Aliases for TLR2 Gene
External Ids for TLR2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TLR2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This gene is expressed most abundantly in peripheral blood leukocytes, and mediates host response to Gram-positive bacteria and yeast via stimulation of NF-kappaB. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for TLR2 Gene
TLR2 (Toll-Like Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TLR2 include leprosy and tuberculosis. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Proteoglycans in cancer. GO annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and transmembrane signaling receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TLR6.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TLR2 Gene
Cooperates with LY96 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins and other microbial cell wall components. Cooperates with TLR1 or TLR6 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipoproteins or lipopeptides. Acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. May also promote apoptosis in response to lipoproteins. Recognizes mycoplasmal macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2kD (MALP-2), soluble tuberculosis factor (STF), phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) and B.burgdorferi outer surface protein A lipoprotein (OspA-L) cooperatively with TLR6
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single transmembrane cell-surface receptors, which have a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs generally exist as homodimers (although TLR2-TLR6 heterodimers have been reported) and are found on immune cells such as macrophages, B lymphocytes and mast cells. Toll-like receptors are activated by molecules associated with biological threat and are highly specific towards evolutionary conserved entities on microbes, such as bacterial cell-surface lipopolysaccharides, flagella and unmethylated CpG islands. It has been suggested that some toll-like receptors may have endogenous ligands, such as Hsp60 and fibrinogen, and this has promoted speculation that endogenous toll-like receptor activators may have a pathological role in autoimmune disease. Activation of toll-like receptors initiates downstream signaling cascades, initially via the adapter molecules MyD88, Trap, Trif and Tram, which converge on the PI 3-K and NF-kappaB pathways and regulate intracellular kinases and gene expression. This can stimulate an inflammatory and/or antigen-specific immune response. The signaling cascade coupled to toll-like receptor activation is very similar to that of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) activation.