3), 16440845 (2), 1318692 (2), 2387197 (1) (see all 99)
    iodine 84.4 103 8900403 (2), 10433193 (2), 17505148 (2), 16277169 (2) (see all 60)
    sp(1-4) 81.8 12 9062508 (2), 8814323 (2), 7512572 (2), 7714125 (1)
    triiodothyronine 80.3 85 2081735 (3), 16440845 (2), 2387197 (1), 7775728 (1) (see all 60)
    sodium iodide 79.4 33 19050049 (2), 10090312 (1), 18430446 (1), 19592511 (1) (see all 21)
    methimazole 72.5 9 17379648 (1), 19669106 (1), 7626075 (1), 1794603 (1) (see all 8)
    diiodotyrosine 71.7 4 8196170 (2), 8900403 (1), 1318692 (1)
    guaiacol 69.2 37 7711505 (3), 8027249 (3), 9267319 (3), 2090669 (2) (see all 16)
    atpo 64 4 11703366 (1), 18812059 (1), 16912122 (1), 19479016 (1)



    TPO for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TPO gene (7 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_000547.5  NM_001206744.1  NM_001206745.1  NM_175719.3  NM_175721.3  NM_175722.3  NM_175720.1  

    Unigene Cluster for TPO:

    Thyroid peroxidase
    Hs.467554  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000547
    17 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000497517(uc010ewj.3 uc002qwz.3) ENST00000382269 ENST00000329066(uc010yio.2 uc010yip.2)
    ENST00000382201 ENST00000423320 ENST00000382198(uc002qwy.1) ENST00000422464
    ENST00000446278 ENST00000469607 ENST00000462973 ENST00000425083 ENST00000479902
    ENST00000337415 ENST00000345913(uc002qwr.3 uc002qww.3 uc002qwx.3 uc002qwu.3)
    ENST00000346956 ENST00000349624 ENST00000539820(uc010yin.1)
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      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TPO

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF439430.1 AF533528.1 AF533529.1 AF533530.1 AF533531.1 AK309868.1 AY136822.1 BC063107.1 
    BC095448.1 J02969.1 J02970.1 M17755.2 M55702.1 X17358.1 Y00406.1 

    10 DOTS entries:

    DT.441094  DT.100781937  DT.100022296  DT.95080660  DT.97837233  DT.424270  DT.95080663  DT.101955958 
    DT.40207443  DT.121617867 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 75):

    NM_175722 NM_175720 AU141148 AA309509 AA385749 AA385888 AW058262 AA384833 
    NM_175719 AA384872 NM_175721 AI732567 AA384782 NM_000547 BI002131 M55702 
    Y00406 AW874069 BI754676 X17358 AW873960 BC063107 AW874079 AL044455 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TPO (see all 6)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b ^ 18a · 18b
    SP1:                                            -                                                                       -               
    SP2:                                            -                                                                       -               
    SP3:                                            -                             -                                         -               
    SP4:                                            -                             -                                         -               
    SP5:                                            -                                                     -                                 


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TPO

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TPO expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GATGAATAAA
    TPO Expression
    About this image


    TPO expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Endothelium (Cardiovascular System)
             Pericytes Microvessels
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Retina
     
     Thyroid (Endocrine System)
    TPO Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TPO Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.467554
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TPO: 
              Amino Acid Metabolism II in human mouse rat
              Oxidative Stress in human mouse rat
              Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Molecular Toxicology PathwayFinder 384HT in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for TPO gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tpo1 , 5 thyroid peroxidase1, 5 76.46(n)1
    74.59(a)1
      12 (13.00 cM)5
    220181  NM_009417.21  NP_033443.11 
     300546595 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TPO1 thyroid peroxidase 64.46(n)
    65.09(a)
      776120  XM_001235672.3  XP_001235673.2 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TPO6
    thyroid peroxidase
    62(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    1(161217470-161299284)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia tpo1 thyroid peroxidase 59.67(n)
    59.33(a)
      100036738  XM_002936302.2  XP_002936348.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii LOC1003311721 thyroid peroxidase-like 53.51(n)
    45.81(a)
      100331172  XM_003201381.2  XP_003201429.2 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG58733 peroxidase 34(a)
    (best of 5)
        --
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea F32A5.2a3 Peroxidase 35(a)
    (best of 9)
      II(7245851-7249911)   --


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TPO (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TPO (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TPO gene
    LPO2  EPX2  PXDNL2  PXDN2  MPO2  
    6 SIMAP similar genes for TPO using alignment to 15 protein entries:     PERT_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    EPX    MPO    PXDN    PXDNL    LPO    DKFZp686G24255

    TPO for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TPO (see all 4413)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 2 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs2011656481,2,,4
    CThyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4 --1488501(+) CTTCCA/GCTTCG 12 H R mis10--------
    rs1219080881,2,,4
    CThyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4 pathogenic11497783(+) GGAAGC/GAGATG 12 Q E mis11Minor allele frequency- G:0.00EU 1323
    rs1219080851,2,,4
    CThyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4 pathogenic11507728(+) TGAACA/GAGTGT 11 K E mis1 int10--------
    VAR_0153754
    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4--see VAR_0153752 I F mis40--------
    VAR_0272314
    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4--see VAR_0272312 G S mis40--------
    VAR_0216244
    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4--see VAR_0216242 N T mis40--------
    VAR_0216274
    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4--see VAR_0216272 L P mis40--------
    VAR_0216304
    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4--see VAR_0216302 P L mis40--------
    VAR_0216374
    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4--see VAR_0216372 C R mis40--------
    VAR_0131384
    Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A)4--see VAR_0131382 R Q mis40--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TPO (1377995 - 1547483 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for TPO (see all 106):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2719272CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2719292CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2719271CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv601e201CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2719259CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv604e201CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2719270CNV Deletion23290073
    esv4834CNV Deletion18987735
    esv2670872CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2719258CNV Deletion23290073

