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Aliases for TOP2B Gene

Aliases for TOP2B Gene

  • Topoisomerase (DNA) II Beta 2 3 5
  • DNA Topoisomerase II, Beta Isozyme 3 4
  • Topoisomerase (DNA) II Beta 180kDa 2 3
  • EC 4 61
  • DNA Topoisomerase II, 180 KD 3
  • DNA Topoisomerase II Beta 3
  • DNA Topoisomerase 2-Beta 3
  • U937 Associated Antigen 3
  • Topoisomerase II Beta 3
  • Topoisomerase IIb 3
  • Antigen MLAA-44 3
  • Topo II Beta 3
  • Top2beta 3
  • TOPIIB 3

External Ids for TOP2B Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TOP2B Gene

  • GC03M025346
  • GC03M025489
  • GC03M025614
  • GC03M025584
  • GC03M025639

Summaries for TOP2B Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TOP2B Gene

  • This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, beta, is localized to chromosome 3 and the alpha form is localized to chromosome 17. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]

GeneCards Summary for TOP2B Gene

TOP2B (Topoisomerase (DNA) II Beta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TOP2B include Non-Functioning Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor and Small Cell Sarcoma. Among its related pathways are Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis and Cell cycle_Chromosome condensation in prometaphase. GO annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is TOP2A.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

  • Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.

Tocris Summary for TOP2B Gene

  • Topoisomerases are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that overcome topological problems in genomic DNA, which can result from DNA replication, transcription and repair. Common problems such as knots and tangles are often resolved by topoisomerases.

Gene Wiki entry for TOP2B Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TOP2B Gene

Genomics for TOP2B Gene

Regulatory Elements for TOP2B Gene

Enhancers for TOP2B Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH03F025046 0.4 ENCODE 12.9 +619.7 619719 0.4 ZNF585B TOP2B GC03P025048 RNA5SP125
GH03F025662 0.4 ENCODE 9.2 +0.5 507 4.6 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A YY1 ZNF143 FOS ZNF263 TOP2B MIR4442 GC03M025633
GH03F025653 0.4 Ensembl 7.4 +9.5 9539 4.4 PKNOX1 ZFP3 SCRT2 CEBPB FEZF1 EBF1 OXSM NGLY1 TOP2B MIR4442 GC03M025633
GH03F025594 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 6.3 +70.8 70790 0.3 CTCF ZNF654 ZNF740 SIN3A TRIM22 REST RAD21 NR2F2 RFX5 ZNF316 TOP2B ENSG00000275227 ENSG00000272166
GH03F025603 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 5.2 +60.8 60781 1.7 HDAC1 PKNOX1 ATF1 TBL1XR1 RAD21 CHAMP1 YY1 GATA2 FOS JUNB TOP2B ENSG00000275227 ENSG00000272166
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TOP2B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TOP2B Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00001359668 1039 3801 PKNOX1 ARNT CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 YY1 ZNF143 FOS ZNF263

Genomic Location for TOP2B Gene

25,597,905 bp from pter
25,664,939 bp from pter
67,035 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TOP2B Gene

Genes around TOP2B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TOP2B Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TOP2B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TOP2B Gene

Proteins for TOP2B Gene

  • Protein details for TOP2B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    DNA topoisomerase 2-beta
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q13600
    • Q9UMG8
    • Q9UQP8

    Protein attributes for TOP2B Gene

    1626 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    183267 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035; Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Homodimer.
    • Eukaryotic topoisomerase I and II can relax both negative and positive supercoils, whereas prokaryotic enzymes relax only negative supercoils.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TOP2B Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TOP2B Gene


neXtProt entry for TOP2B Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TOP2B Gene


Post-translational modifications for TOP2B Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 144, Lys 212, Lys 254, Lys 342, Lys 407, Lys 412, Lys 541, Lys 550, Lys 605, Lys 635, Lys 643, Lys 712, Lys 744, and Lys 1008
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TOP2B Gene

Domains & Families for TOP2B Gene

Gene Families for TOP2B Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 Toprim domain.
  • Belongs to the type II topoisomerase family.
  • Contains 1 Toprim domain.
  • Belongs to the type II topoisomerase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TOP2B: view

