External Ids for TLR3 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TLR3 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta and pancreas, and is restricted to the dendritic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It recognizes dsRNA associated with viral infection, and induces the activation of NF-kappaB and the production of type I interferons. It may thus play a role in host defense against viruses. Use of alternative polyadenylation sites to generate different length transcripts has been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for TLR3 Gene
TLR3 (Toll-Like Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TLR3 include herpes simplex encephalitis 2 and herpes simplex encephalitis. Among its related pathways are NF-KappaB Family Pathway and NF-KappaB Family Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include receptor activity and double-stranded RNA binding. An important paralog of this gene is TLR6.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR3 Gene
Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single transmembrane cell-surface receptors, which have a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs generally exist as homodimers (although TLR2-TLR6 heterodimers have been reported) and are found on immune cells such as macrophages, B lymphocytes and mast cells. Toll-like receptors are activated by molecules associated with biological threat and are highly specific towards evolutionary conserved entities on microbes, such as bacterial cell-surface lipopolysaccharides, flagella and unmethylated CpG islands. It has been suggested that some toll-like receptors may have endogenous ligands, such as Hsp60 and fibrinogen, and this has promoted speculation that endogenous toll-like receptor activators may have a pathological role in autoimmune disease. Activation of toll-like receptors initiates downstream signaling cascades, initially via the adapter molecules MyD88, Trap, Trif and Tram, which converge on the PI 3-K and NF-kappaB pathways and regulate intracellular kinases and gene expression. This can stimulate an inflammatory and/or antigen-specific immune response. The signaling cascade coupled to toll-like receptor activation is very similar to that of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) activation.