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TMEM27 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 52
GCID: GC0XM015646

Transmembrane Protein 27

  See TMEM27-related disease
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Transmembrane Protein 271 2 3
collectrin1 2
NX172 5
NX-172
Kidney-Specific Membrane Protein2

External Ids:    HGNC: 294371   Entrez Gene: 573932   Ensembl: ENSG000001470037   OMIM: 3006315   UniProtKB: Q9HBJ83   

Export aliases for TMEM27 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC0XM015007 GC0XM015405 GC0XM015555 GC0XM013399


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TMEM27 Gene:
This gene encodes a type 1 transmembrane protein that is important for trafficking amino acid transporters to the
apical brush border of proximal tubules. The encoded protein binds to amino acid transporters and regulates their
expression on the plasma membrane. It also plays a role in controlling insulin exocytosis by regulating formation
of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor) complex in pancreatic beta
cells. The extracellular domain of the encoded protein may be cleaved and shed from the plasma membrane
specifically in pancreatic beta cells. (provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013)

GeneCards Summary for TMEM27 Gene:
TMEM27 (transmembrane protein 27) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TMEM27 include hartnup disease. GO annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and peptidyl-dipeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACE.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMM27_HUMAN, Q9HBJ8
Function: Regulator of SNARE complex function. Stimulator of beta cell replication




(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000023.10  NC_018934.2  NT_167197.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TMEM27 gene promoter:
         c-Fos   AP-1   CUTL1   Nkx5-1   Evi-1   GATA-1   RORalpha2   FOXO4   HFH-1   c-Jun   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTMEM27 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TMEM27

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TMEM27


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: Xp22   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  Xp22.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: Xp22

TMEM27 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TMEM27 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome X         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC0XM015646:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
15,645,441 bp from pter      End:
15,683,154 bp from pter
Size:
37,714 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMM27_HUMAN, Q9HBJ8 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Collectrin precursor  
Size: 222 amino acids; 25235 Da
Subunit: Homodimer (By similarity). Associates with SLC6A18 (By similarity). Interacts with SNAPIN
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAQ89419.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=207;
Secondary accessions: B2R9M1 Q6UW07

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TMEM27: NX_Q9HBJ8

Explore proteomics data for TMEM27 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylated (By similarity)1
  • The extracellular domain is cleaved and released from the cell membrane of pancreatic beta cells (By similarity)1
  • Glycosylation2 at Asn76, Asn93
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TMEM27 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_065716.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000369699  

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR001548 Peptidase_M2

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9HBJ8

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9HBJ8

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMM27_HUMAN, Q9HBJ8
    Similarity: Belongs to the TMEM27 family


    Find genes that share domains with TMEM27           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TMM27_HUMAN, Q9HBJ8
    Function: Regulator of SNARE complex function. Stimulator of beta cell replication

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI16330323
    GO:0008237metallopeptidase activity IEA--
    GO:0008241peptidyl-dipeptidase activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TMEM27           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for TMEM27:
     Increased HPV18 LCR reporter a 

         7 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 2 alleles(MGI details for Tmem27):
     adipose tissue  behavior/neurological  cellular  growth/size/body  homeostasis/metabolism 
     muscle  renal/urinary system 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with TMEM27           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for TMEM27: Tmem27tm1.1Pngr Tmem27tm1Thu

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TMEM27
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       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TMEM27
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TMEM27

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TMM27_HUMAN, Q9HBJ8: Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein (Potential)
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane3
    endoplasmic reticulum1
    extracellular1
    lysosome1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA16330323
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane IEA--
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA19056867

    Find genes that share ontologies with TMEM27           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TMEM27
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TMEM27

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    1 Interacting protein for TMEM27 (ENSP000003696994) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    RBM18ENSP000004093154STRING: ENSP00000409315
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006508proteolysis ----
    GO:0035543positive regulation of SNARE complex assembly IDA16330323
    GO:0035774positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus IDA16330323
    GO:0045956positive regulation of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis IDA16330323

    Find genes that share ontologies with TMEM27           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TMEM27 (TMM27)



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TMEM27 gene: 
    NM_020665.5  

    Unigene Cluster for TMEM27:

    Transmembrane protein 27
    Hs.129614  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC014317
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000380342(uc004cxc.2)
    miRNA
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF229179.1 AK313835.1 AY359060.1 BC014317.1 BC015099.1 BC050606.1 

    7 DOTS entries:

    DT.202718  DT.121314624  DT.91766823  DT.102823265  DT.121314632  DT.121314666  DT.91655565 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 101):

    CB139939 BG429174 CB133561 AI373739 CB137251 CB137859 AI253234 AI985237 
    CB125058 BG564304 CB163923 BC015099 AF229179 CB134037 AA999850 CB139945 
    BC050606 AY359060 AI650909 CB139958 BG427839 CB133508 AI792241 AI911520 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TMEM27 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: TGGTATTTGT
    TMEM27 Expression
    About this image


    TMEM27 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 10) fully expand
     
     Pancreas (Endocrine System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Endocrine Progenitor Cells Ventral Pancreatic Bud
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Presumptive Podocytes Podocyte Layer
     
