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TGM4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 60
GCID: GC03P044916

Transglutaminase 4

(Previous name: transglutaminase 4 (prostate))
  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Transglutaminase 41 2     TGase P2 3
Transglutaminase 4 (Prostate)1 2     EC 2.3.2.133 8
Prostate Transglutaminase2 3     fibrinoligase2
Prostate-Specific Transglutaminase2 3     hTGP2
Transglutaminase P2 3     Protein-Glutamine Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 42
TG(P)2 3     transglutaminase-42
TGP2 3     Fibrinoligase3
TGase-42 3     Transglutaminase-43

External Ids:    HGNC: 117801   Entrez Gene: 70472   Ensembl: ENSG000001638107   OMIM: 6005855   UniProtKB: P492213   

Export aliases for TGM4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC03P043872 GC03P044096 GC03P044735 GC03P044876 GC03P044891 GC03P044893 GC03P044896


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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GeneCards Summary for TGM4 Gene:
TGM4 (transglutaminase 4) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TGM4 include lip cancer, and prostatitis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TGM3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TGM4_HUMAN, P49221
Function: Associated with the mammalian reproductive process. Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the
conjugation of polyamines to specific proteins in the seminal tract

Gene Wiki entry for TGM4 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000003.12  NT_022517.19  NC_018914.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TGM4 gene promoter:
         Elk-1   AML1a   RREB-1   AP-2gamma   NF-kappaB   CREB   deltaCREB   NF-kappaB2   ZIC2/Zic2   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTGM4 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TGM4

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TGM4


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 3p22-p21.33   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  3p21.31   HGNC cytogenetic band: 3p22-p21.33

TGM4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TGM4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 3         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC03P044916:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
44,916,098 bp from pter      End:
44,956,482 bp from pter
Size:
40,385 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TGM4_HUMAN, P49221 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 4  
Size: 684 amino acids; 77145 Da
Cofactor: Binds 1 calcium ion per subunit (By similarity)
Subunit: Homodimer (By similarity)
Secondary accessions: Q16707 Q96QN4

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TGM4: NX_P49221

Explore proteomics data for TGM4 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • 3 DME Specific Peptides for TGM4 (P49221)
     WNFGQFE  YKYPEGS  WMKRPDLP 


    See TGM4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_003232.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000296125   ENSP00000403711  

    TGM4 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

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    Novus Biologicals TGM4 Protein
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    TGM4 Antibody Products:

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    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for TGM4

    TGM4 Assay Products:

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    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for TGM4
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for TGM4


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    TGM: Transglutaminases

    Selected InterPro protein domains (see all 7):
     IPR008958 Transglutaminase_C
     IPR014756 Ig_E-set
     IPR023608 Gln_gamma-glutamylTfrase_euk
     IPR001102 Transglutaminase_N
     IPR013808 Transglutaminase_CS

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P49221

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P49221

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB002931 Transglutaminase-like domain

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TGM4_HUMAN, P49221
    Similarity: Belongs to the transglutaminase superfamily. Transglutaminase family


    TGM4 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TGM4_HUMAN, P49221
    Function: Associated with the mammalian reproductive process. Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the
    conjugation of polyamines to specific proteins in the seminal tract
    Catalytic activity: Protein glutamine + alkylamine = protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + NH(3)

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TGM4:
    transglutaminase,type IV,expressed in prostate,with an alternatively splice variant, involved in reproductive
    process and processed pseudogene in the promoter containing a cyclophilin A

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 2.3.2.131 2

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0003810protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity NAS7916568
    GO:0046872metal ion binding IEA--
         
    TGM4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         1 GenomeRNAi human phenotype for TGM4:
     Lamellipodia cells 

         1 MGI mutant phenotype (inferred from 1 allele(MGI details for Tgm4):
     reproductive system 

    TGM4 for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TGM4
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Contact us about creating complex and humanized mouse models for TGM4

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TGM4
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TGM4

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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TGM4

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    Clone
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TGM4 (NM_003241)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for TGM4
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TGM4
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TGM4

    Cell Line
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    In Situ Assay
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    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TGM4


