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Aliases for TOP2B Gene

Aliases for TOP2B Gene

  • Topoisomerase (DNA) II Beta 2 3
  • Topoisomerase (DNA) II Beta 180kDa 2 3
  • DNA Topoisomerase II, Beta Isozyme 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • DNA Topoisomerase II, 180 KD 3
  • DNA Topoisomerase II Beta 3
  • U937 Associated Antigen 3
  • Topoisomerase II Beta 3
  • Topoisomerase IIb 3
  • Antigen MLAA-44 3
  • Topo II Beta 3
  • Top2beta 3
  • TOPIIB 3

External Ids for TOP2B Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TOP2B Gene

  • GC03M025346
  • GC03M025489
  • GC03M025614
  • GC03M025584
  • GC03M025639

Summaries for TOP2B Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TOP2B Gene

  • This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, beta, is localized to chromosome 3 and the alpha form is localized to chromosome 17. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants; however, the second variant has not yet been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TOP2B Gene

TOP2B (Topoisomerase (DNA) II Beta) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Doxorubicin Pathway (Cardiomyocyte Cell), Pharmacodynamics and Lagging Strand Synthesis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is TOP2A.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

  • Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.

Tocris Summary for TOP2B Gene

  • Topoisomerases are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that overcome topological problems in genomic DNA, which can result from DNA replication, transcription and repair. Common problems such as knots and tangles are often resolved by topoisomerases.

Gene Wiki entry for TOP2B Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TOP2B Gene

Genomics for TOP2B Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for TOP2B Gene

25,597,905 bp from pter
25,664,907 bp from pter
67,003 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TOP2B Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TOP2B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TOP2B Gene

No data available for Regulatory Elements for TOP2B Gene

Proteins for TOP2B Gene

  • Protein details for TOP2B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    DNA topoisomerase 2-beta
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q13600
    • Q9UMG8
    • Q9UQP8

    Protein attributes for TOP2B Gene

    1626 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    183267 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035; Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108; Note=Binds two Mg(2+) per subunit. The magnesium ions form salt bridges with both the protein and the DNA. Can also accept other divalent metal cations, such as Mn(2+) or Ca(2+).;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Eukaryotic topoisomerase I and II can relax both negative and positive supercoils, whereas prokaryotic enzymes relax only negative supercoils

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TOP2B Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TOP2B Gene


neXtProt entry for TOP2B Gene

Proteomics data for TOP2B Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TOP2B Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 144, Lys 212, Lys 254, Lys 342, Lys 407, Lys 412, Lys 541, Lys 550, Lys 605, Lys 635, Lys 643, Lys 712, Lys 744, and Lys 1008
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TOP2B Gene

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for TOP2B Gene

Gene Families for TOP2B Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 Toprim domain.
  • Belongs to the type II topoisomerase family.
  • Contains 1 Toprim domain.
  • Belongs to the type II topoisomerase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TOP2B: view

Function for TOP2B Gene

Molecular function for TOP2B Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
DNA topoisomerase II beta (180kDa),ubiquitous,ATPase component of the topoisomerase II,involved in the breakage and rejoining of double strand of DNA,relaxing both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA,target of several drugs,widely used in the treatment of human cancers
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP-dependent breakage, passage and rejoining of double-stranded DNA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TOP2B Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding --
GO:0003682 chromatin binding IDA 9049244
GO:0003918 DNA topoisomerase type II (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity IDA 10684600
GO:0005080 protein kinase C binding IPI 16611985
GO:0005515 protein binding --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TOP2B: view

Animal Models for TOP2B Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TOP2B:

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TOP2B Gene

Localization for TOP2B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus, nucleolus.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TOP2B Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TOP2B gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 5
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000792 colocalizes_with heterochromatin IDA 9049244
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 9049244
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA 9049244
GO:0005730 NOT nucleolus IDA 9049244
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view

Pathways & Interactions for TOP2B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TOP2B: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000712 resolution of meiotic recombination intermediates IBA --
GO:0000819 sister chromatid segregation IBA --
GO:0001764 neuron migration IEA --
GO:0006265 DNA topological change IDA 10684600
GO:0006268 DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TOP2B Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TOP2B Gene

(41) Drugs for TOP2B Gene - From: DGIdb, NovoSeek, ApexBio, DrugBank, Tocris, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Etoposide Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor Topo II inhibitor, Topoisomerase 2 Inhibitors, Topoisomerase II inhibitor 1127
Daunorubicin Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 244
Gatifloxacin Approved, Investigational Pharma Fluoroquinolone antibiotic,inhibits bacterial TOPO II, Antibiotic; inhibits bacterial type II topoisomerase 30
Dexrazoxane Approved, Withdrawn Pharma Target 39
Doxorubicin Approved, Investigational Pharma Topo II inhibitor,immunosuppresive antineoplastic antibiotic 1525

