Aliases for TP53 Gene
External Ids for TP53 Gene
This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein containing transcriptional activation, DNA binding, and oligomerization domains. The encoded protein responds to diverse cellular stresses to regulate expression of target genes, thereby inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, DNA repair, or changes in metabolism. Mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of human cancers, including hereditary cancers such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene and the use of alternate promoters result in multiple transcript variants and isoforms. Additional isoforms have also been shown to result from the use of alternate translation initiation codons (PMIDs: 12032546, 20937277). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
GeneCards Summary for TP53 Gene
TP53 (Tumor Protein P53) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TP53 include multifocal osteogenic sarcoma and eyelid neoplasm. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity and protein heterodimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is TP73.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TP53 Gene
Acts as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type. Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process. One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. In cooperation with mitochondrial PPIF is involved in activating oxidative stress-induced necrosis; the function is largely independent of transcription. Induces the transcription of long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) and lincRNA-Mkln1. LincRNA-p21 participates in TP53-dependent transcriptional repression leading to apoptosis and seem to have to effect on cell-cycle regulation. Implicated in Notch signaling cross-over. Prevents CDK7 kinase activity when associated to CAK complex in response to DNA damage, thus stopping cell cycle progression. Isoform 2 enhances the transactivation activity of isoform 1 from some but not all TP53-inducible promoters. Isoform 4 suppresses transactivation activity and impairs growth suppression mediated by isoform 1. Isoform 7 inhibits isoform 1-mediated apoptosis. Regulates the circadian clock by repressing CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1-mediated transcriptional activation of PER2 (PubMed:24051492).
p53 (aka TP53) is a transcription factor whose protein levels and post-translational modification state alter in response to cellular stress (such as DNA damage, hypoxia, spindle damage). Activation of p53 begins through a number of mechanisms including phosphorylation by ATM, ATR, Chk1 and MAPKs. MDM2 is a ubiquitn ligase that binds p53 and targets p53 for proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylation, p14ARF and USP7 prevent MDM2-p53 interactions, leading to an increase in stable p53 tetramers in the cytoplasm. Further modifications such as methylation and acetylation lead to an increase in p53 binding to gene specific response elements. p53 regulates a large number of genes (>100 genes) that control a number of key tumor suppressing functions such as cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. Whilst the activation of p53 often leads to apoptosis, p53 inactivation facilitates tumor progression; inactivating p53 mutations occur in over 50% of cancers.