     Epithelial Cells
             Presumptive Podocytes Podocyte Layer
     
     Eye (Sensory Organs)
             Type1 Off Cone Bipolar Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
     
     Neurons
             Type1 Off Cone Bipolar Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
    TMEM27 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TMEM27 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.129614

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TMM27_HUMAN, Q9HBJ8
    Tissue specificity: Kidney; collecting ducts. Pancreas; beta cells of islets

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    In Situ
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for TMEM27 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tmem271 , 5 transmembrane protein 271, 5 86.64(n)1
    84.68(a)1
      X (76.12 cM)5
    573941  NM_020626.21  NP_065651.11 
     1640888305 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TMEM271 transmembrane protein 27 67.12(n)
    61.26(a)
      418622  XM_416821.4  XP_416821.4 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TMEM276
    transmembrane protein 27
    60(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    3(121548246-121580468)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia MGC686342 hypothetical protein MGC68634 73.72(n)    BC058203.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii si:dkey-194e6.11 si:dkey-194e6.1 53(n)
    41.94(a)
      402976  NM_001139458.1  NP_001132930.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Ance-26
    Ance-46
    (see all 3)
    Ance-4
    (see all 3)
    1(a)
    1(a)
    (see all 3)
    many → 1
    many → 1
    (see all 3)
    2L(13909640-13911640)
    2R(4927225-4929647)
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea acn-16
    Protein ACN-1, isoform a (acn-1) mRNA, complete cd...
    3(a)
    1 → many
    X(5092281-5097067) WBGene00000039


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TMEM27 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TMEM27 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TMEM27 gene
    ACE2  ENSG000002648132  ACE22  
    1 SIMAP similar gene for TMEM27 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     TMM27_HUMAN:
    ACE2

    Find genes that share paralogs with TMEM27           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TMEM27 (see all 542)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr X posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1926015991,2
    --15560118(+) CCTCAC/TTTCTT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1844627701,2
    --15560193(+) TTGTAC/TGCAAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1891240961,2
    C--15560382(+) AAGGTA/GTCTTC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1811715881,2
    --15560507(+) ATCAGA/TCACAC 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs66539791,2
    C,F,A,H--15560614(+) GCTGAT/CATTCA 1 -- ut31 ese313Minor allele frequency- C:0.09NS EA NA 1332
    rs611703541,2
    C--15560645(+) TGGTGA/TGATAA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1848894741,2
    --15560654(+) AACAGG/TATAAA 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1164195801,2
    C--15560678(+) TATGAA/GTAATT 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1890210031,2
    --15560694(+) TTTATA/CCATCC 1 -- ut310--------
    rs1424234711,2
    C--15560743(+) ATATAC/TAGAGT 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TMEM27 (15645441 - 15683154 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for TMEM27:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    dgv2439e1CNV Complex17122850

    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): TMEM27

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TMEM27
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TMEM27

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 300631    OMIM disorders: --

    1 disease for TMEM27:    
    About MalaCards
    hartnup disease

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TMEM27:
    Hartnup disease

    Find genes that share disorders with TMEM27           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TMEM27
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TMEM27 (1 document)

    Export disorders for TMEM27 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TMEM27 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 35):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TMEM27)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Collectrin, a collecting duct-specific transmembrane glycoprotein, is a novel homolog of ACE2 and is developmentally regulated in embryonic kidneys. (PubMed id 11278314)1, 2, 3, 9 Zhang H.... Makino H. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001)
    2. Locus heterogeneity of Dent's disease: OCRL1 and TMEM27 genes in patients with no CLCN5 mutations. (PubMed id 19582483)1, 4, 9 Tosetto E....Anglani F. (Pediatr. Nephrol. 2009)
    3. The HNF-1 target collectrin controls insulin exocytosis by SNARE complex formation. (PubMed id 16330323)1, 2 Fukui K.... Yamagata K. (Cell Metab. 2005)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment. (PubMed id 12975309)1, 2 Clark H.F.... Gray A.M. (Genome Res. 2003)
    6. The role of transmembrane protein 27 (TMEM27) in islet physiology and its potential use as a beta cell mass biomarker. (PubMed id 20386877)1, 9 Altirriba J....Gomis R. (Diabetologia 2010)
    7. Collectrin and the kidney. (PubMed id 17693757)1, 9 Mount D.B. (Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 2007)
    8. Not just angiotensinases: new roles for the angiotensin-converting enzymes. (PubMed id 19763395)1, 9 Lambert D.W....Turner A.J. (Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2010)
    9. Multimodal imaging of pancreatic beta cells in vivo by targeting transmembrane protein 27 (TMEM27). (PubMed id 22790173)1 Vats D....Rudin M. (Diabetologia 2012)
    10. Pancreatic islet and progenitor cell surface markers with cell sorting potential. (PubMed id 21947380)1 Hald J....Madsen O.D. (Diabetologia 2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 57393 HGNC: 29437 AceView: TMEM27 Ensembl:ENSG00000147003 euGenes: HUgn57393
    ECgene: TMEM27 H-InvDB: TMEM27

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TMEM27 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TMEM27 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TMEM27

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, eBioscience, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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