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Aliases for TIRAP Gene

Aliases for TIRAP Gene

  • Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain Containing Adaptor Protein 2 3 5
  • MyD88 Adapter-Like Protein 3 4
  • Adaptor Protein Wyatt 3 4
  • MyD88-2 3 4
  • MAL 3 4
  • Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein 2
  • TIR Domain-Containing Adapter Protein 4
  • Toll-Like Receptor Adaptor Protein 3
  • Adapter Protein Wyatt 3
  • MyD88 Adapter-Like 2
  • BACTS1 3
  • Wyatt 3

External Ids for TIRAP Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TIRAP Gene

  • GC11P128153
  • GC11P127665
  • GC11P126186
  • GC11P125690
  • GC11P125658
  • GC11P122098
  • GC11P126153

Summaries for TIRAP Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TIRAP Gene

  • The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Different TLRs recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns and all TLRs have a Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain, which is responsible for signal transduction. The protein encoded by this gene is a TIR adaptor protein involved in the TLR4 signaling pathway of the immune system. It activates NF-kappa-B, MAPK1, MAPK3 and JNK, which then results in cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TIRAP Gene

TIRAP (Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR) Domain Containing Adaptor Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TIRAP include Bacteremia, Protection Against and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, Recurrent Isolated, 1. Among its related pathways are MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane and Diseases associated with the TLR signaling cascade. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and protein binding, bridging.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TIRAP Gene

  • Adapter involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways in the innate immune response. Acts via IRAK2 and TRAF-6, leading to the activation of NF-kappa-B, MAPK1, MAPK3 and JNK, and resulting in cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Positively regulates the production of TNF-alpha and interleukin-6.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TIRAP Gene

Genomics for TIRAP Gene

Regulatory Elements for TIRAP Gene

Enhancers for TIRAP Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TIRAP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TIRAP Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TIRAP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TIRAP Gene

126,281,893 bp from pter
126,298,845 bp from pter
16,953 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TIRAP Gene

Genes around TIRAP on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TIRAP Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TIRAP Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TIRAP Gene

Proteins for TIRAP Gene

  • Protein details for TIRAP Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KW65
    • Q56UH9
    • Q56UI0
    • Q8N5E5

    Protein attributes for TIRAP Gene

    221 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23883 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Also forms heterodimers with MYD88. May interact with PIK3AP1 (By similarity). Interacts with TLR4 and IRAK2 via their respective TIR domains. Interacts with BMX and TBK1. Interacts with EIF2AK2. Does not interact with IRAK1, nor TLR9.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TIRAP Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TIRAP Gene


neXtProt entry for TIRAP Gene

Proteomics data for TIRAP Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TIRAP Gene

  • Phosphorylated by IRAK1 and IRAK4. Also phosphorylated by BTK.
  • Polyubiquitinated. Polyubiquitination follows phosphorylation by BTK and leads to TIRAP degradation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TIRAP Gene

Domains & Families for TIRAP Gene

Protein Domains for TIRAP Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 TIR domain.
  • Contains 1 TIR domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TIRAP: view

No data available for Gene Families for TIRAP Gene

Function for TIRAP Gene

Molecular function for TIRAP Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Adapter involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways in the innate immune response. Acts via IRAK2 and TRAF-6, leading to the activation of NF-kappa-B, MAPK1, MAPK3 and JNK, and resulting in cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Positively regulates the production of TNF-alpha and interleukin-6.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TIRAP: view

Animal Models for TIRAP Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TIRAP:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TIRAP Gene

Localization for TIRAP Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TIRAP Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Membrane. Note=Colocalizes with DAB2IP at the plasma membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TIRAP Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TIRAP gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 4
endosome 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TIRAP Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TIRAP Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TIRAP: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for TIRAP Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TIRAP Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002755 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS 19509286
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0030099 myeloid cell differentiation ISS --
GO:0030890 positive regulation of B cell proliferation ISS --
GO:0032648 regulation of interferon-beta production ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TIRAP: view

Drugs & Compounds for TIRAP Gene

(1) Drugs for TIRAP Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TIRAP: view

