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Aliases for TLR3 Gene

Aliases for TLR3 Gene

  • Toll-Like Receptor 3 2 3
  • IIAE2 3 6
  • CD283 Antigen 4
  • CD283 3

External Ids for TLR3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TLR3 Gene

  • GC04P188024
  • GC04P187670
  • GC04P187574
  • GC04P187686
  • GC04P187365
  • GC04P187227
  • GC04P186990
  • GC04P182742

Summaries for TLR3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TLR3 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta and pancreas, and is restricted to the dendritic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It recognizes dsRNA associated with viral infection, and induces the activation of NF-kappaB and the production of type I interferons. It may thus play a role in host defense against viruses. Use of alternative polyadenylation sites to generate different length transcripts has been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TLR3 Gene

TLR3 (Toll-Like Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TLR3 include herpes simplex encephalitis 2 and herpes simplex encephalitis. Among its related pathways are NF-KappaB Family Pathway and NF-KappaB Family Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor activity and double-stranded RNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is TLR6.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR3 Gene

  • Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.

Tocris Summary for TLR3 Gene

  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single transmembrane cell-surface receptors, which have a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs generally exist as homodimers (although TLR2-TLR6 heterodimers have been reported) and are found on immune cells such as macrophages, B lymphocytes and mast cells. Toll-like receptors are activated by molecules associated with biological threat and are highly specific towards evolutionary conserved entities on microbes, such as bacterial cell-surface lipopolysaccharides, flagella and unmethylated CpG islands. It has been suggested that some toll-like receptors may have endogenous ligands, such as Hsp60 and fibrinogen, and this has promoted speculation that endogenous toll-like receptor activators may have a pathological role in autoimmune disease. Activation of toll-like receptors initiates downstream signaling cascades, initially via the adapter molecules MyD88, Trap, Trif and Tram, which converge on the PI 3-K and NF-kappaB pathways and regulate intracellular kinases and gene expression. This can stimulate an inflammatory and/or antigen-specific immune response. The signaling cascade coupled to toll-like receptor activation is very similar to that of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) activation.

Gene Wiki entry for TLR3 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TLR3 Gene

Genomics for TLR3 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TLR3 Gene

Genomic Location for TLR3 Gene

186,059,050 bp from pter
186,088,069 bp from pter
29,020 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TLR3 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TLR3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TLR3 Gene

Proteins for TLR3 Gene

  • Protein details for TLR3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Toll-like receptor 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RAI7
    • B7Z7K0
    • E6Y0F0
    • E6Y0F1
    • E9PGH4
    • Q4VAL2
    • Q504W0

    Protein attributes for TLR3 Gene

    904 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    103829 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer and homodimer; dimerization is triggered by ligand-binding, the signaling unit is composed of one ds-RNA of around 40 bp and two TLR3 molecules, and lateral clustering of signaling units along the length of the ds-RNA ligand is required for TLR3 signal transduction. Interacts (via transmembrane domain) with UNC93B1; the interaction is required for transport from the ER to the endosomes. Interacts with TICAM1 (via the TIR domain); mediates TLR3 signaling. Interacts with SRC; upon binding of double-stranded RNA.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TLR3 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TLR3 Gene


neXtProt entry for TLR3 Gene

Proteomics data for TLR3 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TLR3 Gene

  • Heavily N-glycosylated, except on that part of the surface of the ectodomain that is involved in ligand binding.
  • TLR3 signaling requires a proteolytic cleavage mediated by cathepsins CTSB and CTSH, the cleavage occurs between amino acids 252 and 346. The cleaved form of TLR3 is the predominant form found in endosomes.
  • Glycosylation at Asn52, Asn57, Asn70, Asn124, Asn196, Asn247, Asn252, Asn265, Asn275, Asn291, Asn398, Asn413, Asn507, Asn636, and Asn662
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TLR3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TLR3 (TLR3)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TLR3 Gene

Domains for TLR3 Gene

Gene Families for TLR3 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TLR3 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • ds-RNA binding is mediated by LRR 1 to 3, and LRR 17 to 18
  • Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.
  • Contains 22 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats.
  • ds-RNA binding is mediated by LRR 1 to 3, and LRR 17 to 18
  • Contains 1 LRRCT domain.
  • Contains 1 LRRNT domain.
  • Contains 1 TIR domain.
  • Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family.
  • Contains 22 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TLR3: view

Function for TLR3 Gene

Molecular function for TLR3 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
Drosophila transmembrane receptor Toll homolog 3,with the major transcripts,predominantly expressed in placenta and pancreas,involved in immune defense
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TLR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003725 double-stranded RNA binding NAS 12054664
GO:0004872 receptor activity TAS 10426995
GO:0004888 transmembrane signaling receptor activity NAS 12054664
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16858407
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 25217833
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TLR3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TLR3: view

Animal Models for TLR3 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TLR3:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for TLR3 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TLR3

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TLR3

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TLR3 Gene

Localization for TLR3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR3 Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Endosome membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TLR3 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TLR3 gene
Compartment Confidence
endoplasmic reticulum 5
endosome 5
golgi apparatus 4
lysosome 4
plasma membrane 4
vacuole 4
nucleus 3
extracellular 2
peroxisome 2
cytosol 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TLR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 19740627
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane IDA 17897319
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TLR3: view

Pathways for TLR3 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TLR3: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TLR3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001774 microglial cell activation --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation --
GO:0002224 toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0002282 microglial cell activation involved in immune response IEA --
GO:0002756 MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TLR3: view