Function for TOP2B Gene

Molecular function for TOP2B Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
DNA topoisomerase II beta (180kDa),ubiquitous,ATPase component of the topoisomerase II,involved in the breakage and rejoining of double strand of DNA,relaxing both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA,target of several drugs,widely used in the treatment of human cancers
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP-dependent breakage, passage and rejoining of double-stranded DNA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TOP2B Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA --
GO:0003682 chromatin binding IDA 9049244
GO:0003916 DNA topoisomerase activity IEA --
GO:0003918 DNA topoisomerase type II (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity IDA 10684600
GO:0005080 protein kinase C binding IPI 16611985
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TOP2B: view

Animal Models for TOP2B Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TOP2B:

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TOP2B Gene

Localization for TOP2B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus, nucleolus.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TOP2B Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TOP2B gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 5
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000792 colocalizes_with heterochromatin IDA 9049244
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 9049244
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005730 NOT nucleolus IDA 9049244
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view

Pathways & Interactions for TOP2B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TOP2B: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000712 resolution of meiotic recombination intermediates IBA --
GO:0000819 sister chromatid segregation IBA --
GO:0001764 neuron migration IEA --
GO:0006259 DNA metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006265 DNA topological change IDA 10684600
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TOP2B Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TOP2B Gene

(45) Drugs for TOP2B Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Daunorubicin Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor 264
Etoposide Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor Topo II inhibitor, Topoisomerase 2 Inhibitors, Topoisomerase II inhibitor 1232
Dexrazoxane Approved, Withdrawn Pharma Target 42
Amsacrine Approved Pharma Topoisomerase 2 inhibitor 8
Doxorubicin Approved, Investigational Pharma Topo II inhibitor,immunosuppresive antineoplastic antibiotic 1714

(5) Additional Compounds for TOP2B Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
CPT 11
Doxorubicin hydrochloride
SN 38

(5) Tocris Compounds for TOP2B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
CPT 11 DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor; antitumor 100286-90-6
Doxorubicin hydrochloride Antitumor antibiotic agent. Inhibits DNA topoisomerase II 25316-40-9
Etoposide Topoisomerase II inhibitor 33419-42-0
SN 38 DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor; antitumor 86639-52-3
Topotecan hydrochloride DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor; Camptothecin (Cat. No. 1100) analog 119413-54-6

(28) ApexBio Compounds for TOP2B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(S)-10-Hydroxycamptothecin 19685-09-7
Amonafide DNA intercalator,Topo II inhibitor 69408-81-7
Amrubicin Topoisomerase II inhibitor, anthracycline agent 110267-81-7
Amsacrine Topoisomerase 2 inhibitor 51264-14-3
Amsacrine hydrochloride Topoisomerase 2 inhibitor 54301-15-4
Beta-Lapachone DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor,selective 4707-32-8
Camptothecin Topoisomerase I inhibitor,prototypic 7689-03-4
Ciprofloxacin 85721-33-1
Daunorubicin DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor 20830-81-3
Dexrazoxane HCl (ICRF-187, ADR-529) Topoisomerase II inhibitor,intracellular ion chelator,cardioprotective agent 149003-01-0
Doxorubicin Topo II inhibitor,immunosuppresive antineoplastic antibiotic 23214-92-8
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) HCl Antitumour antibiotic,inhibits TOPO II. 25316-40-9
Ellipticine DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor 519-23-3
Epirubicin HCl Antibiotic antitumor agent 56390-09-1
Etoposide Topo II inhibitor 33419-42-0
Flumequine 42835-25-6
Gatifloxacin Fluoroquinolone antibiotic,inhibits bacterial TOPO II 112811-59-3
Idarubicin HCl Anthracycline and daunorubicin analog,topoisomerase inhibitor 57852-57-0
Irinotecan Topoisomerase I inhibitor 97682-44-5
Mitoxantrone HCl Topoisomerase II inhibitor, anti-neoplastic drug 70476-82-3
Moxifloxacin HCl Fluoroquinolone antibiotic 186826-86-8
Novobiocin Sodium 1476-53-5
Ofloxacin Fluoroquinolones,antibiotics 82419-36-1
Pirarubicin Topo II inhibitor;antineoplastic;analogue of doxorubicin 72496-41-4
Teniposide 29767-20-2
Topotecan HCl Topoisomerase 1 inhibitor 119413-54-6
Voreloxin Topo II inhibitor 175414-77-4
Voreloxin Hydrochloride Antineoplastic naphthyridine analogue 175519-16-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TOP2B: view

