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TONSL Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 47
GCID: GC08M145663

Tonsoku-Like, DNA Repair Protein

(Previous name: nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer...)
(Previous symbol: NFKBIL2)
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Tonsoku-Like, DNA Repair Protein1 2     I-Kappa-B-Related Protein2 3
NFKBIL21 2 3 5     NF-Kappa-B Inhibitor-Like Protein 22 3
Nuclear Factor Of Kappa Light Polypeptide Gene Enhancer In B-Cells
Inhibitor-Like 21 2 3
     ikappaBR2
IKBR2 3 5     Tonsoku-Like Protein2
Inhibitor Of Kappa B-Related Protein2 3     IkappaBR3

External Ids:    HGNC: 78011   Entrez Gene: 47962   Ensembl: ENSG000001609497   OMIM: 6045465   UniProtKB: Q96HA73   

Export aliases for TONSL gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC08M145655 GC08M145656 GC08M145659


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TONSL Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be a negative regulator of NF-kappa-B mediated transcription. The
encoded protein may bind NF-kappa-B complexes and trap them in the cytoplasm, preventing them from entering the
nucleus and interacting with the DNA. Phosphorylation of this protein targets it for degradation by the
ubiquitination pathway, which frees the NF-kappa-B complexes to enter the nucleus. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for TONSL Gene:
TONSL (tonsoku-like, DNA repair protein) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TONSL include psoriasis, and t-cell leukemia. GO annotations related to this gene include histone binding and transcription corepressor activity. An important paralog of this gene is BARD1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TONSL_HUMAN, Q96HA7
Function: Component of the MMS22L-TONSL complex, a complex that stimulates the recombination-dependent repair of
stalled or collapsed replication forks. The MMS22L-TONSL complex is required to maintain genome integrity during
DNA replication by promoting homologous recombination-mediated repair of replication fork-associated
double-strand breaks. It may act by mediating the assembly of RAD51 filaments on ssDNA. Within the complex, may
act as a scaffold




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Search for regulatory transcription factor binding sites for TONSL
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTONSL promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TONSL

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TONSL


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 8q24.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  8q24.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 8q24.3

TONSL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TONSL gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 8         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC08M145663:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
145,654,163 bp from pter      End:
145,669,827 bp from pter
Size:
15,665 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr8-,NW_003315924 198,039-203,540     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TONSL_HUMAN, Q96HA7 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tonsoku-like protein  
Size: 1378 amino acids; 150929 Da
Subunit: Component of the MMS22L-TONSL complex, a complex at least composed of MMS22L and TONSL/NFKBIL2. Interacts
with the MCM complex, the FACT complex and the RPA complex. Binds histones
Caution: Was reported to share sequence similarities with IKBKB and therefore named 'NF-kappa-B inhibitor-like
protein 2' (PubMed:7738005). However, the sequence similarity is remote and effects as regulator of NF-kappa-B
are probably indirect and require additional evidence (PubMed:9242696)
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAA85819.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Sequence=AAH08782.1; Type=Erroneous
initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended; Sequence=CAB63467.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction;
Secondary accessions: B5MDP0 C9JKB1 C9JNV8 Q13006 Q9UGJ2
Alternative splicing: 2 isoforms:  Q96HA7-1   Q96HA7-2   (No experimental confirmation available)

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TONSL: NX_Q96HA7

Explore proteomics data for TONSL at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys336
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TONSL Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_038460.4  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000386239  

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    ANKRD: Ankyrin repeat domain containing

    5 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR011990 TPR-like_helical
     IPR020683 Ankyrin_rpt-contain_dom
     IPR013026 TPR-contain_dom
     IPR019734 TPR_repeat
     IPR002110 Ankyrin_rpt

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q96HA7

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q96HA7

    2 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB001611 Leucine-rich repeat signature
    IPB002110 Ankyrin repeat signature