    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytosol3
    extracellular2
    nucleus2
    cytoskeleton1

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005737cytoplasm IDA--
    GO:0005794Golgi apparatus IDA--
    GO:0031012extracellular matrix IDA--
    GO:0070062extracellular vesicular exosome IDA19056867

    TGM4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TGM4
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TGM4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 3 interactants - click image to see more details)

    3 Interacting proteins for TGM4 (P492213 ENSP000002961254) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    IGHA1P018763, ENSP000003749894I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000374989
    IGHG1P018573, ENSP000003749904I2D: score=1 STRING: ENSP00000374990
    NDUFS1ENSP000002331904STRING: ENSP00000233190
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0018149peptide cross-linking IEA--
    GO:0018184protein polyamination ----
    GO:0042628mating plug formation IEA--

    TGM4 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TGM4

    2 HMDB Compounds for TGM4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    AmmoniaNH3 (see all 31)7664-41-7--
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--

    1 DrugBank Compound for TGM4    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #TypeActionsPubMed Ids
    L-Glutamine(S)-2,5-diamino-5-oxopentanoic acid (see all 4)56-85-9enzymesubstrate17139284 849457 17016423 239698 1361314

    1 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationship for TGM4 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate 96.5 24 17244021 (5), 9721214 (5), 18561295 (3), 10580145 (3) (see all 5)



    TGM4 for compounds           About GeneDecksing



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TGM4 gene: 
    NM_003241.3  

    Unigene Cluster for TGM4:

    Transglutaminase 4 (prostate)
    Hs.438265  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_003241
    6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000490928(uc003coa.2) ENST00000296125(uc003cob.2 uc003coc.4)
    ENST00000471637 ENST00000422219 ENST00000495844 ENST00000459830
    miRNA
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    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTGM4 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
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    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TGM4
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    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TGM4 (NM_003241)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TGM4
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TGM4
    Primer
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    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TGM4
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse / rat TGM4
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TGM4
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TGM4

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK092657.1 AK125536.1 AK300523.1 AK312936.1 BC007003.1 L34840.1 U31905.1 U79008.1 
    Y09559.1 

    10 DOTS entries:

    DT.409715  DT.92426564  DT.95362563  DT.75190921  DT.91848053  DT.92416286  DT.120906575  DT.102828036 
    DT.120906555  DT.120906571 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 93):

    Y09559 AI682323 BX504455 BX641824 AI732835 AI623108 AK092657 AI810595 
    BX508971 U79008 CD616651 BX504433 AA595411 BF002748 AA631018 AA564047 
    AI970887 BC007003 CD616664 BF221692 BF856637 BX641639 BX504550 BU930676 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TGM4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCCTCAAAAA
    TGM4 Expression
    About this image

    TGM4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TGM4 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.438265

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TGM4_HUMAN, P49221
    Tissue specificity: Prostate

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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TGM4

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for TGM4 gene from Selected species (see all 12)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tgm41 , 5 transglutaminase 4 (prostate)1, 5 67.66(n)1
    54.86(a)1
      9 (73.56 cM)5
    3310461  NM_177911.41  NP_808579.21 
     1230347395 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TGM41 transglutaminase 4 (prostate) 58.55(n)
    48.83(a)
      420706  NM_001006368.1  NP_001006368.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    (see all 3)
    Uncharacterized protein
    (see all 3)
    47(a)
    43(a)
    (see all 3)
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    (see all 3)
    GL343224.1(70493-89226)
    GL343224.1(153119-176800)
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia tgm41 transglutaminase 4 54.12(n)
    45.33(a)
      100488625  XM_002937748.2  XP_002937794.2 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tgm2l6
    transglutaminase 2, like
    32(a)
    many ↔ many
    18(18612937-18630627) ENSDARG00000093381
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG73563 protein-glutamine
    gamma-glutamyltransferase
    33(a)     --


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TGM4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TGM4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TGM4 gene
    TGM32  F13A12  TGM12  EPB422  TGM52  TGM72  TGM22  TGM62  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for TGM4 using alignment to 6 protein entries:     TGM4_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    hTGP    EIF3G    NEK4    C1orf143    EEF1E1    TMX3
    UTY    ZNF66    IRF2    RRM2B    COMMD1    TGM1
    F13A1    TGM3    TGM7    TGM6    TGM5    TGM2

