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Aliases for TLR3 Gene

Aliases for TLR3 Gene

  • Toll Like Receptor 3 2 3 5
  • Toll-Like Receptor 3 2 3
  • CD283 Antigen 4
  • CD283 3
  • IIAE2 3

External Ids for TLR3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TLR3 Gene

  • GC04P188024
  • GC04P187670
  • GC04P187574
  • GC04P187686
  • GC04P187365
  • GC04P187227
  • GC04P186990
  • GC04P182742

Summaries for TLR3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TLR3 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta and pancreas, and is restricted to the dendritic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It recognizes dsRNA associated with viral infection, and induces the activation of NF-kappaB and the production of type I interferons. It may thus play a role in host defense against viruses. Use of alternative polyadenylation sites to generate different length transcripts has been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TLR3 Gene

TLR3 (Toll Like Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TLR3 include Herpes Simplex Encephalitis 2 and Hiv-1. Among its related pathways are Activated TLR4 signalling and Diseases of Immune System. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and transmembrane signaling receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is ENSG00000173366.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR3 Gene

  • Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.

Tocris Summary for TLR3 Gene

  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single transmembrane cell-surface receptors, which have a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs generally exist as homodimers (heterodimers have been reported) and are found on immune cells; macrophages, B lymphocytes and mast cells.

Gene Wiki entry for TLR3 Gene

Additional gene information for TLR3 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TLR3 Gene

Genomics for TLR3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TLR3 Gene

Enhancers for TLR3 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH04H185835 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.3 -230.2 -230231 6.9 FOXA2 INSM2 ZNF2 ZEB1 ETS1 RCOR1 FOS ZEB2 ZNF843 NR2F2 SORBS2 TLR3 CCDC110 RPSAP70 LOC101928929 ENSG00000207497 GC04M185710
GH04H186028 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 10 -38.4 -38424 4.4 CTCF MAX REST ZIC2 RAD21 NR2F2 YY1 JUND POLR2A POU5F1 TLR3 CFAP97 RNU4-64P
GH04H186143 0.7 ENCODE 10.7 +75.8 75769 1.9 CTCF ZNF76 MAX ZIC2 ZNF2 YY1 ZFHX2 POLR2A ZNF547 PATZ1 FAM149A CYP4V2 TLR3 RPSAP70 ENSG00000253013
GH04H186133 0.5 ENCODE 10.8 +63.9 63930 0.1 CTCF ZNF600 RAD21 TEAD3 FAM149A TLR3 ENSG00000253013 RPSAP70
GH04H186150 0.5 ENCODE 10.7 +81.0 81030 0.2 CTCF ZNF143 RAD21 NR2F2 FAM149A ENSG00000253013 CYP4V2 TLR3 RPSAP70
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TLR3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TLR3 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000177128 -152 1601 TBP CTCF IRF2 TAF1 ARID4B MAX ZNF2 RAD21 YY1 SMC3

Genomic Locations for TLR3 Gene

Genomic Locations for TLR3 Gene
18,918 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TLR3 Gene

Genes around TLR3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TLR3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TLR3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TLR3 Gene

Proteins for TLR3 Gene

  • Protein details for TLR3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Toll-like receptor 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RAI7
    • B7Z7K0
    • E6Y0F0
    • E6Y0F1
    • E9PGH4
    • Q4VAL2
    • Q504W0

    Protein attributes for TLR3 Gene

    904 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    103829 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer and homodimer; dimerization is triggered by ligand-binding, the signaling unit is composed of one ds-RNA of around 40 bp and two TLR3 molecules, and lateral clustering of signaling units along the length of the ds-RNA ligand is required for TLR3 signal transduction. Interacts (via transmembrane domain) with UNC93B1; the interaction is required for transport from the ER to the endosomes. Interacts with SRC; upon binding of double-stranded RNA. Interacts with TICAM1 (via the TIR domain) in response to poly(I:C) and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:25736436). The tyrosine-phosphorylated form (via TIR domain) interacts with WDFY1 (via WD repeat 2) in response to poly(I:C) (PubMed:25736436).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TLR3 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TLR3 Gene


neXtProt entry for TLR3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TLR3 Gene

