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Aliases for TGM1 Gene

Aliases for TGM1 Gene

  • Transglutaminase 1 2 3 5
  • Transglutaminase K 3 4
  • Transglutaminase-1 3 4
  • Epidermal TGase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • TGase K 3 4
  • TGase-1 3 4
  • TG(K) 3 4
  • KTG 3 4
  • TGK 3 4
  • Transglutaminase 1 (K Polypeptide Epidermal Type I, Protein-Glutamine-Gamma-Glutamyltransferase) 2
  • K Polypeptide Epidermal Type I, Protein-Glutamine-Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 3
  • Protein-Glutamine-Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 2
  • K Polypeptide Epidermal Type I 2
  • Transglutaminase, Keratinocyte 3
  • Transglutaminase 1 Isoform 3
  • TGase 3
  • ARCI1 3
  • ICR2 3
  • LI1 3
  • LI 3

External Ids for TGM1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TGM1 Gene

  • ICR2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TGM1 Gene

  • GC14M022090
  • GC14M018505
  • GC14M022708
  • GC14M023788
  • GC14M024718
  • GC14M004833

Summaries for TGM1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TGM1 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that catalyzes the addition of an alkyl group from an akylamine to a glutamine residue of a protein, forming an alkylglutamine in the protein. This protein alkylation leads to crosslinking of proteins and catenation of polyamines to proteins. This gene contains either one or two copies of a 22 nt repeat unit in its 3' UTR. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TGM1 Gene

TGM1 (Transglutaminase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TGM1 include ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 1 and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. GO annotations related to this gene include protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is F13A1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TGM1 Gene

  • Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Responsible for cross-linking epidermal proteins during formation of the stratum corneum. Involved in cell proliferation (PubMed:26220141).

Gene Wiki entry for TGM1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TGM1 Gene

Genomics for TGM1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TGM1 Gene

Genomic Location for TGM1 Gene

24,249,114 bp from pter
24,264,432 bp from pter
15,319 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TGM1 Gene

Genes around TGM1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TGM1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TGM1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TGM1 Gene

Proteins for TGM1 Gene

  • Protein details for TGM1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase K
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DWR7
    • Q197M4

    Protein attributes for TGM1 Gene

    817 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    89787 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAA61166.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=16; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=M86360; Type=Frameshift; Positions=16, 421, 651; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TGM1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TGM1 Gene


neXtProt entry for TGM1 Gene

Proteomics data for TGM1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TGM1 Gene

  • The membrane anchorage region possesses a cluster of five cysteines within which fatty acid(s) may become thioester-linked. It is subject to phorbol ester-stimulated phosphorylation and is hypersensitive to proteolysis, which releases the enzyme in a soluble form.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for TGM1 Gene

Gene Families for TGM1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TGM1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the transglutaminase superfamily. Transglutaminase family.
  • Belongs to the transglutaminase superfamily. Transglutaminase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TGM1: view

Function for TGM1 Gene

Molecular function for TGM1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
keratinocyte transglutaminase,K polypeptide,epidermal,type I (92kDa),membrane associated,crosslinking the structural components SPRRs,IVL and LOR for the formation of cornified enveloppe,also binding omega-hydroxyceramides to evolucrin by ester bond formation in the terminal step of the differentiation programme of epidermal keratinocytes
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Protein glutamine + alkylamine = protein N(5)-alkylglutamine + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the cross-linking of proteins and the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Responsible for cross-linking epidermal proteins during formation of the stratum corneum. Involved in cell proliferation (PubMed:26220141).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TGM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TGM1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TGM1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for TGM1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TGM1:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for TGM1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TGM1

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TGM1 Gene

Localization for TGM1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TGM1 Gene

Membrane; Lipid-anchor.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TGM1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TGM1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 4
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
vacuole 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TGM1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TGM1 Gene

SuperPathways for TGM1 Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TGM1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0018149 peptide cross-linking IEA --
GO:0030216 keratinocyte differentiation IDA 8824274
GO:0043163 cell envelope organization TAS 14645372
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TGM1: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for TGM1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TGM1 Gene

(13) Drugs for TGM1 Gene - From: Novoseek, DrugBank, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, substrate 0
calcium Nutra 0

(11) Additional Compounds for TGM1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammoniak
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TGM1: view

Transcripts for TGM1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TGM1 Gene