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TPO
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TPO
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TPO

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

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    OMIM gene information: 606765   
    OMIM disorders: 274500  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: PERT_HUMAN, P07202
  • Note=An alternative splicing in the thyroperoxidase mRNA can cause Graves' disease
  • Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2A (TDH2A) [MIM:274500]: A disorder due to defective conversion of accumulated
    iodide to organically bound iodine. The iodide organification defect can be partial or complete. Note=The disease
    is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • Selected diseases for TPO (see all 128):    
    About MalaCards
    hypothyroidism    mucinoses    hashimoto's encephalitis    toxic diffuse goiter
    congenital hypothyroidism, tpo-related    congenital hypothyroidism    iodine hypothyroidism    thyroid dyshormonogenesis 2a
    endemic goiter    thrombocythemia 1    non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis    nontoxic goiter
    transient congenital hypothyroidism    limbic encephalitis    multinodular goiter    myxedema
    goiter    thpo-related essential thrombocythemia    thyroid gland disease    rapsn-related congenital myasthenic syndrome

    7 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TPO:
    Hypothyroidism     Autoimmune thyroiditis     Hyperthyroidism     Goiter
    Thyrotoxicosis     Thyroid cancer     Mucinoses

    TPO for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TPO gene (see all 92)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    autoimmune thyroid disease 96.2 231 1702446 (4), 10520899 (3), 2256432 (2), 8375572 (2) (see all 99)
    hashimotos thyroiditis 92 108 2242608 (3), 8067701 (3), 8603516 (3), 2330843 (2) (see all 68)
    thyroid dysfunction postpartum 91.4 12 17845204 (2), 10999807 (1), 15320974 (1), 9828915 (1) (see all 11)
    dysfunction thyroid 91.3 24 11148327 (2), 2387197 (1), 11078988 (1), 15320974 (1) (see all 18)
    graves disease 91.3 129 8257863 (3), 8187932 (2), 1740495 (2), 8408460 (2) (see all 72)
    hypothyroidism 91.1 93 20329425 (3), 15853828 (2), 19960894 (2), 12663594 (2) (see all 68)
    thyroid diseases 91 100 15958307 (4), 9508203 (3), 8808096 (2), 16756464 (2) (see all 62)
    thyroiditis 89.7 41 2311297 (4), 15320899 (4), 19829002 (2), 8871757 (1) (see all 29)
    goiter 87 69 7711505 (6), 7951537 (5), 15326651 (2), 7549998 (2) (see all 35)
    hyperthyroidism 85.8 20 16571091 (2), 19549735 (2), 8345048 (1), 8051490 (1) (see all 16)

    Genatlas disease: TPO
    goiter (organification defect IIA)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TPO
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TPO (71 documents)

    Export disorders for TPO gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TPO gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 1020):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TPO)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Partial iodide organification defect caused by a novel mutation of the thyroid peroxidase gene in three siblings. (PubMed id 12864797)1, 2, 9 Kotani T....Harada S. (Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 2003)
    2. Molecular analysis of mutated thyroid peroxidase detected in patients with total iodide organification defects. (PubMed id 9024270)1, 2, 9 Bikker H.... De Vijlder J.J.M. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1997)
    3. Two decades of screening for congenital hypothyroidism in The Netherlands: TPO gene mutations in total iodide organification defects (an update). (PubMed id 11061528)1, 2, 9 Bakker B....De Vijlder J.J.M. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2000)
    4. A novel mutation in the human thyroid peroxidase gene resulting in a total iodide organification defect. (PubMed id 9924196)1, 2, 9 Kotani T.... Ohtaki S. (J. Endocrinol. 1999)
    5. Final diagnosis in children with subclinical hypothyroidism and mutation analysis of the thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO). (PubMed id 19960894)1, 4, 9 Turkkahraman D....Bircan I. (amp 2009)
    6. Differential evolution of thyroid peroxidase and thyrotropin receptor antibodies in Graves' disease: thyroid peroxidase antibody activity reverts to pretreatment level after carbimazole withdrawal. (PubMed id 17042691)1, 7, 9 Guilhem I....Maugendre D. (Thyroid 2006)
    7. Two novel missense mutations in the thyroid peroxidase gene, R665W and G771R, result in a localization defect and cause congenital hypothyroidism. (PubMed id 11916616)1, 2, 9 Umeki K.... Ichiba Y. (Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2002)
    8. Goitrous congenital hypothyroidism and hearing impairment associated with mutations in the TPO and SLC26A4/PDS genes. (PubMed id 16684826)1, 2, 9 Pfarr N.... Pohlenz J. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2006)
    9. Two novel mutations in the thyroid peroxidase gene with goitrous hypothyroidism. (PubMed id 16284446)1, 2, 9 Tajima T.... Fujieda K. (Endocr. J. 2005)
    10. Identification of a novel partner of duox: EFP1, a thioredoxin- related protein. (PubMed id 15561711)1, 2, 9 Wang D....Miot F. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 7173 HGNC: 12015 AceView: TPO Ensembl:ENSG00000115705 euGenes: HUgn7173
    ECgene: TPO Kegg: 7173 H-InvDB: TPO

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TPO Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for TPO Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_peroxidase

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TPO gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TPO

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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