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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

TNP2 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 52
GCID: GC16M011280

Transition Protein 2 (During Histone To Protamine Replacement)

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Transition Protein 2 (During Histone To Protamine Replacement)1 2
TP-22 3
TP22 3
Nuclear Transition Protein 22

External Ids:    HGNC: 119521   Entrez Gene: 71422   Ensembl: ENSG000001782797   OMIM: 1902325   UniProtKB: Q059523   

Export aliases for TNP2 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC16M011135 GC16M011513 GC16M011328 GC16M011269 GC16M011361


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

GeneCards Summary for TNP2 Gene: 
TNP2 (transition protein 2 (during histone to protamine replacement)) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TNP2 include male infertility, and infertility. GO annotations related to this gene include DNA binding and metal ion binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: STP2_HUMAN, Q05952
Function: In the elongating spermatids of mammals, the conversion of nucleosomal chromatin to the compact,
non-nucleosomal form found in the sperm nucleus is associated with the appearance of a small set of basic
chromosomal transition proteins

Gene Wiki entry for TNP2 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000016.9  NC_018927.2  NT_010393.16  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TNP2 gene promoter:
         AML1a   AP-1   STAT3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTNP2 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for TNP2

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat TNP2


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 16p13.13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  16p13.13   HGNC cytogenetic band: 16p13.13

TNP2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TNP2 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 16         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC16M011280:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
11,361,605 bp from pter      End:
11,363,390 bp from pter
Size:
1,786 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: STP2_HUMAN, Q05952 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Nuclear transition protein 2  
Size: 138 amino acids; 15641 Da
Subcellular location: Nucleus. Chromosome
Secondary accessions: Q9NZB0

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TNP2: NX_Q05952

Explore proteomics data for TNP2 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q05952

  • TNP2 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    TNP2 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_005416.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000325738  

    Human Recombinant Protein Products for TNP2: 
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    Novus Biologicals TNP2 Lysate
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for TNP2 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000786nucleosome IEA--
    GO:0005634nucleus IEA--

    TNP2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for TNP2 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for TNP2


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR000678 TP2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q05952

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q05952

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB000678 Nuclear transition protein 2

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: STP2_HUMAN, Q05952
    Similarity: Belongs to the nuclear transition protein 2 family


    TNP2 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: STP2_HUMAN, Q05952
    Function: In the elongating spermatids of mammals, the conversion of nucleosomal chromatin to the compact,
    non-nucleosomal form found in the sperm nucleus is associated with the appearance of a small set of basic
    chromosomal transition proteins

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TNP2:
    transition protein 2 (in haploid spermatogenic cells during transition histone-protamine)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003677DNA binding IEA--
    GO:0046872metal ion binding IEA--
         
    TNP2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         2 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Tnp2):
     normal  reproductive system 

    TNP2 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for TNP2: Tnp2tm1Mzh Tnp2tm1Wen

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for TNP2 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for TNP2

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TNP2 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TNP2 

    miRNA
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    3 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate TNP2:
    hsa-miR-873 hsa-miR-802 hsa-miR-4326
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    Clone
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TNP2


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section



    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for TNP2

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see more details)

    5 Interacting proteins for TNP2 (Q059523 ENSP000003257384) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    PARP2Q9UGN53, ENSP000002504164I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000250416
    PRKACAP176123, ENSP000003095914I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000309591
    PRKACBP226943, ENSP000003597194I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000359719
    PRKACGP226123, ENSP000003664884I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000366488
    PRKCAP172523, ENSP000002843844I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000284384
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/7 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 7):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007275multicellular organismal development IEA--
    GO:0007283spermatogenesis IEA--
    GO:0007339binding of sperm to zona pellucida IEA--
    GO:0007340acrosome reaction IEA--
    GO:0007341penetration of zona pellucida IEA--

    TNP2 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    TNP2 for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for TNP2 (STP2)

    2 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TNP2 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    protamine 90 24 1385303 (3), 8720108 (2), 15452126 (2), 19602509 (1) (see all 12)
    zinc 0 2 17566256 (1), 11513005 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about TNP2 / STP2

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for TNP2 gene: 
    NM_005425.4  

    Unigene Cluster for TNP2:

    Transition protein 2 (during histone to protamine replacement)
    Hs.513349  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_005425
    2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000560751 ENST00000312693(uc002das.3)
    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat TNP2
    3 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate TNP2:
    hsa-miR-873 hsa-miR-802 hsa-miR-4326
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TNP2
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TNP2
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TNP2 (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TNP2
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TNP2 (NM_005425)
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    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TNP2
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of TNP2 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of TNP2 
    Primer
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      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TNP2

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    BC096135.3 BC096136.3 BC096137.1 X63758.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.452739 

    9 AceView cDNA sequences:

    X63758 BX282422 NM_005425 X63759 AA634325 AI220577 AA994994 AA994988 
    AA416961 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TNP2 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      TNP2 embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TTACTATGGT
    TNP2 Expression
    About this image


