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Aliases for TK1 Gene

Aliases for TK1 Gene

  • Thymidine Kinase 1 2 3 5
  • EC 4 61
  • Thymidine Kinase 1 Soluble Isoform 3
  • Thymidine Kinase 1, Soluble 2
  • Thymidine Kinase, Cytosolic 3
  • TK2 3

External Ids for TK1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TK1 Gene

  • GC17M075994
  • GC17M079157
  • GC17M076631
  • GC17M076767
  • GC17M073681
  • GC17M076170
  • GC17M071594

Summaries for TK1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TK1 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a gamma-phosphate group to thymidine. This creates dTMP and is the first step in the biosynthesis of dTTP, which is one component required for DNA replication. The encoded protein, whose levels fluctuate depending on the cell cycle stage, can act as a low activity dimer or a high activity tetramer. High levels of this protein have been used as a biomarker for diagnosing and categorizing many types of cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]

GeneCards Summary for TK1 Gene

TK1 (Thymidine Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TK1 include Colorectal Cancer 2 and Lung Cancer. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Purine metabolism (KEGG). GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and thymidine kinase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for TK1 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TK1 Gene

Genomics for TK1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TK1 Gene

Enhancers for TK1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17F078112 0.5 ENCODE 12.4 +73.6 73605 2.5 HDGF ZFP64 ARID4B ZNF48 ZNF2 SLC30A9 GLIS2 ZNF207 ZNF143 NFYC TK1 AFMID C17orf99 SYNGR2 RNU6-625P TNRC6C-AS1 TMC8
GH17F078136 0.5 ENCODE 12 +47.5 47502 6.3 HDGF PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SYNGR2 AFMID TK1 TNRC6C-AS1 TMC8 TMC6 C17orf99
GH17F078226 0.5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.7 -40.1 -40093 1.8 NRF1 MAFG CEBPB ZNF501 ZEB2 ZKSCAN1 HIC1 ZNF316 MAFF GATA2 BIRC5 TK1 AFMID SYNGR2 TNRC6C-AS1 C17orf99 PGS1 ENSG00000200063 TMEM235 GC17M078223
GH17F078255 0.6 FANTOM5 ENCODE 11.2 -70.5 -70462 4.3 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ZFP64 SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF207 FOS THA1P PGS1 SOCS3 AFMID TK1 TMC8 TMC6 LINC01993 TNRC6C C17orf99
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TK1 Gene

78,174,075 bp from pter
78,187,233 bp from pter
13,159 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TK1 Gene

Genes around TK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TK1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TK1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TK1 Gene

Proteins for TK1 Gene

  • Protein details for TK1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thymidine kinase, cytosolic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RC58
    • Q969V0
    • Q9UMG9

    Protein attributes for TK1 Gene

    234 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25469 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.
    • Two forms have been identified in animal cells, one in cytosol and one in mitochondria. Activity of the cytosolic enzyme is high in proliferating cells and peaks during the S-phase of the cell cycle; it is very low in resting cells.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TK1 Gene

neXtProt entry for TK1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TK1 Gene


Post-translational modifications for TK1 Gene

Other Protein References for TK1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TK1 (TK)

Domains & Families for TK1 Gene

Protein Domains for TK1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TK1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the thymidine kinase family.
  • Belongs to the thymidine kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TK1: view

No data available for Gene Families for TK1 Gene

Function for TK1 Gene

Molecular function for TK1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thymidine kinase 1,pyrimidine salvage pathway,soluble,putative up-regulated c-Myc target gene,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + thymidine = ADP + thymidine 5-phosphate.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TK1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004797 thymidine kinase activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0008270 zinc ion binding IDA 17407781
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TK1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TK1: view

Animal Models for TK1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TK1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TK1

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TK1

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TK1 Gene

Localization for TK1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TK1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TK1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TK1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TK1: view

Pathways & Interactions for TK1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TK1: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for TK1 Gene

Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006139 nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process TAS 3335503
GO:0006259 DNA metabolic process IBA --
GO:0009157 deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0009165 nucleotide biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0016310 phosphorylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TK1: view

Drugs & Compounds for TK1 Gene

(20) Drugs for TK1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Trifluridine Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 25
Zidovudine Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate 494
Floxuridine Approved Pharma Antineoplastic antimetabolite, RNA and DNA synthesis inhibitor 48
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Deoxyuridine Experimental Pharma 5

(26) Additional Compounds for TK1 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
5-Fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
  • 2'-Deoxy-5'-uridylate
  • 2'-Deoxy-5'-uridylic acid
  • 2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-phosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyuridylate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TK1: view

Transcripts for TK1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TK1 Gene

Thymidine kinase 1, soluble:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TK1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TK1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b
SP1: -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for TK1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TK1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TK1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Platelet (43.4), Stomach (14.2), and Fetal Liver (9.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TK1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TK1 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TK1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TK1 Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TK1: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TK1 Gene

Orthologs for TK1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TK1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TK1 34 35
  • 99.15 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 88 (a)
-- 35
  • 81 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TK1 34 35
  • 87.75 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TK1 34 35
  • 87.04 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tk1 34 16 35
  • 84.26 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tk1 34
  • 83.91 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TK1 35
  • 75 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TK1 34 35
  • 74.62 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TK1 35
  • 76 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tk1 34
  • 71.64 (n)
Str.17179 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tk1 35
  • 68 (a)
LOC100537847 34
  • 67.11 (n)
wufi19b06 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9394 34
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea thk-1 34 35
  • 48.99 (n)
Y43C5A.5 36
  • 46 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G23070 34
  • 53.1 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.1817 34
Species where no ortholog for TK1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TK1 Gene

Gene Tree for TK1 (if available)
Gene Tree for TK1 (if available)

Paralogs for TK1 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TK1 Gene

Variants for TK1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TK1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs386352371 Uncertain significance 78,174,868(-) TGCCG(G/T)GCCGG upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs1052931 -- 78,174,666(-) GTCGG(A/G)AGGCG upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1065767 -- 78,174,870(-) CCTGC(A/C/T)GGGCC upstream-variant-2KB, reference, synonymous-codon
rs1065768 -- 78,174,749(-) CCTGC(A/G)AGGGC upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-3-prime
rs1065769 -- 78,174,654(-) GGAGG(A/G)TGACC upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TK1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv470607 CNV loss 18288195
nsv524306 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for TK1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 61.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.72; 15.18% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TK1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TK1 Gene

Disorders for TK1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for TK1 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
colorectal cancer 2
  • colorectal cancer, susceptibility to, 2
lung cancer
  • lung cancer, protection against
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • b-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TK1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TK1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TK1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TK1 Gene

Publications for TK1 Gene

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of pyrimidine synthetic enzymes, thymidine kinase-1 and thymidylate synthase, in various types of cancer. (PMID: 20372850) Shintani M. … Kamoshida S. (Oncol. Rep. 2010) 3 22 25 64
  2. Binding of ATP to TK1-like enzymes is associated with a conformational change in the quaternary structure. (PMID: 17407781) Segura-Pena D. … Lavie A. (J. Mol. Biol. 2007) 3 4 22 64
  3. Structure of a type II thymidine kinase with bound dTTP. (PMID: 15733844) Birringer M.S. … Scapozza L. (FEBS Lett. 2005) 3 4 22 64
  4. Structures of thymidine kinase 1 of human and mycoplasmic origin. (PMID: 15611477) Welin M. … Eklund H. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004) 3 4 22 64
  5. Serine 13 is the site of mitotic phosphorylation of human thymidine kinase. (PMID: 9575153) Chang Z.F. … Chi L.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998) 3 4 22 64

Products for TK1 Gene

Sources for TK1 Gene

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