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TNF Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 73
GCID: GC06P031543

Tumor Necrosis Factor

(Previous names: tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2))
(Previous symbol: TNFA)
  See related diseases

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Tumor Necrosis Factor1 2     Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF Superfamily, Member 2)1
TNFA1 2 3 5     DIF2
Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 22 3     APC1 Protein2
TNF-a2 3     cachectin2
TNF-alpha2 3     TNF, Macrophage-Derived2
TNFSF22 3     TNF, Monocyte-Derived2
Member 21     Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha2
TNF Superfamily1     Cachectin3

External Ids:    HGNC: 118921   Entrez Gene: 71242   Ensembl: ENSG000002328107   OMIM: 1911605   UniProtKB: P013753   

Export aliases for TNF gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC06P031606 GC06P031597 GC06P031314 GC06P031647 GC06P031652 GC06P031330

(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TNF Gene:
This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its
receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of
biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation.
This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance,
and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. (provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for TNF Gene:
TNF (tumor necrosis factor) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TNF include aphthous stomatitis, and vascular dementia. GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and identical protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is FASLG.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TNFA_HUMAN, P01375
Function: Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can
induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by
stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions
it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation
Function: The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells

summary for TNF Gene:
NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types.
It is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in
regulating the immune response to infection. In unstimulated cells NF-kappaB dimers are sequestered
inactively in the cytoplasm by a protein complex called inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB). IkappaB inactivates
NF-kappaB by masking the nuclear localization signals (NLS). Activation of NF-kappaB occurs via degradation
of IkappaB, a process that is initiated by its phosphorylation by IkappaB kinase (IKK). Phosphorylated
IkappaB becomes dissociated from NF-kappaB, unmasking the NLS. Phosphorylation also results in IkappaB
ubiquitination and targeting to the proteasome. NF-kappaB can now enter the nucleus and regulate gene
expression. NF-kappaB turns on expression of IkappaB forming a negative feedback loop.

Gene Wiki entry for TNF (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha) Gene

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000006.12  NC_018917.2  NT_007592.16  NT_113891.3  NT_167244.2  NT_167245.2  NT_167246.2  NT_167247.2  
NT_167248.2  NT_167249.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TNF gene promoter:
         c-Fos   p53   AP-1   ATF-2   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmids (see all 3): TNF promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TNF

DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TNF

Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 6p21.3   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  6p21.33   HGNC cytogenetic band: 6p21.3

TNF Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TNF gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 6         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC06P031543:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

31,543,344 bp from pter      End:
31,546,113 bp from pter
2,770 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

Selected alternative locations (see all 7):
Chr6+,NT_167246 2,886,234-2,888,996      Chr6+,NT_167248 2,836,988-2,839,752      Chr6+,NT_167247 2,923,056-2,925,818     
Chr6+,NT_167249 2,874,151-2,876,913      Chr6+,NT_167244 2,859,024-2,860,830      Chr6+,NT_167245 2,828,891-2,831,653     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TNFA_HUMAN, P01375 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tumor necrosis factor precursor  
Size: 233 amino acids; 25644 Da
Subunit: Homotrimer. Interacts with SPPL2B
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAF71992.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=91, 157; Sequence=CAA75070.1; Type=Erroneous
gene model prediction;
Selected PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for TNF (see all 14):
1A8M (3D)        1TNF (3D)        2AZ5 (3D)        2E7A (3D)        2TUN (3D)        2ZJC (3D)    
Secondary accessions: O43647 Q9P1Q2 Q9UIV3

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TNF: NX_P01375

Explore proteomics data for TNF at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • The soluble form derives from the membrane form by proteolytic processing. The membrane-bound form is further
    proteolytically processed by SPPL2A or SPPL2B through regulated intramembrane proteolysis producing TNF
    intracellular domains (ICD1 and ICD2) released in the cytosol and TNF C-domain 1 and C-domain 2 secreted into the
    extracellular space1
  • The membrane form, but not the soluble form, is phosphorylated on serine residues. Dephosphorylation of the
    membrane form occurs by binding to soluble TNFRSF1A/TNFR11
  • O-glycosylated; glycans contain galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid1
  • Glycosylation2 at Ser80
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TNF Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_000585.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
    Reactome Protein details: P01375

    TNF Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    EMD Millipore Purified and/or Recombinant TNF Protein
    R&D Systems Recombinant & Natural Proteins for TNF (TNF-alpha)
    Enzo Life Sciences proteins for TNF
    OriGene Purified Proteins for TNF
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for TNF
    OriGene MassSpec for TNF
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for TNF
    GenScript Purified and Recombinant Proteins for TNF
    Novus Biologicals TNF Proteins
    Novus Biologicals TNF Lysate
    Sino Biological Recombinant Protein for TNF
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for TNF
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    TNF Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of TNF
    R&D Systems Antibodies for TNF (TNF-alpha)
    OriGene Antibodies for TNF
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for TNF
    Novus Biologicals TNF Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for TNF
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibody for TNF
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for TNF

    TNF Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for TNF
    R&D Systems Flow Cytometry Kits for TNF (TNF-alpha)         (see all)
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for TNF
    Enzo Life Sciences assays for TNF
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    TNFSF: Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 6):
     IPR008064 TNFalpha/TNFSF15
     IPR002959 TNF_alpha
     IPR006052 TNF_dom
     IPR006053 TNF
     IPR008983 Tumour_necrosis_fac-like_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P01375

