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Aliases for TPH1 Gene

Aliases for TPH1 Gene

  • Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 2 3 5
  • Tryptophan Hydroxylase (Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase) 2 3
  • Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase 1 3 4
  • EC 4 58
  • TPRH 3 4
  • TRPH 3 4
  • Indoleacetic Acid-5-Hydroxylase 3
  • Tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase 2
  • Tryptophan 5-Hydroxylase 1 3
  • L-Tryptophan Hydroxylase 3
  • EC 1.14.16 58
  • TPH 4

External Ids for TPH1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TPH1 Gene

  • TPRH
  • TPH

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TPH1 Gene

  • GC11M018984
  • GC11M018081
  • GC11M018006
  • GC11M018005
  • GC11M017997
  • GC11M017724

Summaries for TPH1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TPH1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the first and rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, an important hormone and neurotransmitter. Mutations in this gene have been associated with an elevated risk for a variety of diseases and disorders, including schizophrenia, somatic anxiety, anger-related traits, bipolar disorder, suicidal behavior, addictions, and others.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TPH1 Gene

TPH1 (Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TPH1 include Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Personality Disorder. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Biogenic Amine Synthesis. GO annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen. An important paralog of this gene is TPH2.

Tocris Summary for TPH1 Gene

  • Hydroxylases are enzymes that catalyze the addition of hydroxyl groups to substrates during oxidation reactions. This diverse group of enzymes includes tryptophan hydroxylase (E.C., steroid 11-beta hydroxylase (E.C., and LTB4 omega-hydroxylase (E.C.

Gene Wiki entry for TPH1 Gene

Additional gene information for TPH1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TPH1 Gene

Genomics for TPH1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TPH1 Gene

Enhancers for TPH1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH11H018105 1.1 ENCODE 4.8 -63.6 -63554 1 HDGF ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF207 ZNF143 SP3 SAAL1 GTF2H1 SPTY2D1 MRGPRX3 LOC100129966 TSG101 ENSG00000256361 TPH1
GH11H018143 0.4 ENCODE 4.5 -101.9 -101865 1 CTCF JUND MRGPRX3 TPH1 LOC645297 GC11P018120
GH11H018046 0.5 Ensembl 0.7 -4.0 -3999 0 FOSL1 ZFHX2 EZH2 SAAL1 SERGEF TPH1 GC11M018063
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TPH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TPH1 gene promoter:

Genomic Location for TPH1 Gene

18,017,564 bp from pter
18,042,426 bp from pter
24,863 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TPH1 Gene

Genes around TPH1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TPH1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TPH1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TPH1 Gene

Proteins for TPH1 Gene

  • Protein details for TPH1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DQX6
    • O95188
    • O95189
    • Q16736
    • Q3KPG8

    Protein attributes for TPH1 Gene

    444 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    50985 Da
    Name=Fe(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29033;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TPH1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TPH1 Gene


neXtProt entry for TPH1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TPH1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for TPH1 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TPH1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for TPH1 (Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1/TPH-1)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TPH1 (TPH1)

Domains & Families for TPH1 Gene

Gene Families for TPH1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase family.
  • Belongs to the biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TPH1: view

Function for TPH1 Gene

Molecular function for TPH1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-tryptophan + tetrahydrobiopterin + O(2) = 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan + 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TPH1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TPH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004510 tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activity IEA --
GO:0005506 iron ion binding IEA --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016714 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPH1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TPH1: view

Animal Models for TPH1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TPH1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TPH1

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for TPH1
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TPH1 Gene

Localization for TPH1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TPH1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 1
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TPH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0043005 neuron projection IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPH1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPH1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TPH1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TPH1: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P17752-TPH1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Aromatic compound metabolism; serotonin biosynthesis; serotonin from L-tryptophan: step 1/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TPH1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007623 circadian rhythm IEA --
GO:0009072 aromatic amino acid family metabolic process IEA --
GO:0030279 negative regulation of ossification IEA --
GO:0035902 response to immobilization stress IEA --
GO:0042427 serotonin biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPH1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TPH1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TPH1 Gene

(61) Drugs for TPH1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Tryptophan Approved, Withdrawn Nutra Positive, Allosteric regulator, Enzyme, substrate 0
Sapropterin Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, cofactor 0
Telotristat Approved Pharma Target, antagonist TPH inhibitor 0
Citalopram Approved Pharma 520
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Channel blocker 243