  • Heavily N-glycosylated, except on that part of the surface of the ectodomain that is involved in ligand binding.
  • TLR3 signaling requires a proteolytic cleavage mediated by cathepsins CTSB and CTSH, the cleavage occurs between amino acids 252 and 346. The cleaved form of TLR3 is the predominant form found in endosomes.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=5252, Asn57, Asn70, Asn124, Asn196, posLast=247247, Asn252, posLast=265265, Asn275, posLast=291291, posLast=398398, posLast=413413, Asn507, posLast=636636, and posLast=662662
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TLR3 Gene

Protein Products

  • Abcam proteins for TLR3

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TLR3 Gene

Domains & Families for TLR3 Gene

Gene Families for TLR3 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • CD markers
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TLR3 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • ds-RNA binding is mediated by LRR 1 to 3, and LRR 17 to 18.
  • Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.
  • ds-RNA binding is mediated by LRR 1 to 3, and LRR 17 to 18.
  • Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TLR3: view

Function for TLR3 Gene

Molecular function for TLR3 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
Drosophila transmembrane receptor Toll homolog 3,with the major transcripts,predominantly expressed in placenta and pancreas,involved in immune defense
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TLR3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TLR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA --
GO:0003725 double-stranded RNA binding NAS 12054664
GO:0004872 receptor activity TAS 10426995
GO:0004888 transmembrane signaling receptor activity NAS 12054664
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16858407
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TLR3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TLR3: view

Animal Models for TLR3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TLR3:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TLR3

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TLR3 Gene

Localization for TLR3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR3 Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Endosome membrane. Early endosome.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TLR3 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
lysosome 5
endosome 5
golgi apparatus 4
extracellular 3
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TLR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA 25204797
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 19740627
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane IDA 17897319
GO:0005768 endosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TLR3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TLR3 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TLR3 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Activated TLR4 signalling
2 Toll-Like receptor Signaling Pathways
3 Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway
4 Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA
5 Diseases of Immune System
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TLR3: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TLR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation IEA --
GO:0001819 positive regulation of cytokine production IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0002224 toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0002282 microglial cell activation involved in immune response IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TLR3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TLR3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TLR3 Gene

(44) Drugs for TLR3 Gene - From: PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Channel blocker 1196
Pembrolizumab Approved Pharma 605
polyIC Pharma Agonist 0
tyrosine Nutra 728
Measles vaccines Pharma 0

(13) Additional Compounds for TLR3 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(5) Tocris Compounds for TLR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Imiquimod Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist 99011-02-6
Pam3CSK4 TLR1/2 agonist; induces cytokine production 112208-00-1
Poly(I:C) TLR3 agonist 24939-03-5
Resiquimod Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist 144875-48-9
RWJ 21757 Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist 121288-39-9

(9) ApexBio Compounds for TLR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
CU CPT 22 1416324-85-0
CU CPT 4a 1279713-77-7
Pam2CSK4 868247-72-7
Pam2CSK4 Biotin
Pam3CSK4 112208-00-1
Pam3CSK4 Biotin
Poly(I:C) 24939-03-5
RWJ 21757 121288-39-9
Toll-like receptor modulator TLR antagonist 926927-42-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TLR3: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TLR3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TLR3 Gene

Toll-like receptor 3:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TLR3

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TLR3 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6
SP1: - -
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for TLR3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TLR3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TLR3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TLR3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (65.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TLR3 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TLR3 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TLR3 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TLR3 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed at high level in placenta and pancreas. Also detected in CD11c+ immature dendritic cells. Only expressed in dendritic cells and not in other leukocytes, including monocyte precursors. TLR3 is the TLR that is expressed most strongly in the brain, especially in astrocytes, glia, and neurons.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TLR3 Gene

  • Lung(4.5)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Spleen(3.1)
  • Blood(3)
  • Lymph node(2.7)
  • Kidney(2.2)
  • Intestine(2.1)
  • Skin(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TLR3 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • immune
  • nervous
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
  • blood
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TLR3: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for TLR3 Gene