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P01375

    3 Blocks protein domains:
    IPB002959 Tumour necrosis factor alpha (cachectin) signature
    IPB006052 Tumor Necrosis Factor
    IPB006053 Tumour necrosis factor family signature

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TNFA_HUMAN, P01375
    Similarity: Belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family

    TNF for domains           About GeneDecksing

    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TNFA_HUMAN, P01375
    Function: Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can
    induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by
    stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions
    it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation
    Function: The TNF intracellular domain (ICD) form induces IL12 production in dendritic cells

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TNF:
    tumor necrosis factor,alpha (cachectin),potent proinflammatory cytokine,involved in inflammatory and immune
    responses,stimulating the sphingomyelinase (SMPD1),enhancing insulin resistance in peripheral tissues of cancer
    patients,susceptibility factor for narcolepsy and myasthenia gravis and cardiac sarcoidosis,with a common
    polymorphism in the promoter region (C->A) associated with reduced circulating levels of TNF,mediating neuronal
    death in injured brain (by inducing resistance to the protective effect of IGF1)

    During embryonic development, TNF as signaling molecule affects the following cells:
    Liver: Fetal Hepatocytes (Liver Lobule)

    TNF as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:
    Blood: Mature dendritic-like cells, Dendritic-like cells       to see all 2 cells

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 6):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0002020protease binding IPI12777399
    GO:0005125cytokine activity IDA10748004
    GO:0005164tumor necrosis factor receptor binding IDA14512626
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI11878931
    GO:0042802identical protein binding IDA14512626
    TNF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing

         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for TNF:
     Increased cell death in breast 

         Selected MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 19 alleles(MGI details for Tnf) (see all 24):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial 
     digestive/alimentary  embryogenesis  endocrine/exocrine gland  growth/size/body  hematopoietic system 
     homeostasis/metabolism  immune system  integument  limbs/digits/tail  liver/biliary system 

    TNF for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for TNF: Ltb/TnfLtb/tm1.1Dvk Lta/TnfLta/tm1Eug Tnftm1Jods Lta/TnfLta/tm1Fda Tnftm1Sek Tnftm1Gkl
                                                         Tnftm3Gkl Ltb/Tnf/LtaLtb/Tnf/tm1Dvk Tnftm2.1Gkl Tnftm1Ljo Tnftm1.2Sned Lta/TnfLta/tm1Jods Tnftm2Gkl

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TNF
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for TNF

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TNF
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TNF

    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TNF:
    hsa-mir-203a (MIRT006857)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TNF using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TNF (see all 29):
    hsa-miR-549 hsa-miR-875-3p hsa-miR-181c hsa-miR-3141 hsa-miR-4263 hsa-miR-331-3p hsa-miR-301a hsa-miR-181a-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTNF 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TNF
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TNF

    Gene Editing
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for TNF

    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TNF (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TNF
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TNF (NM_001192)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for TNF
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TNF
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TNF

    Cell Line
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for TNF
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for TNF 
    In Situ Assay

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TNF

    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TNFA_HUMAN, P01375: Cell membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein
    TNFA_HUMAN, P01375: Tumor necrosis factor, membrane form: Membrane; Single-pass type II membrane protein
    TNFA_HUMAN, P01375: Tumor necrosis factor, soluble form: Secreted
    TNFA_HUMAN, P01375: C-domain 1: Secreted
    TNFA_HUMAN, P01375: C-domain 2: Secreted
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    plasma membrane5
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    golgi apparatus1

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected cellular component terms (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001891phagocytic cup ISS--
    GO:0005576extracellular region TAS--
    GO:0005615extracellular space IDA10443688
    GO:0005622intracellular ----
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--

    TNF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TNF About   (see all 99)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathSelected contained pathways About (see all per SuperPath)
    1TWEAK Pathway
    TNFR1 Pathway0.56
    Apoptotic Pathways Triggered By HIV10.42
    TNF Signaling0.55
    Apoptosis through Death Receptors0.42
    Apoptosis and survival TNFR1 signaling pathway0.52
    TWEAK Signaling Pathway0.31
    HIV-1 Nef- Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha0.46
    2Allograft rejection
    Allograft rejection0.86
    Allograft Rejection0.86
    THC Differentiation Pathway0.38
    Type I diabetes mellitus0.69
    Antigen processing and presentation0.36
    Graft-versus-host disease0.65
    3Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade
    Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade0.44
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis0.42
    FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation0.44
    4IL-9 Signaling Pathways
    Immune response IL 9 signaling pathway0.42
    Adipocytokines and Insulin Signaling0.34
    IL-9 Pathway0.36
    5PEDF Induced Signaling
    MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells0.94
    IL-6 Pathway0.61
    MIF Mediated Glucocorticoid Regulation0.94
    STAT3 Pathway0.47
    PEDF Induced Signaling0.73
    Endothelin-1 Signaling Pathway0.46
    all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain0.71
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction0.43

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected R&D Systems Pathways for TNF (see all 8)
        NOD-like Receptor Signaling Pathways
    TNF Superfamily - Human Ligand-Receptor Interactions & their Associated Functions
    Adipocytokines & Insulin Signaling
    Th1 Differentiation
    Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for TNF (see all 50)
        Caspase Cascade
    THC Differentiation Pathway
    14-3-3 Induced Apoptosis
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Antioxidant Action of Vitamin-C

    1 Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Pathway for TNF
        NF-kappaB Signaling