    TGM4 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TGM4 (see all 1048)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 3 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1172303811,2
    C,F--44914136(+) ATTGCC/TCATCC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.02EA 120
    rs1909173081,2
    --44914219(+) GAAGAC/TAACAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1826291051,2
    --44914247(+) AAGTTA/CCTGTG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1888977281,2
    --44914533(+) AAATAC/TTGGAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1166369871,2
    C,F--44914624(+) AAAGAC/GTGGGC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.04WA 118
    rs1925147901,2
    --44914693(+) GTAATA/CCCAGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs776441711,2
    C,F--44914722(+) GGGGCG/AGATCC 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- A:0.04WA 118
    rs1407891941,2
    C--44914767(+) TGCAGG/TGATAT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1848687741,2
    --44914776(+) ATGCTC/TTCATT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1150781461,2
    F--44914851(+) AACATC/TAGCCA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- T:0.01NA 120

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TGM4 (44916098 - 44956482 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 4 variations for TGM4:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2725215CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv521765CNV Loss19592680
    nsv3792CNV Loss18451855
    nsv834675CNV Gain17160897

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TGM4
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TGM4
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TGM4

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 600585    OMIM disorders: --

    5 diseases for TGM4:    About MalaCards
    lip cancer    prostatitis    prostate cancer    hiv-1
    endotheliitis

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TGM4:
    Lip cancer

    TGM4 for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    3 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TGM4 gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    prostate cancer 54.2 32 18983858 (4), 17552366 (4), 17244021 (3), 8645175 (2) (see all 7)
    tumors 0 1 17244021 (1)
    cancer 0 2 17552366 (2)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TGM4

    Export disorders for TGM4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TGM4 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 36):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TGM4)
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    1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel transglutaminase cDNA from a human prostate cDNA library. (PubMed id 7916568)1, 2, 3, 9 Grant F.J.... O'Hara P.J. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1994)
    2. Tissue specific and androgen-regulated expression of human prostate- specific transglutaminase. (PubMed id 8645175)1, 2, 9 Dubbink H.J....Romijn J.C. (Biochem. J. 1996)
    3. Localization of the human prostate transglutaminase (type IV) gene (TGM4) to chromosome 3p21.33-p22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. (PubMed id 7665178)1, 3, 9 Gentile V....Baldini A. (Genomics 1995)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Expression of the prostate transglutaminase (TGase-4) in prostate cancer cells and its impact on the invasiveness of prostate cancer. (PubMed id 17552366)1, 9 Davies G....Jiang W.G. (amp 2007)
    6. The prostate transglutaminase (TGase-4, TGaseP) regulates the interaction of prostate cancer and vascular endothelial cells, a potential role for the ROCK pathway. (PubMed id 18983858)1, 9 Jiang W.G....Mason M.D. (Microvasc. Res. 2009)
    7. The human prostate-specific transglutaminase gene (TGM4): genomic organization, tissue-specific expression, and promoter characterization. (PubMed id 9721214)1, 9 Dubbink H.J....Romijn J.C. (Genomics 1998)
    8. Differential alternative splicing of human transglutaminase 4 in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. (PubMed id 20177144)1, 9 Cho S.Y....Kim I.G. (amp 2010)
    9. Hominoid seminal protein evolution and ancestral mating behavior. (PubMed id 18561295)1, 9 Carnahan S.J. and Jensen-Seaman M.I. (Am. J. Primatol. 2008)
    10. Retinoic acid and androgen receptors combine to achieve tissue specific control of human prostatic transglutaminase expression: a novel regulatory network with broader significance. (PubMed id 22362749)1 Rivera-Gonzalez G.C....Maitland N.J. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 7047 HGNC: 11780 AceView: TGM4 Ensembl:ENSG00000163810 euGenes: HUgn7047
    ECgene: TGM4 H-InvDB: TGM4

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TGM4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for TGM4 Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TGM4 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TGM4

    GeneCards and IP:
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