    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TONSL_HUMAN, Q96HA7
    Domain: The ANK repeats mediate the interaction with the MCM complex and histones, while the LRR repeats mediate
    the interaction with MMS22L
    Similarity: Belongs to the Tonsoku family
    Similarity: Contains 3 ANK repeats
    Similarity: Contains 7 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats
    Similarity: Contains 8 TPR repeats


    TONSL for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TONSL_HUMAN, Q96HA7
    Function: Component of the MMS22L-TONSL complex, a complex that stimulates the recombination-dependent repair of
    stalled or collapsed replication forks. The MMS22L-TONSL complex is required to maintain genome integrity during
    DNA replication by promoting homologous recombination-mediated repair of replication fork-associated
    double-strand breaks. It may act by mediating the assembly of RAD51 filaments on ssDNA. Within the complex, may
    act as a scaffold

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003714transcription corepressor activity TAS7738005
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
    GO:0042393histone binding IDA--
         
    TONSL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for TONSL:
     Decreased nuclei size in G2M  Decreased viability of wild-ty  Large cells 

    Animal Models:
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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TONSL_HUMAN, Q96HA7: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Mainly nuclear. Localizes to DNA damage sites, accumulates at
    stressed replication forks

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA--
    GO:0005662colocalizes with DNA replication factor A complex IDA--
    GO:0005730NOT nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IEA--
    GO:0035101colocalizes with FACT complex IDA--

    TONSL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TONSL
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TONSL

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TONSL (Q96HA71, 2, 3 ENSP000003862394) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 29)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    MMS22LQ6ZRQ51, 2, 3, ENSP000002750534EBI-1052467,EBI-718662 MINT-8089662 MINT-8089673 MINT-8089726 MINT-8089667 MINT-8089790 I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000275053
    MCM4P339912, 3, ENSP000002621054MINT-8089790 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000262105
    SSRP1Q089452, 3, ENSP000002784124MINT-8089790 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000278412
    GSK3BP498412, 3MINT-8257526 I2D: score=2 
    MCM2P497362, 3, ENSP000002650564MINT-8089673 MINT-8089739 MINT-8089790 I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000265056
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000724double-strand break repair via homologous recombination IMP--
    GO:0031297replication fork processing IMP--
    GO:0042994cytoplasmic sequestering of transcription factor TAS7738005
    GO:2001141regulation of RNA biosynthetic process TAS7738005

    TONSL for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
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    Browse Tocris compounds for TONSL



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TONSL gene: 
    NM_013432.4  

    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000497613 ENST00000409379(uc011llg.2)
    miRNA
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    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 51):

    BQ944722 BU190662 BM918035 BQ960372 BE871368 BC008782 NM_013432 BM463971 
    BM903924 BI092283 BU154566 BQ230076 BM799907 BU632795 BG284527 BM916933 
    BU161660 BM048623 AI281754 BU597311 BU145350 BG390892 BM479763 BM043869 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TONSL expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GAGCCTGTAT
    TONSL Expression
    About this image


    TONSL expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 3) fully expand
     
     Neural Tube (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Mesencephalic Ventricular Zone
     
     Thymus (Hematopoietic System)
             Thymus
     
     Brain (Nervous System)
             Hypothalamus
    TONSL Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TONSL Protein Expression

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TONSL_HUMAN, Q96HA7
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in heart, skeletal muscle and tracheal epithelial cells

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

    Orthologs for TONSL gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tonsl1 , 5 tonsoku-like, DNA repair protein1, 5 78.49(n)1
    77.04(a)1
      15 (36.18 cM)5
    727491  NM_183091.31  NP_898914.31 
     766260025 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves --
    Uncharacterized protein
    33(a)
    many ↔ many
    Z(23891967-23909745)
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TONSL6
    tonsoku-like, DNA repair protein
    54(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    GL343892.1(43424-98001)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.150102 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with weak similarity more 74.51(n)    CA792151.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii BI875764.12   -- 74.2(n)    BI875764.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG74571 CG7457 42.16(n)
    32.2(a)
      38865  NM_139893.4  NP_648150.1 
    baker's yeast
    (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
    Saccharomycetes HOS46
    Subunit of the Set3 complex, which is a meiotic-sp...
    13(a)
    1 → many
    IX(151595-154846) YIL112W