    Selected GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathways for TNF (see all 15)
        Apoptosis and survival Anti-apoptotic TNFs/NF-kB/IAP pathway
    Immune response MIF-mediated glucocorticoid regulation
    Apoptosis and survival Caspase cascade
    Immune response MIF in innate immunity response
    Immune response IL-9 signaling pathway

    Selected BioSystems Pathways for TNF (see all 38)
        MAPK signaling pathway
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy
    Cytokines and Inflammatory Response
    TGF Beta Signaling Pathway

    3 Sino Biological Pathways for TNF
        TNF Signaling
    Death Receptor Signaling
    NF-kB (NFkB) Pathway

    2 Reactome Pathways for TNF
        Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation
    TNF signaling

    Selected Kegg Pathways  (Kegg details for TNF) (see all 45):
        MAPK signaling pathway
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway
    mTOR signaling pathway

    TNF for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TNF (see all 50): 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Lymphoma in human mouse rat


        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TNF

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TNF (P013751, 2, 3 ENSP000003986984) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 154)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    TNFRSF1AP194381, 2, 3, ENSP000001627494EBI-359977,EBI-299451 MINT-48045 MINT-49295 I2D: score=12 STRING: ENSP00000162749
    IKBKGQ9Y6K91, 2, 3EBI-359977,EBI-81279 MINT-8410390 I2D: score=1 
    RBCK1Q9BYM82, 3MINT-8410390 I2D: score=1 
    RNF31Q96EP02, 3MINT-8410390 I2D: score=1 
    TNFAIP3P215802, 3MINT-8410390 I2D: score=1 
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    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 128):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000060protein import into nucleus, translocation IDA16280327
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA15345745
    GO:0000165MAPK cascade IMP--
    GO:0000185activation of MAPKKK activity IDA15310755
    GO:0000187activation of MAPK activity IDA10748004

    TNF for ontologies           About GeneDecksing

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Enzo Life Sciences drugs & compounds for TNF
    3 ApexBio Compounds for TNF     About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    Lenalidomide (CC-5013)TNF-alfa secretion inhibitor with IC50 of 13 nM[191732-72-6]
    Necrostatin-1Necrostatin-1 is a specific RIP1 inhibitor and inhibits TNF-alfa-induced necroptosis with EC50 of 490 nM[4311-88-0]
    Pomalidomide (CC-4047)Pomalidomide, previously known as CC-4047 or actimid, is a potent immunomodulatory molecule that exhibits antineoplastic activity for the treatment of hematological malignancies, especially relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM)[19171-19-8]

    Compounds for TNF available from Tocris Bioscience    About this table
    CompoundAction CAS #
    SC 514IKKbeta inhibitor; attenuates NF-kappaB-induced gene expression[354812-17-2]
    Ro 106-9920Inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation[62645-28-7]
    IMD 0354Inhibitor of IKKbeta[978-62-1]
    CelastrolInhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation[34157-83-0]
    Bay 11-7085Irreversible inhibitor of TNF-alpha-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation[196309-76-9]

    4 HMDB Compounds for TNF    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Butyric acid1-Butyrate (see all 25)107-92-616142751
    AtorvastatinAtorvastatin acid (see all 4)134523-00-5--
    Glucosamine2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (see all 10)3416-24-8--
    Simvastatin(+)-Simvastatin (see all 28)79902-63-9--

    Selected DrugBank Compounds for TNF (see all 12)    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    Infliximab-- 170277-31-3targetinhibitor15691299 16622728 11752352 15691217 12110154 17642244 15481318 16052578 16456024 15674127 15804598
    Adalimumab-- 331731-18-1targetantibody11752352 15200343 12044041 14532145 15022409 15046527
    EtanerceptCD120b (see all 7)185243-69-0targetantibody10375846 10206649 10405518 10338381 11752352 10357816
    Thalidomidealpha-phthalimidoglutarimide (see all 5)50-35-1targetinhibitor12167383 12105857 12046682 12113124 11752352 12102294
    AmrinoneAmrinona [inn-spanish] (see all 4)60719-84-8targetinhibitor1611705 10444479 10075051 11805217 11969359
    ChloroquineChloraquine (see all 6)54-05-7target--16418198 16761500 17456179 16870179 16670522
    Clenbuterol-- 37148-27-9targetother/unknown10071758 15021963 17139543 16261833 11193379
    Glucosamine-- 3416-24-8target--16431966 16469053 16445576 12244074 15930455
    Pranlukast-- 103177-37-3targetother/unknown17430359 12801315 12801316
    Certolizumab pegol-- 428863-50-7targetneutralizer23620660

    Selected Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TNF gene (see all 141)    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    infliximab 92.6 1681 16095114 (7), 11961039 (7), 12632433 (7), 15538942 (6) (see all 99)
    etanercept 92 1158 11961039 (8), 19188093 (5), 15005015 (5), 20443835 (5) (see all 99)
    adalimumab 89.5 487 11730333 (10), 19188093 (4), 17343250 (3), 17502862 (3) (see all 99)
    endotoxin 87.3 2305 8687293 (8), 1643887 (7), 9185243 (7), 1770269 (7) (see all 99)
    rantes 83.7 975 16466762 (6), 12663241 (6), 9527395 (6), 12388374 (5) (see all 99)
    pge2 79.9 2340 9298541 (9), 8388910 (8), 1836009 (8), 2378446 (7) (see all 99)
    il 10 79.5 347 19771178 (7), 11166831 (5), 15800006 (5), 12719394 (5) (see all 99)
    pentoxifylline 78.4 990 8189599 (9), 1385797 (8), 7589090 (7), 9486396 (6) (see all 99)
    nitric oxide 76.3 4152 7706743 (11), 8046239 (9), 11566624 (9), 1517576 (8) (see all 99)
    abatacept 74.2 77 19916731 (4), 18590608 (4), 17057043 (3), 18670735 (3) (see all 42)