Transcripts for TIRAP Gene

Unigene Clusters for TIRAP Gene

Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain containing adaptor protein:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TIRAP Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d ^ 9a · 9b · 9c
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: - - -
SP10: -
SP11: - - - - -

Relevant External Links for TIRAP Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TIRAP Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TIRAP Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TIRAP Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Monocytes (34.5), CD4 Tcells (20.5), and Placenta (14.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TIRAP Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TIRAP Gene Hs.537126

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TIRAP Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in liver, kidney, spleen, skeletal muscle and heart. Also detected in peripheral blood leukocytes, lung, placenta, small intestine, thymus, colon and brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TIRAP: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TIRAP Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TIRAP Gene

Orthologs for TIRAP Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TIRAP Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TIRAP 35
  • 82.27 (n)
  • 80 (a)
  • 75 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TIRAP 35
  • 82.96 (n)
  • 79.64 (a)
  • 76 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tirap 35
  • 79.49 (n)
  • 79.64 (a)
Tirap 16
Tirap 36
  • 68 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TIRAP 35
  • 99.4 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tirap 35
  • 80.24 (n)
  • 78.73 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TIRAP 36
  • 54 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TIRAP 36
  • 51 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TIRAP 35
  • 58.96 (n)
  • 53.77 (a)
  • 45 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TIRAP 36
  • 44 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100491693 35
  • 49.03 (n)
  • 42.33 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tirap 35
  • 50.58 (n)
  • 41.29 (a)
tirap 36
  • 34 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TIRAP:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TIRAP Gene

Gene Tree for TIRAP (if available)
Gene Tree for TIRAP (if available)

Paralogs for TIRAP Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TIRAP Gene

Variants for TIRAP Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TIRAP Gene

Genetic variations in TIRAP may influence susceptibility or resistance to invasive pneumococcal disease [MIM:610799], malaria [MIM:611162], and tuberculosis [MIM:607948]. It may define the bacteremia susceptibility locus 1 (BACTS1) [MIM:614382].

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TIRAP Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs8177369 - 126,290,919(+) TCCCA(A/C/G)CTCCT intron-variant, reference, missense
rs8177399 - 126,290,931(+) GCTCT(C/T)GGCCT intron-variant, reference, missense
rs8177400 - 126,292,695(+) AGGAA(A/G/T)ACCTG reference, missense
rs8177374 - 126,292,948(+) GCTGT(C/T)GGGCC reference, missense
rs3802813 - 126,292,573(+) GGACA(A/G)CCCAC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TIRAP Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv898440 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv898441 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv826122 CNV Loss 20364138
esv2660319 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2664251 CNV Deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for TIRAP Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 89.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.46; 71.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TIRAP Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for TIRAP Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for TIRAP Gene - From: OMIM, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
bacteremia, protection against
  • bacteremia, susceptibility to, 1
invasive pneumococcal disease, recurrent isolated, 1
  • pneumococcal disease, invasive, protection against
  • malaria, severe
  • bacteremia, susceptibility to
pelvic inflammatory disease
  • pid
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TIRAP in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TIRAP

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TIRAP: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TIRAP Gene

Publications for TIRAP Gene

  1. Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) is required for Toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction. (PMID: 11544529) Fitzgerald K.A. … O'Neill L.A.J. (Nature 2001) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. AIP1 functions as Arf6-GAP to negatively regulate TLR4 signaling. (PMID: 19948740) Wan T. … Min W. (J. Biol. Chem. 2010) 3 23
  3. A TIR domain variant of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP results in loss of MyD88 binding and reduced TLR2/TLR4 signaling. (PMID: 19509286) Nagpal K. … Golenbock D.T. (J. Biol. Chem. 2009) 3 23
  4. Functional and genetic evidence that the Mal/TIRAP allele variant 180L has been selected by providing protection against septic shock. (PMID: 19509334) Ferwerda B. … Netea M.G. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009) 3 23
  5. Polymorphic variation in TIRAP is not associated with susceptibility to childhood TB but may determine susceptibility to TBM in some ethnic groups. (PMID: 19693265) Dissanayeke S.R. … Levin M. (PLoS ONE 2009) 3 23

Products for TIRAP Gene

Sources for TIRAP Gene