(3) Additional Compounds for TOP2B Gene - From: Tocris and NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Doxorubicin hydrochloride
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TOP2B: view

Transcripts for TOP2B Gene

Unigene Clusters for TOP2B Gene

Topoisomerase (DNA) II beta 180kDa:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TOP2B

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TOP2B Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TOP2B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TOP2B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TOP2B Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TOP2B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (14.1), Fetal Brain (11.5), and Retina (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TOP2B Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TOP2B Gene Hs.475733

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TOP2B: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TOP2B Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TOP2B Gene

Orthologs for TOP2B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TOP2B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TOP2B 35
  • 92.53 (n)
  • 97.11 (a)
TOP2B 36
  • 97 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TOP2B 35
  • 95.28 (n)
  • 98.24 (a)
TOP2B 36
  • 98 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Top2b 35
  • 92.02 (n)
  • 96.38 (a)
Top2b 16
Top2b 36
  • 96 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TOP2B 35
  • 99.77 (n)
  • 99.88 (a)
TOP2B 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Top2b 35
  • 91.1 (n)
  • 95.94 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TOP2B 36
  • 92 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TOP2B 36
  • 94 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TOP2B 35
  • 83.44 (n)
  • 89.5 (a)
TOP2B 36
  • 88 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TOP2B 36
  • 87 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.19992 35
top2b 35
  • 76.99 (n)
  • 83.44 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii top2b 35
  • 70.3 (n)
  • 75.49 (a)
top2b 36
  • 72 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Top2 37
  • 61 (a)
Top2 36
  • 55 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F31E8.6 37
  • 38 (a)
F32A11.4 37
  • 59 (a)
F32A11.5 37
  • 51 (a)
R05D3.1 37
  • 40 (a)
Y46H3C.4 37
  • 37 (a)
ZK1127.7 37
  • 54 (a)
cin-4 36
  • 51 (a)
R05D3.12 36
  • 41 (a)
top-2 36
  • 50 (a)
Y46H3C.4 36
  • 43 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER410W 35
  • 55.05 (n)
  • 50.04 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C13838g 35
  • 56.47 (n)
  • 51.77 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TOP2 35
  • 55.85 (n)
  • 50.67 (a)
TOP2 36
  • 43 (a)
TOP2 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TOPII 35
  • 58.07 (n)
  • 55.16 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.34202 35
Os02g0699700 35
  • 59.8 (n)
  • 60.36 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06338 35
  • 51.88 (n)
  • 49.17 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes top2 35
  • 56.15 (n)
  • 52.65 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 63 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TOP2B:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TOP2B Gene

Gene Tree for TOP2B (if available)
Gene Tree for TOP2B (if available)

Paralogs for TOP2B Gene

Paralogs for TOP2B Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TOP2B Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TOP2B: view

Variants for TOP2B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TOP2B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs6534 -- 25,612,557(-) ACAGC(C/T)ATGAA synonymous-codon, reference, downstream-variant-500B
rs726999 -- 25,634,453(-) cactt(A/C/G/T)tgtct intron-variant
rs1001647 -- 25,613,186(-) TCTAA(C/T)TATAT intron-variant
rs1130565 -- 25,607,177(-) AGCCA(C/G)TCCAG reference, missense
rs1286732 -- 25,605,604(+) TATAC(A/G)CACTG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TOP2B Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv271475 CNV Insertion 20981092
nsv507089 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv2725054 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for TOP2B Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.63% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.43; 71.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TOP2B Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

Disorders for TOP2B Gene

Relevant External Links for TOP2B

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TOP2B: view

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TOP2B Gene

Publications for TOP2B Gene

  1. Isolation of cDNA clones encoding the beta isozyme of human DNA topoisomerase II and localisation of the gene to chromosome 3p24. (PMID: 1333583) Jenkins J.R. … Hickson I.D. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1992) 2 23 67
  2. Targeting PKC delta-mediated topoisomerase II beta overexpression subverts the differentiation block in a retinoic acid-resistant APL cell line. (PMID: 20200558) McNamara S. … Miller W.H. (Leukemia 2010) 23 67
  3. MicroRNAs contribute to the chemoresistance of cisplatin in tongue squamous cell carcinoma lines. (PMID: 20219416) Yu Z.W. … Zhang C.P. (Oral Oncol. 2010) 23 67
  4. How do type II topoisomerases use ATP hydrolysis to simplify DNA topology beyond equilibrium? Investigating the relaxation reaction of nonsupercoiling type II topoisomerases. (PMID: 19094994) Stuchinskaya T. … Maxwell A. (J. Mol. Biol. 2009) 23 67
  5. The E3 ubiquitin-ligase Bmi1/Ring1A controls the proteasomal degradation of Top2alpha cleavage complex - a potentially new drug target. (PMID: 19956605) Alchanati I. … Erez O. (PLoS ONE 2009) 23 67

Products for TOP2B Gene

Sources for TOP2B Gene

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