    5 PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for TNF gene    About this table
    Drug/compound PharmGKB Annotation

    TNF for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TNF gene: 

    Unigene Cluster for TNF:

    Tumor necrosis factor
    Hs.241570  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_000594
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000449264(uc003nui.3 uc003nuj.3)
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TNF using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TNF (see all 29):
    hsa-miR-549 hsa-miR-875-3p hsa-miR-181c hsa-miR-3141 hsa-miR-4263 hsa-miR-331-3p hsa-miR-301a hsa-miR-181a-2*
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTNF 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TNF
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TNF
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TNF (see all 6)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TNF
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TNF (NM_001192)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TNF
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TNF
    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for TNF
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TNF
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TNF
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TNF
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TNF

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB451492.1 AF043342.1 AF098751.1 AJ227911.1 AK314960.1 BC028148.1 FJ795028.1 HQ201306.2 
    M10988.1 X01394.1 

    6 DOTS entries:

    DT.447264  DT.75172441  DT.100717788  DT.121394302  DT.40132506  DT.95165288 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 68):

    CA307225 BM831593 BM844832 CA310368 NM_000594 BM762686 BM842415 CD364761 
    BC028148 X01394 BG232086 M10988 BI910312 CA307429 CD367625 CD366187 
    CD368116 CA308256 CD368929 AI088239 BI908079 CD367794 CA748748 CD367664 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TNF expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    TNF Expression
    About this image

    TNF expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 10) fully expand
     Blood (Cardiovascular System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Kupffer Cells Sinusoids
             Angiogenic cell precursor
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
             Kupffer Cells Sinusoids
     Epithelial Cells
             Duct Cells Pancreatic Ducts
     NULL (Uncategorized)
             Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and adipocytes (HiQCell)
     Zygote (Early Embryonic Tissues)
             8-Cell Embryo Morula
    TNF Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TNF Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.241570
        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TNF (see all 50): 
              Lung Cancer in human mouse rat
              Antiviral Response in human mouse rat
              Multiple Sclerosis in human mouse rat
              Wound Healing in human mouse rat
              Lymphoma in human mouse rat

    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for TNF
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TNF
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TNF
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TNF
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TNF
    In Situ
    Assay Products:

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TNF

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for TNF gene from Selected species (see all 9)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    Gene Description Human
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tnf1 , 5 tumor necrosis factor1, 5 82.9(n)1
      17 (18.59 cM)5
    219261  NM_013693.31  NP_038721.11 
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    Uncharacterized protein
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia tnf1 tumor necrosis factor 50.43(n)
      100134991  NM_001113671.1  NP_001107143.1 
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tnfa6
    tumor necrosis factor a (TNF superfamily, member 2...
    tumor necrosis factor b (TNF superfamily, member 2...
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    19(27505097-27509684) ENSDARG00000009511
    15(33995840-33998916) ENSDARG00000013598

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TNF (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TNF (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TNF gene
    FASLG2  TNFSF152  LTA2  TNFSF142  
    2 SIMAP similar genes for TNF using alignment to 4 protein entries:     TNFA_HUMAN (see all proteins):
    LTA    FASLG

    TNF for paralogs           About GeneDecksing

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TNFA_HUMAN, P01375: Genetic variations in TNF influence susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection [MIM:610424]
    TNFA_HUMAN, P01375: Genetic variations in TNF are involved in susceptibility to malaria [MIM:611162]

    Selected SNPs for TNF (see all 131)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    Chr 6 posSequence#AA
    C,F,H--31459428(+) CCCCCC/ACTTAA 1 -- us2k135Minor allele frequency- A:0.14NS MN NA EA WA 4098
    C,F--31459428(+) CCCCCC/ACTTAA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.15NS 158
    C,F--31459434(+) CTTAAC/TGAAGA 1 -- us2k130Minor allele frequency- T:0.09NS MN NA EA WA 2962
    C,F,H--31459485(+) AGGACC/TTCCAG 1 -- us2k17Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NS EA NA 808
    C,F,H--31459509(+) GGGACG/ATTTAA 1 -- us2k19Minor allele frequency- A:0.00MN NS EA 804
    C,F,H--31459532(+) ACACAC/ATGGGG 1 -- us2k16Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NS EA 740
    C,H--31459607(-) ATGCTG/TGTTTC 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NS EA 406
    C--31459643(-) AGGCCC/TTCTTC 1 -- us2k10--------
    C,F--31459645(+) AGAAGG/ACCTGC 1 -- us2k13Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NS NA 332
    C,F--31459719(+) CTGCTA/CCCCCC 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- C:0.02NS NA 334

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TNF (31543344 - 31546113 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for TNF:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv830627CNV Loss17160897
    nsv462870CNV Loss19166990
    nsv470809CNV Loss18288195
    nsv884418CNV Gain21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TNF
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TNF
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TNF