Transglutaminase 1 (K polypeptide epidermal type I, protein-glutamine-gamma-glutamyltransferase):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TGM1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TGM1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TGM1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TGM1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TGM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x29.6), Minor Salivary Gland (x5.7), and Vagina (x4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TGM1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Saliva (25.3) and Cervix (22.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TGM1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TGM1 Gene Hs.508950

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TGM1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TGM1 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TGM1 Gene

Orthologs for TGM1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TGM1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TGM1 35
  • 88.14 (n)
  • 91.87 (a)
TGM1 36
  • 88 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TGM1 35
  • 87.59 (n)
  • 91.77 (a)
TGM1 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tgm1 35
  • 85.64 (n)
  • 90.97 (a)
Tgm1 16
Tgm1 36
  • 91 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TGM1 35
  • 99.55 (n)
  • 99.63 (a)
TGM1 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tgm1 35
  • 84.54 (n)
  • 89.79 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TGM1 36
  • 82 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TGM1 36
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tgm1 35
  • 58.42 (n)
  • 58.57 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.11273 35
tgm1l1 35
  • 58.14 (n)
  • 54.05 (a)
tgm1 36
  • 47 (a)
TGM1 (1 of 6) 36
  • 49 (a)
TGM1 (6 of 6) 36
  • 40 (a)
tgm1l1 36
  • 48 (a)
tgm1l2 36
  • 38 (a)
tgm1l4 36
  • 47 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.3007 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG7356 37
  • 37 (a)
Tg 35
  • 50.05 (n)
  • 39.16 (a)
Tg 36
  • 34 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009100 35
  • 49.9 (n)
  • 40.56 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10087 36
  • 35 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TGM1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TGM1 Gene

Gene Tree for TGM1 (if available)
Gene Tree for TGM1 (if available)

Paralogs for TGM1 Gene

Paralogs for TGM1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TGM1: view

Variants for TGM1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TGM1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_007476 Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 1 (ARCI1)
VAR_007477 Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 1 (ARCI1)
VAR_007478 Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 1 (ARCI1)
VAR_007479 Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 1 (ARCI1)
VAR_007480 Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 1 (ARCI1)

Variation tolerance for TGM1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 88.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.57; 56.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TGM1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TGM1 Gene

Disorders for TGM1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(23) MalaCards diseases for TGM1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TGM1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 1 (ARCI1) [MIM:242300]: A form of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, a disorder of keratinization with abnormal differentiation and desquamation of the epidermis, resulting in abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur. Lamellar ichthyosis is a condition often associated with an embedment in a collodion-like membrane at birth; skin scales later develop, covering the entire body surface. Non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma characterized by fine whitish scaling on an erythrodermal background; larger brownish scales are present on the buttocks, neck and legs. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11251583, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11511296, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19890349, ECO:0000269 PubMed:26220141, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7773290, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7824952, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9326318}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for TGM1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TGM1: view

No data available for Genatlas for TGM1 Gene

Publications for TGM1 Gene

  1. Transglutaminase-1 gene mutations in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis: summary of mutations (including 23 novel) and modeling of TGase-1. (PMID: 19241467) Herman M.L. … Toro J.R. (Hum. Mutat. 2009) 3 4 23 48 67
  2. A three-dimensional model of the human transglutaminase 1: insights into the understanding of lamellar ichthyosis. (PMID: 17024410) Boeshans K.M. … Ahvazi B. (J Mol Model 2007) 3 23 25 26
  3. Genotype-phenotype correlations with TGM1: clustering of mutations in the bathing suit ichthyosis and self-healing collodion baby variants of lamellar ichthyosis. (PMID: 19863506) Hackett B.C. … Irvine A.D. (Br. J. Dermatol. 2010) 3 23
  4. Genotypic and clinical spectrum of self-improving collodion ichthyosis: ALOX12B, ALOXE3, and TGM1 mutations in Scandinavian patients. (PMID: 19890349) Vahlquist A. … Fischer J. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 2010) 3 23
  5. Transglutaminase1 preferred substrate peptide K5 is an efficient tool in diagnosis of lamellar ichthyosis. (PMID: 20167857) Akiyama M. … Shimizu H. (Am. J. Pathol. 2010) 3 23

Products for TGM1 Gene

Sources for TGM1 Gene

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