    TNP2 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/2 selected tissues (see all 2) fully expand
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Elongated Spermatid Seminiferous Tubules
             sperm   
     
     Gonad
             Elongated Spermatid Seminiferous Tubules

    See TNP2 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for TNP2

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.513349

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: STP2_HUMAN, Q05952
    Tissue specificity: Expressed by spermatids (at protein level)

        SABiosciences Custom PCR Arrays for TNP2
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TNP2

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for TNP2 gene from 1/5 species (see all 5)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tnp21 , 5 transition protein 21, 5 65.4(n)1
    50.48(a)1
      16 (5.83 cM)5
    219591  NM_013694.41  NP_038722.31 
     107879365 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TNP2 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TNP2 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
      --

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/127 SNPs in TNP2 are shown (see all 127)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 16 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1932243891,2
    --11361247(+) GAGCCA/CAGCAC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1831588211,2
    --11361344(+) ATCAAC/TAAGTG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1504860821,2
    --11361382(+) GTCACA/GCAGCG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1132000821,2
    C,F--11361473(+) CTGTCG/ATGTTC 1 -- ds50012Minor allele frequency- A:0.11CSA WA 120
    rs1383103441,2
    --11361481(+) TTCTTA/GGGCTA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1496207811,2
    C--11361483(+) CTTGGG/TCTACA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1433575181,2
    --11361487(+) GGCTAC/TATACA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs620235971,2
    --11361539(+) TGTGTA/CCACAT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- C:0.00NA 2
    rs776558661,2
    C,F--11361600(+) AGAGTG/AGACTC 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- A:0.02NA 120
    rs1878823291,2
    --11361644(+) TCTGCA/CCCTGT 1 -- ds50010--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TNP2 (11361605 - 11363390 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for TNP2:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv525548CNV Loss19592680

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TNP2
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TNP2

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 190232    OMIM disorders: --

    7 diseases for TNP2:    About MalaCards
    male infertility    infertility    azoospermia    cholera
    type 1 diabetes    melanoma    leukemia

    2 diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TNP2:
    Male infertility     Infertility

    TNP2 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    2 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TNP2 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    infertility male 68.8 1 16967499 (1)
    infertility 30.3 2 16989827 (1)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TNP2
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TNP2 (6 documents)

    Export disorders for TNP2 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for TNP2 gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 64):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TNP2)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The genes for protamine 1 and 2 (PRM1 and PRM2) and transition protein 2 (TNP2) are closely linked in the mammalian genome. (PubMed id 1395729)1, 3, 9 Engel W....Schluter G. (1992)
    2. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and mutation analyses of the TNP1 and TNP2 genes of fertile and infertile human male populations. (PubMed id 16291974)1, 4, 9 Miyagawa Y.... Tanaka H. (2005)
    3. Linkage of human spermatid-specific basic nuclear protein genes. Definition and evolution of the P1-->P2-->TP2 locus. (PubMed id 8428967)1, 2, 9 Nelson J.E. and Krawetz S.A. (1993)
    4. The gene for human transition protein 2: nucleotide sequence, assignment to the protamine gene cluster, and evidence for its low expression. (PubMed id 1385303)1, 2, 9 Schluter G.... Engel W. (1992)
    5. Identification of novel polymorphisms in the nuclear protein genes and their relationship with human sperm protamine deficiency and severe male infertility. (PubMed id 16989827)1, 4, 9 Aoki V.W....Carrell D.T. (2006)
    6. Expression of mRNA and protein of nucleoproteins during human spermiogenesis. (PubMed id 9809674)1, 2, 9 Steger K....Bergmann M. (1998)
    7. Evaluation of 172 candidate polymorphisms for associa tion with oligozoospermia or azoospermia in a large cohort of men of European d escent. (PubMed id 20378615)1, 4 Aston K.I....Carrell D.T. (2010)
    8. Investigation of genetic susceptibility factors for h uman longevity - A targeted nonsynonymous SNP study. (PubMed id 20800603)1, 4 Flachsbart F....Nebel A. (2010)
    9. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data identifies additional type 1 diabetes risk loci. (PubMed id 18978792)1, 4 Cooper J.D....Todd J.A. (2008)
    10. Rapid evolution of male reproductive genes in the descent of man. (PubMed id 10659848)1, 2 Wyckoff G.J.... Wu C.-I. (2000)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 7142 HGNC: 11952 AceView: TNP2 Ensembl:ENSG00000178279 euGenes: HUgn7142
    ECgene: TNP2 H-InvDB: TNP2

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TNP2 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for TNP2 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TNP2

    GeneCards and IP:
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    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, SABiosciences, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Gene Editing from DNA2.0 and Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Cell lines from GenScript, and LifeMap BioReagents, PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, and/or Enzo Life Sciences, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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    GeneCards Homepage - Last full update: 23 Oct 2013 - Incrementals: 4 Nov 2013 , 7 Nov 2013 , 23 Jan 2014

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