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 191160   
    OMIM disorders: 611162  600807  157300  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TNFA_HUMAN, P01375
  • Psoriatic arthritis (PSORAS) [MIM:607507]: An inflammatory, seronegative arthritis associated with
    psoriasis. It is a heterogeneous disorder ranging from a mild, non-destructive disease to a severe, progressive,
    erosive arthropathy. Five types of psoriatic arthritis have been defined: asymmetrical oligoarthritis
    characterized by primary involvement of the small joints of the fingers or toes; asymmetrical arthritis which
    involves the joints of the extremities; symmetrical polyarthritis characterized by a rheumatoid like pattern that
    can involve hands, wrists, ankles, and feet; arthritis mutilans, which is a rare but deforming and destructive
    condition; arthritis of the sacroiliac joints and spine (psoriatic spondylitis). Note=Disease susceptibility is
    associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry

  • 757 diseases for TNF (see first 20):    
    About MalaCards
    aphthous stomatitis    vascular dementia    migraine without aura    septic shock
    magic syndrome    mycobacterium chelonae    meliodosis    periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis
    new daily-persistent headache    stomatitis    uveitis    cerebral malaria
    toxic shock syndrome    tuberculoid leprosy    mucocutaneous leishmaniasis    visual agnosia
    tuberculous uveitis    adult pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis    central nervous system vasculitis    punctate inner choroidopathy
    pediatric ulcerative colitis    central nervous system leukemia    mycobacterium marinum    hepatosplenic t-cell lymphoma
    dissecting cellulitis of the scalp    pityriasis lichenoides    oral tuberculosis    epidural abscess
    lymphangiosarcoma    miller fisher syndrome    panuveitis    melkersson-rosenthal syndrome
    staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome    actinic prurigo    idiopathic recurrent pericarditis    maternally inherited leigh syndrome
    aspiration pneumonitis    spondylarthropathy    foot drop    benign migratory glossitis
    granulomatous dermatitis    cryptogenic organizing pneumonia    normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis    tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome
    ulcerative colitis    vasculitis    cellulitis    spermatocele
    granuloma annulare    hiv1 infection    calcinosis    complex regional pain syndrome
    cat-scratch disease    glossitis    branch retinal artery occlusion    farmer's lung
    familial tumoral calcinosis    endotoxin hyporesponsiveness    complex regional pain syndrome type 1    refractory anemia
    alcoholic hepatitis    hemorrhagic fever    pleural tuberculosis    charcot-marie-tooth neuropathy type 2a
    bagassosis    paresthesia    refractory anemia with excess blasts    hiv-1 viremia
    adult dermatomyositis    graft versus host disease    coronary aneurysm    clonorchiasis
    generalized pustular psoriasis    multifocal choroiditis    streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome    cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome
    cold agglutinin disease    hyper-igd syndrome    autoimmune encephalitis    multicentric reticulohistiocytosis
    blau syndrome    granulocytopenia    lymphocytic vasculitis    idiopathic achalasia
    burns    bell's palsy    erysipelas    retinal vasculitis
    bullous skin disease    monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance    intermediate uveitis    radiation proctitis
    asthma    sarcoidosis    listeriosis    pharyngitis
    melancholia    rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis    sapho syndrome    schnitzler syndrome
    palindromic rheumatism    mycobacterium avium complex disease    rheumatoid vasculitis    vulvar vestibulitis syndrome
    mycobacterium abscessus    amyloidosis, secondary    leishmaniasis    compartment syndrome
    orchitis    alopecia universalis    sympathetic ophthalmia    achalasia
    scleritis    stenotrophomonas maltophilia    parametritis    common variable immune deficiency
    malaria, severe    large granular lymphocyte leukemia    dengue disease    t-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia
    leukostasis    perinatal necrotizing enterocolitis    cysticercosis    multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
    nephropathia epidemica    paine syndrome    biotin deficiency    humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy
    idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis    arthus reaction    microscopic colitis    pericarditis
    skin disease    cutaneous lupus erythematosus    pulpitis    burning mouth syndrome
    severe hemophilia a    weill-marchesani syndrome    sle susceptibility    subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus
    tuberculosis    intestinal disease    retinal artery occlusion    spondylitis
    langerhans-cell histiocytosis    thyroid lymphoma    hepatitis d    crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever
    plasmodium vivax malaria    dengue shock syndrome    proctitis    posterior uveitis
    leprosy    demyelinating polyneuropathy    familial mediterranean fever    monocytic leukemia
    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis    coronary restenosis    lymphatic system disease    epstein-barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma
    pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus    eales disease    chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy    polyneuropathy
    endophthalmitis    chorioamnionitis    cardiac sarcoidosis    aseptic meningitis
    acute disseminated encephalomyelitis    aids dementia complex    post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease    cytomegalovirus retinitis
    tuberculous meningitis    hepatorenal syndrome    systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis    familial partial lipodystrophy
    intervertebral disc disease    early-onset schizophrenia    alveolar echinococcosis    cicatricial pemphigoid
    cheilitis    actinic cheilitis    acute myelomonocytic leukemia    ocular cicatricial pemphigoid
    extrinsic allergic alveolitis    idiopathic neutropenia    insulin resistance    classic kaposi sarcoma
    periapical granuloma    intracranial hypertension    adult respiratory distress syndrome    coronary artery aneurysm
    carotid intimal medial thickness    acute graft versus host disease    pneumonia    metabolic syndrome x
    meningitis    charcot-marie-tooth neuropathy type 2    hidradenitis suppurativa    hidradenitis
    periodontitis    subacute thyroiditis    periventricular leukomalacia    lepromatous leprosy
    primary progressive multiple sclerosis    intrauterine infections    leukomalacia    rheumatic disease
    erythema multiforme    retinal ischemia    malaria    paratyphoid fever
    histiocytosis    sialadenitis    systolic heart failure    omenn syndrome
    pouchitis    drug-induced hepatitis    dermatitis    trachoma
    cryptococcosis    cardiogenic shock    panniculitis    renovascular hypertension
    septic arthritis    diabetic polyneuropathy    meningococcal infection    poems syndrome
    collagen disease    asbestosis    pyoderma gangrenosum    microscopic polyangiitis
    autoimmune myocarditis    histoplasmosis    obstructive lung disease    psoriasis
    peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor    psoriatic arthritis    critical limb ischemia    tendinopathy
    spotted fever    pyoderma    diffuse panbronchiolitis    echinococcosis
    meningoencephalitis    encephalomyelitis    alopecia    multiple sclerosis
    acute pyelonephritis    acrodermatitis    poliomyelitis    lymphocytic choriomeningitis
    preterm premature rupture of the membranes    cerebral aneurysms    cerebritis    ehrlichiosis
    bronchogenic carcinoma    molluscum contagiosum    lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome    onchocerciasis
    hepatitis    liver disease    congenital heart block    pemphigus
    ankylosing spondylitis    myotonic dystrophy type 1    progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy    fascioliasis
    thoracic aortic aneurysm    eosinophilic pneumonia    herpes zoster    rheumatic fever
    paracoccidioidomycosis    autoimmune pancreatitis    avian influenza    dermatitis herpetiformis
    short bowel syndrome    neonatal jaundice    desmoid tumor    sepsis
    alk-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma    epithelioid sarcoma    paranoid schizophrenia    ocular melanoma
    membranous glomerulonephritis    lymphadenitis    hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome    glomerulonephritis
    pemphigus foliaceus    adult-onset still's disease    bacterial vaginosis    iron deficiency anemia
    nonalcoholic steatohepatitis    lupus erythematosus    polymyalgia rheumatica    behcet's disease
    chronic venous leg ulcers    tooth agenesis    hypertension    allergic encephalomyelitis
    severe pre-eclampsia    hepatic encephalopathy    oral submucous fibrosis    nervous system disease
    fasciitis    deficiency anemia    mixed connective tissue disease    systemic lupus erythematosus
    q fever    severe congenital neutropenia    headache    back pain
    newcastle disease    cryoglobulinemia    aortic aneurysm    retinal vein occlusion
    nephrosis    migraine    leukemia    silicosis
    toxic epidermal necrolysis    intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy    filariasis    takayasu's arteritis
    anterior uveitis    periodontal disease    food allergy    pre-eclampsia
    pleurisy    h. pylori infection    subacute sclerosing panencephalitis    ileus
    dermatomyositis    arthritis    typhoid fever    stevens-johnson syndrome
