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Aliases for TPK1 Gene

Aliases for TPK1 Gene

  • Thiamin Pyrophosphokinase 1 2 3 5
  • Placental Protein 20 2 3 4
  • Thiamine Pyrophosphokinase 1 2 4
  • Thiamine Diphosphokinase 2 3
  • Thiamine Kinase 2 3
  • HTPK1 3 4
  • PP20 3 4
  • EC 4
  • THMD5 3

External Ids for TPK1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TPK1 Gene

  • GC07M142395
  • GC07M143463
  • GC07M143540
  • GC07M143586
  • GC07M143779
  • GC07M144149
  • GC07M138228

Summaries for TPK1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TPK1 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene functions as a homodimer and catalyzes the conversion of thiamine to thiamine pyrophosphate, a cofactor for some enzymes of the glycolytic and energy production pathways. Defects in this gene are a cause of thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome-5. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2017]

GeneCards Summary for TPK1 Gene

TPK1 (Thiamin Pyrophosphokinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TPK1 include Thiamine Metabolism Dysfunction Syndrome 5 and Megaloblastic Anemia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Thiamine metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include kinase activity and thiamine binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPK1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the phosphorylation of thiamine to thiamine pyrophosphate. Can also catalyze the phosphorylation of pyrithiamine to pyrithiamine pyrophosphate.

Gene Wiki entry for TPK1 Gene

Additional gene information for TPK1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TPK1 Gene

Genomics for TPK1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TPK1 Gene

Enhancers for TPK1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH07H144841 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 16.6 -6.3 -6265 1.5 ELK4 ATF1 SOX6 ETV1 BACH1 CEBPB ELF1 CEBPG ZEB2 ZBTB40 TPK1 RN7SKP174 GC07M144850
GH07H144833 1.1 ENCODE 16.7 +0.9 881 3.2 HDGF ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 ZNF766 CBX5 TPK1 CTAGE8 LOC154761 OR2A1 GC07M144690
GH07H144829 0.7 ENCODE 13.9 +6.2 6245 1 HDAC1 PKNOX1 KLF1 ATF1 TAL1 ZKSCAN1 FOSL1 TCF12 EGR1 NFE2 TPK1 GC07M144690
GH07H144812 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 10.5 +23.6 23589 1.5 ETV1 ELF1 ZBTB40 ATF2 GABPA ETV6 RUNX3 SPI1 TPK1 GC07M144690
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TPK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TPK1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Locations for TPK1 Gene

Genomic Locations for TPK1 Gene
384,471 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TPK1 Gene

Genes around TPK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TPK1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TPK1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TPK1 Gene

Proteins for TPK1 Gene

  • Protein details for TPK1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thiamin pyrophosphokinase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K0T7
    • D3DWG0
    • I6L9B8
    • Q6NUR5
    • Q9H602

    Protein attributes for TPK1 Gene

    243 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    27265 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Sequence=BAB15465.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TPK1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TPK1 Gene


neXtProt entry for TPK1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TPK1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TPK1 Gene

Domains & Families for TPK1 Gene

Gene Families for TPK1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the thiamine pyrophosphokinase family.
  • Belongs to the thiamine pyrophosphokinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TPK1: view

Function for TPK1 Gene

Molecular function for TPK1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + thiamine = AMP + thiamine diphosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of thiamine to thiamine pyrophosphate. Can also catalyze the phosphorylation of pyrithiamine to pyrithiamine pyrophosphate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TPK1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TPK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004788 thiamine diphosphokinase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0030975 thiamine binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPK1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TPK1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TPK1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TPK1

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TPK1 Gene

Localization for TPK1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TPK1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TPK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPK1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPK1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TPK1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TPK1: view

Pathways by source for TPK1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9H3S4-TPK1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Cofactor biosynthesis; thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis; thiamine diphosphate from thiamine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TPK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006772 thiamine metabolic process IEA --
GO:0009229 thiamine diphosphate biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0042723 thiamine-containing compound metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPK1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TPK1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TPK1 Gene

(6) Drugs for TPK1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Thiamine Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Target, ligand 106,106
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Pyrithiamine Pyrophosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
ATP Nutra Agonist 0

(7) Additional Compounds for TPK1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Thiamine pyrophosphate
  • Thaimine pyrophosphate
  • Thiamin diphosphate
  • Thiamin pyrophosphate
  • Thiamin-PPi
  • Thiamine diphosphate
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
thiamine triphosphate
  • Thiamin triphosphate
  • Thiamine triphosphate
  • ThTP
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TPK1: view

Transcripts for TPK1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TPK1 Gene

Thiamin pyrophosphokinase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TPK1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TPK1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16
SP1: -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - -

Relevant External Links for TPK1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TPK1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TPK1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TPK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x7.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TPK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Amniocyte (11.5), Monocytes (7.7), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.1), and Blymphocyte (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TPK1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TPK1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TPK1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TPK1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Detected in heart, kidney, testis, small intestine and peripheral blood leukocytes, and at very low levels in a variety of tissues.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TPK1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Intestine(4.2)
  • Liver(4.2)
  • Heart(2.9)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TPK1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TPK1: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for TPK1 Gene