Drugs for TLR3 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for TLR3 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
C34 TLR4 inhibitor [40592-88-9]
CU CPT 4a Selective TLR3 inhibitor [1279713-77-7]
Pam3CSK4 TLR1/2 agonist; induces cytokine production [112208-00-1]
Poly(I:C) TLR3 agonist [24939-03-5]
Resiquimod Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist [144875-48-9]

(1) IUPHAR Ligand for TLR3 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
polyIC Agonist Agonist

(22) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TLR3 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
poly(i-c) 92.4 53
polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid 92.1 45
flagellin 77 14
inosine monophosphate 74.2 13
peptidoglycan 68.8 12

(2) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for TLR3 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
aspirin Clinical Annotation
Measles vaccines Clinical Annotation
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TLR3: view

Transcripts for TLR3 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TLR3 Gene

Toll-like receptor 3:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TLR3

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TLR3 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6
SP1: - -
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for TLR3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TLR3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TLR3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for TLR3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (65.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TLR3 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TLR3 Gene Hs.657724

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TLR3 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed at high level in placenta and pancreas. Also detected in CD11c+ immature dendritic cells. Only expressed in dendritic cells and not in other leukocytes, including monocyte precursors. TLR3 is the TLR that is expressed most strongly in the brain, especially in astrocytes, glia, and neurons.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TLR3: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Expression partners for TLR3 Gene

Orthologs for TLR3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TLR3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TLR3 35
  • 83.72 (n)
  • 82.39 (a)
TLR3 36
  • 83 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TLR3 35
  • 86.25 (n)
  • 84.28 (a)
TLR3 36
  • 84 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tlr3 35
  • 81.31 (n)
  • 79.93 (a)
Tlr3 16
Tlr3 36
  • 79 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TLR3 35
  • 99.3 (n)
  • 98.89 (a)
TLR3 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tlr3 35
  • 80.16 (n)
  • 80.82 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TLR3 36
  • 74 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TLR3 36
  • 58 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TLR3 35
  • 66.82 (n)
  • 61.8 (a)
TLR3 36
  • 61 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TLR3 36
  • 57 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tlr3 35
  • 59.31 (n)
  • 55.86 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tlr3 35
  • 52.99 (n)
  • 49.2 (a)
tlr3 36
  • 47 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG5195 37
  • 23 (a)
CG9562 37
  • 26 (a)
Tollo 35
  • 42.12 (n)
  • 30.79 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP012385 35
  • 29.79 (n)
  • 14.85 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C56E6.6 37
  • 24 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TLR3:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TLR3 Gene

Gene Tree for TLR3 (if available)
Gene Tree for TLR3 (if available)

Paralogs for TLR3 Gene

Paralogs for TLR3 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for TLR3 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TLR3: view

Variants for TLR3 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR3 Gene

The Phe-412 allele (dbSNP:rs3775291) occurs with a frequency of 30% in populations with European and Asian ancestry, and confers some natural resistance to HIV-1 infection

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TLR3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs115313599 -- 186,067,183(+) GGACT(C/G)AAGTG upstream-variant-2KB, intron-variant
rs115279812 -- 186,072,604(+) TGCGC(C/T)CAACC intron-variant
rs138215534 -- 186,066,390(+) GCTCA(C/T)GCCTG intron-variant
rs138085273 -- 186,069,195(+) CCCTG(A/T)TGAAA utr-variant-5-prime, intron-variant
rs138044652 -- 186,076,284(+) GAAAT(A/G)GAAGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TLR3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv683n27 CNV Gain 19166990
dgv5851n71 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv881424 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv470097 CNV Gain 18288195
esv2677545 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv5852n71 CNV Gain 21882294

Relevant External Links for TLR3 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for TLR3 Gene

(2) OMIM Diseases for TLR3 Gene (603029)


  • Herpes simplex encephalitis 2 (HSE2) [MIM:613002]: A rare complication of human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) infection, occurring in only a small minority of HHV-1 infected individuals. HSE is characterized by hemorrhagic necrosis of parts of the temporal and frontal lobes. Onset is over several days and involves fever, headache, seizures, stupor, and often coma, frequently with a fatal outcome. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17872438}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. TLR3 mutations predispose otherwise healthy individuals to isolated herpes simplex encephalitis through a mechanism that involves impaired IFNs production and reduced immune defense against viral infection in the central nervous system.

(5) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for TLR3 Gene

(29) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TLR3 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
virus infection 73.1 42
inflammation 48.6 11
hepatitis c chronic 38.3 1
necrosis 32.7 9
melanoma 32.1 20

Relevant External Links for TLR3

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TLR3: view

No data available for Genatlas for TLR3 Gene

Publications for TLR3 Gene

  1. Toll-like receptor 3 and geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. (PMID: 18753640) Yang Z. … Zhang K. (N. Engl. J. Med. 2008) 3 4 23 48
  2. Investigation of the [-/A]8 and C1236T genetic variations within the human Toll-like receptor 3 gene for association with multiple sclerosis. (PMID: 20483009) Szvetko A.L. … Griffiths L.R. (Neurol. Res. 2010) 3 23 48
  3. Crystal structure of human toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain. (PMID: 15961631) Choe J. … Wilson I.A. (Science 2005) 3 4 23
  4. TICAM-1, an adapter molecule that participates in Toll-like receptor 3 mediated interferon-beta induction. (PMID: 12539043) Oshiumi H. … Seya T. (Nat. Immunol. 2003) 3 4 23
  5. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. (PMID: 17314152) Ueta M. … Kinoshita S. (Br J Ophthalmol 2007) 3 23 48

Products for TLR3 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for TLR3

Sources for TLR3 Gene

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