    optic neuritis    pyelonephritis    lichen sclerosus    glucocorticoid resistance
    eclampsia    dementia    crescentic glomerulonephritis    pneumoconiosis
    klebsiella    cholecystitis    middle ear cholesteatoma    autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    intrahepatic cholestasis    varicose veins    rheumatoid arthritis    ovarian epithelial cancer
    fabry disease    bacterial meningitis    congenital hypothyroidism    brucellosis
    spondyloarthropathy    arthropathy    crohn's disease    acute monocytic leukemia
    japanese encephalitis    lipodystrophy    acute liver failure    agnosia
    mouth disease    pulmonary sarcoidosis    cholesteatoma    obesity
    hepatitis e    atrophic gastritis    agammaglobulinemia    breast cancer
    vesicoureteral reflux    sleep disorder    neuritis    t-cell leukemia
    bulimia nervosa    juvenile rheumatoid arthritis    alcoholic liver cirrhosis    guillain-barre syndrome
    paget's disease of bone    gingivitis    lyme disease    arteriovenous malformation
    appendicitis    aortic valve stenosis    plasmodium falciparum malaria    cholestasis
    reactive arthritis    myocarditis    chronic granulomatous disease    synovitis
    retinopathy of prematurity    legionellosis    alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency    primitive neuroectodermal tumor
    osteomyelitis    bronchiolitis obliterans    mumps    pancreatitis
    kaposi's sarcoma    macroglobulinemia    contact dermatitis    gingival overgrowth
    pulmonary edema    waldenstrom macroglobulinemia    chronic graft versus host disease    hepatitis a
    duodenal ulcer    angiomyolipoma    pemphigus vulgaris    hyperuricemia
    gastroduodenitis    allergic contact dermatitis    familial combined hyperlipidemia    obstructive jaundice
    relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis    klinefelter's syndrome    retinal detachment    cutaneous leishmaniasis
    west nile virus    end stage renal failure    hiv-1    lipoma
    hemophilia    neuropathy    hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis    thyroiditis
    inflammatory bowel disease    bronchiolitis    leptospirosis    lymphoid leukemia
    tuberous sclerosis complex    connective tissue disease    febrile seizures    myotonic dystrophy
    hairy cell leukemia    urethritis    hemolytic anemia    bacteremia
    hepatitis c    disseminated intravascular coagulation    mastitis    portal hypertension
    visceral leishmaniasis    bronchiectasis    childhood leukemia    wilson disease
    proliferative vitreoretinopathy    obsessive-compulsive disorder    duodenitis    focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
    hemolytic-uremic syndrome    adenocarcinoma    primary hyperparathyroidism    balanitis
    bipolar i disorder    aggressive periodontitis    osteopetrosis    aspergillosis
    pulmonary tuberculosis    fibromyalgia    alopecia areata    peptic ulcer
    irritable bowel syndrome    hyperandrogenism    congenital diaphragmatic hernia    pterygium
    retinitis    anoxia    essential thrombocythemia    gaucher's disease
    cholangitis    sclerosing cholangitis    rubella    merkel cell carcinoma
    esophagitis    adrenoleukodystrophy    peripheral t-cell lymphoma    primary sclerosing cholangitis
    tuberous sclerosis    leukodystrophy    antiphospholipid syndrome    gastritis
    gastric ulcer    differentiating neuroblastoma    wegener's granulomatosis    hyperparathyroidism
    familial hypercholesterolemia    sarcoma    bronchopulmonary dysplasia    leukemia/lymphoma, t-cell
    hypothyroidism    hypercalcemia    angina pectoris    cystitis
    respiratory failure    motor neuron disease    keratitis    pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive
    breast disease    kidney cancer    sudden infant death syndrome    human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease
    cerebral palsy    neutropenia    breast adenocarcinoma    hepatitis b virus infection
    leukopenia    chronic fatigue syndrome    otitis media    ectodermal dysplasia
    sleep apnea    common variable immunodeficiency    proliferative diabetic retinopathy    cervicitis
    lactic acidosis    acromegaly    biliary atresia    intracranial aneurysm
    squamous cell carcinoma    myelofibrosis    growth hormone deficiency    bronchitis
    multiple system atrophy    werner syndrome    oral lichen planus    glaucoma
    influenza    open-angle glaucoma    hepatopulmonary syndrome    severe acute respiratory syndrome
    lichen planus    acute lymphocytic leukemia    prostatitis    diphtheria
    viral hepatitis    congestive heart failure    kawasaki disease    primary open angle glaucoma
    diabetic retinopathy    glucose intolerance    bullous pemphigoid    aplastic anemia
    obesity, association with    cerebrovascular disease    toxic encephalopathy    autoimmune hepatitis
    sickle cell anemia    giant cell tumor    hemochromatosis    duchenne muscular dystrophy
    pregnancy loss    pandas    interstitial lung disease    dengue hemorrhagic fever
    soft tissue sarcoma    gallbladder cancer    diabetes mellitus    urticaria
    ischemia    smallpox    fatty liver disease    hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    schistosomiasis    osteoarthritis    gestational diabetes    liver cirrhosis
    uremia    neuroblastoma    eye disease    tetanus
    polymyositis    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome    hepatitis b    kidney disease
    cervical intraepithelial neoplasia    acute pancreatitis    melanoma    allergic asthma
    venous thromboembolism    endocarditis    myasthenia gravis    amyloidosis
    acne    hemangioma    toxoplasmosis    acute leukemia
    trypanosomiasis    cutaneous malignant melanoma    neuronitis    patent ductus arteriosus
    malignant pleural mesothelioma    oligodendroglioma    hypertriglyceridemia    fibrosarcoma
    ischemic heart disease    hypercholesterolemia    morbid obesity    hypersensitivity reaction type ii disease
    sickle cell disease    hyperthyroidism    thromboembolism    thalassemia
    anaplastic large cell lymphoma    schizophrenia    hypogonadism    neurologic diseases
    autoimmune thyroiditis    sensorineural hearing loss    purpura    encephalitis
    vitiligo    venous thrombosis    traumatic brain injury    follicular lymphoma
    spinal cord injury    atherosclerosis    cytomegalovirus infection    idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    hypoglycemia    testicular germ cell tumor    vaginitis    ataxia telangiectasia
    thrombocytopenia    abdominal aortic aneurysm    pulmonary fibrosis    lupus nephritis
    insulinoma    cutaneous t cell lymphoma    stomach cancer    type 1 diabetes
    peripheral neuropathy    adenoiditis    chagas disease    polycystic kidney disease
    primary biliary cirrhosis    myeloid leukemia    adult t-cell leukemia    mood disorder
    chronic lymphocytic leukemia    nephrotic syndrome    major depressive disorder    polycystic ovary syndrome
    noma    human t-cell leukemia virus type 1    autism spectrum disorder    tonsillitis
    atopy    brain disease    pituitary tumors    osteoporosis
    epididymitis    diarrhea    graves' disease    prader-willi syndrome
    mantle cell lymphoma    neuroendocrine tumor    laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma    scleroderma
    hypertrophic cardiomyopathy    type 1 diabetes mellitus    peritonitis    hepatoblastoma
    gastric adenocarcinoma    acute promyelocytic leukemia    myocardial infarction    chondrosarcoma
    alcohol dependence    nephritis    celiac disease    measles
    rhinitis    laryngitis    narcolepsy    papillary thyroid carcinoma
    allergic rhinitis    burkitt's lymphoma    b-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia    muscular dystrophy
    sjogren's syndrome    germ cell tumors    vascular disease    prostate cancer
    anorexia nervosa    dilated cardiomyopathy    atopic dermatitis    acute myocardial infarction
    gout    hepatitis c virus    leiomyoma    cystic fibrosis
    cataract    brain injury    basal cell carcinoma    age related macular degeneration
    renal cell carcinoma    choriocarcinoma    diffuse large b-cell lymphoma    vaccinia
    pheochromocytoma    rhabdomyosarcoma    colorectal cancer    myeloma
    hyperglycemia    sinusitis    alzheimer's disease    diabetic nephropathy
    coronary artery disease    herpes simplex    lung cancer    wilms tumor
    essential hypertension    chronic myeloid leukemia    endometriosis    hodgkin's lymphoma
    pertussis    colon adenocarcinoma    thyroid cancer    fanconi's anemia
    choroiditis    pulmonary function    multiple myeloma    lateral sclerosis
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis    endotheliitis    coronary heart disease    infertility
    oral cancer    non-hodgkin lymphoma    myelodysplastic syndromes    adenoma
    malignant glioma    cholera    esophageal cancer    b-cell lymphomas
    down syndrome    retinoblastoma    lung adenocarcinoma    myopathy
    acute myeloid leukemia    hepatocellular carcinoma    pancreatic cancer    lymphoblastic leukemia
    blindness    osteosarcoma    nasopharyngitis    lung cancer susceptibility
    parkinson's disease    cholangiocarcinoma    astrocytoma    cervical cancer
    ovarian cancer    ataxia    oral squamous cell carcinoma    esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Selected diseases from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TNF (see all 24):
    Rheumatoid arthritis     Crohn's disease     Cancer     Hypersensitivity reaction type II disease
    Vascular disease     Malaria     Psoriasis     Psoriatic arthritis
    Connective tissue disease     Tuberculosis     Ankylosing spondylitis     Asthma
    Multiple sclerosis     Peritonitis     Diabetes mellitus     Liver disease
    Pneumonia     Ulcerative colitis     Uveitis     Kidney disease