Orthologs for TPK1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TPK1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TPK1 33 34
  • 99.18 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TPK1 33 34
  • 87.65 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TPK1 33 34
  • 87.38 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tpk1 33 16 34
  • 86.42 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tpk1 33
  • 86.01 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 80 (a)
-- 34
  • 79 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TPK1 34
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TPK1 33 34
  • 72.43 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TPK1 34
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tpk1 33
  • 66.67 (n)
Str.11847 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.11536 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tpk1 33 34
  • 62.17 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002968 33
  • 49.07 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG14721 35 33 34
  • 48.86 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tpk-1 33 34
  • 46.2 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes THI80 34 36
  • 23 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0356500 33
  • 52.44 (n)
Os.34588 33
Species where no ortholog for TPK1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TPK1 Gene

Gene Tree for TPK1 (if available)
Gene Tree for TPK1 (if available)

Paralogs for TPK1 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TPK1 Gene

Variants for TPK1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TPK1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs371271054 Pathogenic, Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 5, episodic encephalopathy type (THMD5) [MIM:614458] 144,453,621(+) AGGTA(C/T)TGGAA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-3-prime
rs387906935 Pathogenic, Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 5, episodic encephalopathy type (THMD5) [MIM:614458] 144,682,946(-) GTGCC(A/C)ACCGC intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, synonymous-codon, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs387906936 Pathogenic, Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 5, episodic encephalopathy type (THMD5) [MIM:614458] 144,682,975(-) AGCTC(C/T)TTTAA intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs375169579 Pathogenic 144,591,419(+) TTGAC(A/T)CACTG intron-variant
rs747753388 Pathogenic 144,682,908(+) GCATA(C/T)CTTTC intron-variant, splice-donor-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TPK1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv966905 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv956013 CNV deletion 24416366
nsv831178 CNV gain 17160897
nsv831177 CNV loss 17160897
nsv8228 CNV loss 18304495
nsv528077 CNV loss 19592680
nsv525072 CNV loss 19592680
nsv482916 CNV loss 15286789
nsv428188 CNV gain+loss 18775914
nsv1149001 CNV deletion 26484159
nsv1140855 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1137301 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1135989 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1075067 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1027547 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1026834 CNV loss 25217958
esv3615324 CNV gain 21293372
esv3615323 CNV loss 21293372
esv3615322 CNV gain 21293372
esv3542563 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3542561 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3444946 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3425969 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3310421 CNV novel sequence insertion 20981092
esv3000 CNV loss 18987735
esv2759570 CNV gain+loss 17122850
esv274922 CNV gain+loss 21479260
esv2735288 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2735287 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2735286 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2735285 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2495468 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2490376 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2477449 CNV insertion 19546169
esv2397451 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2000498 CNV deletion 18987734
esv1743575 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1481912 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1057651 CNV deletion 17803354
dgv136n17 CNV loss 16327808

Variation tolerance for TPK1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.72; 15.27% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TPK1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPK1 Gene

Disorders for TPK1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for TPK1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 5
  • encephalopathy, episodic, due to thiamine pyrophosphokinase deficiency
megaloblastic anemia
  • grasbeck-imerslund syndrome
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 4, juvenile
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4
scleral disease
  • scleral diseases
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TPK1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 5, episodic encephalopathy type (THMD5) [MIM:614458]: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to an inborn error of thiamine metabolism. The phenotype is highly variable, but in general, affected individuals have onset in early childhood of acute encephalopathic episodes associated with increased serum and CSF lactate. These episodes result in progressive neurologic dysfunction manifest as gait disturbances, ataxia, dystonia, and spasticity, which in some cases may result in loss of ability to walk. Cognitive function is usually preserved, although mildly delayed development has been reported. These episodes are usually associated with infection and metabolic decompensation. Some patients may have recovery of some neurologic deficits. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22152682}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for TPK1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TPK1: view

No data available for Genatlas for TPK1 Gene

Publications for TPK1 Gene

  1. Three common intronic variants in the maternal and fetal thiamine pyrophosphokinase gene (TPK1) are associated with birth weight. (PMID: 17295612) Fradin D … Bougneres P (Annals of human genetics 2007) 3 22 45 60
  2. Cloning, sequencing, structural and molecular biological characterization of placental protein 20 (PP20)/human thiamin pyrophosphokinase (hTPK). (PMID: 15664409) Bellyei S … Than NG (Placenta 2005) 3 4 22 60
  3. Isolation and characterization of a human thiamine pyrophosphokinase cDNA. (PMID: 11342111) Nosaka K … Abe T (Biochimica et biophysica acta 2001) 2 3 4 60
  4. Molecular cloning of human thiamin pyrophosphokinase. (PMID: 11342117) Zhao R … Goldman ID (Biochimica et biophysica acta 2001) 3 4 22 60
  5. Thiamine pyrophosphokinase deficiency in encephalopathic children with defects in the pyruvate oxidation pathway. (PMID: 22152682) Mayr JA … Sperl W (American journal of human genetics 2011) 3 4 60

Products for TPK1 Gene

Sources for TPK1 Gene

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