Orthologs for TLR3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TLR3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TLR3 33 34
  • 99.3 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TLR3 33 34
  • 86.25 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TLR3 33 34
  • 83.72 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tlr3 33 16 34
  • 81.31 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tlr3 33
  • 80.16 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TLR3 34
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TLR3 34
  • 58 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TLR3 33 34
  • 66.82 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TLR3 34
  • 57 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tlr3 33
  • 59.31 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tlr3 33 34
  • 52.99 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Tollo 33
  • 42.12 (n)
CG9562 35
  • 26 (a)
CG5195 35
  • 23 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012385 33
  • 29.79 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C56E6.6 35
  • 24 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TLR3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TLR3 Gene

Gene Tree for TLR3 (if available)
Gene Tree for TLR3 (if available)

Paralogs for TLR3 Gene

Paralogs for TLR3 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for TLR3 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TLR3: view

Variants for TLR3 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR3 Gene

The Phe-412 allele (dbSNP:rs3775291) occurs with a frequency of 30% in populations with European and Asian ancestry, and confers some natural resistance to HIV-1 infection.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TLR3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121434431 other, Herpes simplex encephalitis 2 (HSE2) [MIM:613002] 186,083,346(+) GTGGT(C/T)CCATT reference, missense
rs3775291 other 186,082,920(-) GTTGA(A/C/G)TATGT reference, missense
rs1000030704 -- 186,072,382(+) ATCTC(C/G)GCTCA intron-variant
rs1000196279 -- 186,078,078(+) TCTTT(A/G)AATAC intron-variant
rs1000289578 -- 186,068,906(+) GCAGA(A/G)GTCCA upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TLR3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv470097 CNV gain 18288195
nsv1031258 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1028146 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1015236 CNV gain 25217958
esv3894090 CNV gain 25118596
esv3603520 CNV loss 21293372
esv3603517 CNV gain 21293372
esv3603516 CNV gain 21293372
esv2677545 CNV deletion 23128226
dgv9426n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv683n27 CNV gain 19166990
dgv1052e214 CNV gain 21293372

Variation tolerance for TLR3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 41.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.64; 89.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TLR3 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

Disorders for TLR3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(29) MalaCards diseases for TLR3 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
herpes simplex encephalitis 2
  • encephalopathy, acute, infection-induced, 2
  • aids, slow progression to
herpes simplex encephalitis susceptibility 2
  • herpes simplex encephalitis, susceptibility to, 2
herpes simplex encephalitis
  • herpes simplex meningo-encephalitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TLR3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Herpes simplex encephalitis 2 (HSE2) [MIM:613002]: A rare complication of human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) infection, occurring in only a small minority of HHV-1 infected individuals. HSE is characterized by hemorrhagic necrosis of parts of the temporal and frontal lobes. Onset is over several days and involves fever, headache, seizures, stupor, and often coma, frequently with a fatal outcome. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17872438}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. TLR3 mutations predispose otherwise healthy individuals to isolated herpes simplex encephalitis through a mechanism that involves impaired IFNs production and reduced immune defense against viral infection in the central nervous system.

Relevant External Links for TLR3

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TLR3: view

No data available for Genatlas for TLR3 Gene

Publications for TLR3 Gene

  1. Toll-like receptor 3 and geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. (PMID: 18753640) Yang Z … Zhang K (The New England journal of medicine 2008) 3 4 22 45 60
  2. Investigation of the [-/A]8 and C1236T genetic variations within the human Toll-like receptor 3 gene for association with multiple sclerosis. (PMID: 20483009) Szvetko AL … Griffiths LR (Neurological research 2010) 3 22 45 60
  3. TLR3 gene polymorphisms and liver disease manifestations in chronic hepatitis C. (PMID: 19475618) Askar E … Mihm S (Journal of medical virology 2009) 3 22 45 60
  4. Crystal structure of human toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain. (PMID: 15961631) Choe J … Wilson IA (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005) 3 4 22 60
  5. TICAM-1, an adaptor molecule that participates in Toll-like receptor 3-mediated interferon-beta induction. (PMID: 12539043) Oshiumi H … Seya T (Nature immunology 2003) 3 4 22 60

Products for TLR3 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for TLR3

Sources for TLR3 Gene

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