    TNF for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TNF gene (see all 96)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    necrosis 99 80542 15626980 (12), 1595815 (11), 2374209 (11), 10561634 (10) (see all 99)
    tumors 96.4 68579 15626980 (12), 1595815 (11), 2374209 (11), 10561634 (10) (see all 99)
    inflammation 92.2 3272 17482668 (5), 20439544 (5), 7737534 (4), 9042105 (4) (see all 99)
    rheumatoid arthritis 90.1 2641 1802490 (5), 15879156 (4), 8329189 (4), 19560810 (4) (see all 99)
    arthritis psoriatic 79 279 16284098 (4), 9326391 (4), 15838232 (3), 14678719 (3) (see all 99)
    sepsis 78.9 1166 1860332 (7), 15526005 (6), 2064171 (5), 8403981 (5) (see all 99)
    tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome 78.8 119 12352631 (2), 15689926 (2), 18347298 (2), 15492850 (2) (see all 82)
    spondylitis ankylosing 77.7 312 9704649 (4), 15838232 (3), 17414952 (3), 16763453 (3) (see all 99)
    shock septic 77.7 621 9366763 (8), 2285204 (5), 8318801 (5), 10966243 (4) (see all 99)
    arthritis 77.5 684 8033415 (5), 9585810 (5), 7589090 (5), 8222316 (4) (see all 99)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TNF
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TNF (2475 documents)
    Tumor Gene Database (TGDB): TNF