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TONSL (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TONSL (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TONSL gene
    BARD12  BCOR2  ANKRD112  ANKRD322  ANKRD122  ANKRD312  BCORL12  
    3 SIMAP similar genes for TONSL using alignment to 1 protein entry:     TONSL_HUMAN:
    IkBa    DKFZp761E1322    MTPN

    TONSL for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TONSL (see all 302)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 8 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1921261161,2
    C--145655931(+) ATAACA/GTGGGA 1 -- int10--------
    rs1412878121,2
    C--145655968(+) AGGCTA/GTGCCC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1469843501,2
    C--145656132(+) CCTGGC/TCCAGC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1840219551,2
    --145656164(+) CCAGAC/GAGCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1885082821,2
    --145656303(+) GCCTTA/CCAGGG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1476404681,2
    --145656368(+) AGGAGA/GAGCTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1409042381,2
    C--145656568(+) CAAACA/GGAGTG 1 -- int10--------
    rs1500834681,2
    --145656606(+) AGGTGC/TACCAC 1 -- int10--------
    rs1142980421,2
    C,F--145656632(+) AGGGAG/ACAGAG 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.06WA 118
    rs1153628731,2
    F--145656637(+) GCAGAG/ATCCCC 1 -- int11Minor allele frequency- A:0.03WA 118

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TONSL (145654163 - 145669827 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for TONSL (see all 31):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2738066CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv907n27CNV Loss19166990
    dgv7966n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7977n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7976n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv891841CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7978n71CNV Loss21882294
    dgv7974n71CNV Loss21882294
    nsv891846CNV Loss21882294
    nsv891817CNV Loss21882294

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 604546    OMIM disorders: --

    7 diseases for TONSL:    
    About MalaCards
    psoriasis    t-cell leukemia    atherosclerosis    malaria
    endotheliitis    breast cancer    leukemia


    TONSL for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    2 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TONSL gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    necrosis 2.41 1 7796813 (1)
    tumors 0 1 7796813 (1)


    Export disorders for TONSL gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TONSL gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 48):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TONSL)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Isolation, sequence, and chromosomal localisation of the human IkappaBR gene (NFKBIL2). (PubMed id 11246458)1, 2, 3 Norman D.A. and Barton P.J. (Ann. Hum. Genet. 2000)
    2. Cloning of a differentially expressed I kappa B-related protein. (PubMed id 7738005)1, 2, 3 Ray P.... Ray A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1995)
    3. The MMS22L-TONSL complex mediates recovery from replication stress and homologous recombination. (PubMed id 21055983)1, 2 O'Donnell L.... Durocher D. (Mol. Cell 2010)
    4. A genome-wide camptothecin sensitivity screen identifies a mammalian MMS22L-NFKBIL2 complex required for genomic stability. (PubMed id 21055985)1, 2 O'Connell B.C.... Harper J.W. (Mol. Cell 2010)
    5. Identification of the MMS22L-TONSL complex that promotes homologous recombination. (PubMed id 21055984)1, 2 Duro E.... Rouse J. (Mol. Cell 2010)
    6. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)
    7. Codanin-1, mutated in the anaemic disease CDAI, regulates Asf1 function in S-phase histone supply. (PubMed id 22407294)1 Ask K.... Groth A. (EMBO J. 2012)
    8. Initial characterization of the human central proteome. (PubMed id 21269460)2 Burkard T.R.... Colinge J. (BMC Syst. Biol. 2011)
    9. A directed protein interaction network for investigating intracellular signal transduction. (PubMed id 21900206)1 Vinayagam A....Wanker E.E. (Sci Signal 2011)
    10. Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver. (PubMed id 21988832)1 Wang J....Yang X. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2011)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 4796 HGNC: 7801 AceView: NFKBIL2 Ensembl:ENSG00000160949 euGenes: HUgn4796
    ECgene: TONSL H-InvDB: TONSL

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TONSL Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TONSL gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TONSL

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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