Transcripts for TOP2B Gene

Unigene Clusters for TOP2B Gene

Topoisomerase (DNA) II beta 180kDa:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TOP2B Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TOP2B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TOP2B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TOP2B Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TOP2B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (14.1), Fetal Brain (11.5), and Retina (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TOP2B Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TOP2B Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TOP2B Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TOP2B Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TOP2B: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TOP2B Gene

Orthologs for TOP2B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TOP2B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TOP2B 34 35
  • 99.77 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TOP2B 34 35
  • 95.28 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TOP2B 35
  • 94 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TOP2B 34 35
  • 92.53 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Top2b 34 16 35
  • 92.02 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TOP2B 35
  • 92 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Top2b 34
  • 91.1 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TOP2B 34 35
  • 83.44 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TOP2B 35
  • 87 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia top2b 34
  • 76.99 (n)
Str.19992 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii top2b 34 35
  • 70.3 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Top2 36 35
  • 61 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F32A11.4 36
  • 59 (a)
ZK1127.7 36
  • 54 (a)
F32A11.5 36
  • 51 (a)
cin-4 35
  • 51 (a)
top-2 35
  • 50 (a)
R05D3.12 35
  • 41 (a)
R05D3.1 36
  • 40 (a)
F31E8.6 36
  • 38 (a)
Y46H3C.4 36 35
  • 37 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C13838g 34
  • 56.47 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TOP2 34 35 37
  • 55.85 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER410W 34
  • 55.05 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TOPII 34
  • 58.07 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0699700 34
  • 59.8 (n)
Os.34202 34
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 63 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes top2 34
  • 56.15 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06338 34
  • 51.88 (n)
Species where no ortholog for TOP2B was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TOP2B Gene

Gene Tree for TOP2B (if available)
Gene Tree for TOP2B (if available)

Paralogs for TOP2B Gene

Paralogs for TOP2B Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TOP2B Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TOP2B: view

Variants for TOP2B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TOP2B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1001647 -- 25,613,186(-) TCTAA(C/T)TATAT intron-variant
rs10433573 -- 25,664,786(+) AAGGC(A/C)GCCTT nc-transcript-variant, downstream-variant-500B, upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-5-prime
rs10510569 -- 25,626,439(+) AATAA(A/G)CTCTT intron-variant
rs10510570 -- 25,637,983(+) ATCAG(A/T)CTTAA intron-variant
rs10548794 -- 25,597,413(+) AGTTA(-/GTTA)AAAAA nc-transcript-variant, downstream-variant-500B, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TOP2B Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv4707n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv2725054 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3307199 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3402240 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3561627 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3893676 CNV loss 25118596
nsv1073212 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1141805 CNV insertion 24896259
nsv507089 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv955576 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for TOP2B Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.63% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.43; 71.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TOP2B Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

Disorders for TOP2B Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for TOP2B Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor
  • non functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor
small cell sarcoma
  • sarcoma, small cell
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TOP2B in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TOP2B

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TOP2B: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TOP2B Gene

Publications for TOP2B Gene

  1. Isolation of cDNA clones encoding the beta isozyme of human DNA topoisomerase II and localisation of the gene to chromosome 3p24. (PMID: 1333583) Jenkins J.R. … Hickson I.D. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1992) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Mutagenesis of E477 or K505 in the B' domain of human topoisomerase II beta increases the requirement for magnesium ions during strand passage. (PMID: 10684600) West K.L. … Austin C.A. (Biochemistry 2000) 3 4 22 64
  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human topoisomerase IIalpha and IIbeta genes: evidence for isoform evolution through gene duplication. (PMID: 10095062) Sng J.H. … Fisher L.M. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1999) 3 4 22 64
  4. Rubella vaccine-induced cellular immunity: evidence of associations with polymorphisms in the Toll-like, vitamin A and D receptors, and innate immune response genes. (PMID: 19902255) Ovsyannikova I.G. … Poland G.A. (Hum. Genet. 2010) 3 46 64
  5. Human variation in alcohol response is influenced by variation in neuronal signaling genes. (PMID: 20201926) Joslyn G. … White R.L. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2010) 3 46 64

Products for TOP2B Gene

Sources for TOP2B Gene

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