    Export disorders for TNF gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TNF gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 17174):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TNF)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A polymorphism that affects OCT-1 binding to the TNF promoter region is associated with severe malaria. (PubMed id 10369255)1, 2, 4, 9 Knight J.C.... Kwiatkowski D. (Nat. Genet. 1999)
    2. Association of TNF-alpha promoter polymorphisms with the clearance of hepatitis B virus infection. (PubMed id 12915457)1, 2, 4 Kim Y.J.... Shin H.D. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2003)
    3. Cytokine gene polymorphisms: association with psoriatic arthritis susceptibility and severity. (PubMed id 12746914)1, 2, 4 Balding J.... FitzGerald O. (Arthritis Rheum. 2003)
    4. Human tumour necrosis factor: precursor structure, expression and homology to lymphotoxin. (PubMed id 6392892)1, 2, 3 Pennica D.... Goeddel D.V. (Nature 1984)
    5. The tumor necrosis factor polymorphism TNF (-308) is associated with susceptibility to meningococcal sepsis, but not with lethality. (PubMed id 19242354)1, 4, 9 Read R.C....Wilson A.G. (Crit. Care Med. 2009)
    6. Association between the level of circulating bioactive tumor necrosis factor alpha and the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphism at -308 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. (PubMed id 18438841)1, 4, 9 Marotte H....Miossec P. (Arthritis Rheum. 2008)
    7. TNF polymorphism and bronchoalveolar lavage cell TNF-alpha levels in chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization. (PubMed id 17208287)1, 4, 9 Sato H....Maier L.A. (J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2007)
    8. TNF-alpha gene promoter polymorphism at nucleotide -308 and the inflammatory response and oxidative stress induced by cardiac surgery: role of heart failure and medical treatment. (PubMed id 18450464)1, 4, 9 GaliA+anes M....Hadjinikolaou L. (Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2008)
    9. TNFalpha genotype affects TNFalpha release, insulin sensitivity and the severity of liver disease in HCV chronic hepatitis. (PubMed id 16143422)1, 4, 9 Valenti L....Fargion S. (J. Hepatol. 2005)
    10. Association of bladder tumors and GA genotype of -308 nucleotide in tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter with greater tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression. (PubMed id 15533517)1, 4, 9 Jeong P....Kim W.J. (Urology 2004)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    Free Text  

      Query String
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 7124 HGNC: 11892 AceView: TNF Ensembl:ENSG00000232810 euGenes: HUgn7124
    ECgene: TNF Kegg: 7124 H-InvDB: TNF

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    PharmGKB entry for TNF Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for TNF Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TNF gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TNF

    Licensable Technologies for TNF gene:
    Weizmann Institute:Novel anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents based on oleyl alcohols
    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search

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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Animal models from inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway)
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