(36) Additional Compounds for TPH1 Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, IUPHAR, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Armco iron
  • Carbonyl iron
  • FE
  • Ferrovac e
  • Hematite
Inhibition, Inhibitor
Inhibition, Inhibitor
4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin
  • 1,3,5-Benzenetriol
  • 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene
  • 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene anhydrate
  • 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene anhydrous
  • 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene dihydrate
  • (6R)-6-(L-erythro-1,2-Dihydroxypropyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4a-hydroxypterin
  • 2-Amino-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridin-4(4aH)-one
  • 2-Amino-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4a-hydroxy-4(4aH)-Pteridinone
  • 2-Amino-6-[(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropyl]-4a-hydroxy-1,5,6,7-tetrahydropteridin-4-one
  • 4a-Hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin

(4) Tocris Compounds for TPH1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Nepicastat hydrochloride Potent and selective dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor; orally bioavailable 170151-24-3
pCPA methyl ester hydrochloride Tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor 14173-40-1
Ro 61-8048 Potent kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor 199666-03-0
UPF 648 Potent kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor 213400-34-1

(7) ApexBio Compounds for TPH1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
17-ODYA LTB4 ω-hydroxylase inhibitor 34450-18-5
LP533401 hcl Tph-1 inhibitor 1040526-12-2
LX1606 Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) inhibitor 1137608-69-5
Metyrapone 54-36-4
p-Chlorophenylalanine 7424-00-2
Ro 61-8048 199666-03-0
Telotristat TPH inhibitor 1033805-28-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TPH1: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TPH1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TPH1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TPH1 Gene

Tryptophan hydroxylase 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for TPH1
  • Vectors and viruses for ORF, Lenti, Retro, Adenovirus, AAV, and more

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TPH1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TPH1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TPH1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TPH1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TPH1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Artery - Aorta (x14.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TPH1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (34.1), Spleen (18.7), and Liver (13.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TPH1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TPH1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TPH1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TPH1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TPH1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Isoform 2 seems to be less widely expressed than isoform 1.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TPH1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Intestine(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TPH1: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TPH1 Gene

Orthologs for TPH1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TPH1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TPH1 33 34
  • 99.85 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TPH1 33 34
  • 93.84 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TPH1 33 34
  • 93.24 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tph1 33
  • 86.71 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tph1 33 16 34
  • 85.81 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TPH1 34
  • 85 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TPH1 34
  • 83 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TPH1 33 34
  • 80.2 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TPH1 34
  • 75 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100497239 33
  • 73.74 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia tph1 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tph1a 33 34
  • 70.46 (n)
tph1b 34
  • 70 (a)
tph 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006020 33
  • 59.13 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Trh 33 34
  • 58.51 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tph-1 34
  • 41 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 63 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TPH1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TPH1 Gene

Gene Tree for TPH1 (if available)
Gene Tree for TPH1 (if available)

Paralogs for TPH1 Gene

Paralogs for TPH1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TPH1: view

Variants for TPH1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TPH1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000195487 -- 18,030,829(+) AAATA(A/T)AAGCA intron-variant
rs1000253647 -- 18,037,638(+) TGGAG(-/A)AAAAA intron-variant
rs1000311751 -- 18,021,930(+) TACAG(A/G)GGGGA intron-variant
rs1000373197 -- 18,029,724(+) ATTTA(C/T)GATCA intron-variant
rs1000744191 -- 18,032,827(+) AGGCG(C/G)GAGCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TPH1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3625482 CNV loss 21293372
nsv832079 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for TPH1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 44.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.68; 46.06% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TPH1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPH1 Gene

Disorders for TPH1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(38) MalaCards diseases for TPH1 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
childhood-onset schizophrenia
  • childhood schizophrenia
personality disorder
  • character disorder
autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1
  • autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy
small intestine neuroendocrine neoplasm
  • small intestine neuroendocrine tumor
borderline personality disorder
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TPH1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TPH1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TPH1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TPH1 Gene

Publications for TPH1 Gene

  1. Three-dimensional structure of human tryptophan hydroxylase and its implications for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin. (PMID: 12379098) Wang L … Stevens RC (Biochemistry 2002) 3 4 22 25 60
  2. The tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) gene, schizophrenia susceptibility, and suicidal behavior: a multi-centre case-control study and meta-analysis. (PMID: 19526457) Saetre P … Jönsson EG (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 22 45 60
  3. Fluoxetine response in impulsive-aggressive behavior and serotonin transporter polymorphism in personality disorder. (PMID: 20010449) Silva H … Bustamante ML (Psychiatric genetics 2010) 3 22 45 60
  4. Resequencing of serotonin-related genes and association of tagging SNPs to citalopram response. (PMID: 19077664) Peters EJ … Hamilton SP (Pharmacogenetics and genomics 2009) 3 22 45 60
  5. Increased risk of suicide attempt in mood disorders and TPH1 genotype. (PMID: 18977032) Galfalvy H … Mann JJ (Journal of affective disorders 2009) 3 22 45 60

Products for TPH1 Gene

Sources for TPH1 Gene

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