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Aliases for TG Gene

Aliases for TG Gene

  • Thyroglobulin 2 3 3 5
  • AITD3 3
  • TGN 3
  • Tg 4

External Ids for TG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TG Gene

  • GC08P132608
  • GC08P133966
  • GC08P133550
  • GC08P133835
  • GC08P133948
  • GC08P129197
  • GC08P133879

Summaries for TG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TG Gene

  • Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a glycoprotein homodimer produced predominantly by the thryroid gland. It acts as a substrate for the synthesis of thyroxine and triiodothyronine as well as the storage of the inactive forms of thyroid hormone and iodine. Thyroglobulin is secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum to its site of iodination, and subsequent thyroxine biosynthesis, in the follicular lumen. Mutations in this gene cause thyroid dyshormonogenesis, manifested as goiter, and are associated with moderate to severe congenital hypothyroidism. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) such as Graves disease and Hashimoto thryoiditis. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TG Gene

TG (Thyroglobulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TG include Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis 3 and Familial Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis. Among its related pathways are Insulin secretion and Allograft rejection. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and carboxylic ester hydrolase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TG Gene

  • Precursor of the iodinated thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Gene Wiki entry for TG Gene

Additional gene information for TG Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TG Gene

Genomics for TG Gene

Regulatory Elements for TG Gene

Enhancers for TG Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH08H133051 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 24.1 +197.8 197760 25.8 CTCF PKNOX1 MAX BATF RAD21 GATA3 POLR2A ZNF143 FOS RUNX3 TG WISP1 SLA TMEM71 PHF20L1 ENSG00000270137 GC08P133070 GC08P133054
GH08H133031 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.4 +168.1 168095 6.7 TBP SIN3A RAD21 RFX5 SMARCC2 RCOR1 FOS ATF7 DEK SMARCC1 TG PHF20L1 WISP1 SLA ENSG00000223697 TMEM71 GC08P133037 LOC105375768
GH08H133128 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.8 +263.0 262974 3.4 ELF3 ZNF792 CEBPG RAD21 ZNF644 POLR2A FOS RCOR1 HOMEZ THAP11 WISP1 TG SLA ST3GAL1 PHF20L1 NDRG1 GC08P133116 LOC105375769
GH08H133045 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 14.4 +179.4 179371 1.3 RB1 BACH1 MAX ZNF175 FOSL1 ZNF316 TRIM24 ZNF584 NFE2 ATF7 TG SLA WISP1 TMEM71 PHF20L1 MIR7848 GC08P133041
GH08H133215 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 +350.6 350574 3 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ATF1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 YY1 SLC30A9 ATF7 WISP1 NDRG1 TG ST3GAL1 GC08M133212 LOC102723635
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for TG Gene

Genomic Locations for TG Gene
267,969 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TG Gene

Genes around TG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TG Gene

Proteins for TG Gene

  • Protein details for TG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O15274
    • O43899
    • Q15593
    • Q15948
    • Q9NYR1
    • Q9NYR2
    • Q9UMZ0
    • Q9UNY3

    Protein attributes for TG Gene

    2768 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    304790 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Alternative splice isoforms for TG Gene


neXtProt entry for TG Gene

Post-translational modifications for TG Gene

  • Sulfated tyrosines are desulfated during iodination.
  • Glycosylation at Asn76, Asn198, posLast=484484, Asn529, posLast=748748, posLast=816816, posLast=947947, Asn1220, Asn1348, posLast=13491349, posLast=13651365, posLast=17161716, posLast=17741774, Asn2013, posLast=22502250, Asn2295, posLast=25822582, and posLast=27492749
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TG Gene

Domains & Families for TG Gene

Gene Families for TG Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TG Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.
  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TG: view

Function for TG Gene

Molecular function for TG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thyroglobulin,precursor of thyroid hormone,involved in storage of iodine and of inactive thyroid hormones
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Precursor of the iodinated thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TG: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TG Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TG Gene

Localization for TG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TG Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
endosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS 14718574
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TG Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TG: view

Pathways by source for TG Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for TG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 3016640
GO:0015705 iodide transport IEA --
GO:0030878 thyroid gland development IEP 15494458
GO:0031641 regulation of myelination IEA --
GO:0042403 thyroid hormone metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TG Gene

(70) Drugs for TG Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fluoxetine Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Channel blocker 243
Oregano Approved Nutra 8
Uric Acid Experimental, Investigational Pharma 148
Anticholesteremic Agents Pharma 2073
Antidepressive Agents Pharma 2783

(43) Additional Compounds for TG Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TG: view

Transcripts for TG Gene

Unigene Clusters for TG Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TG Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (x52.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (68.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TG Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TG Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TG Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TG Gene:

Tissue specificity: Thyroid gland specific.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TG Gene

  • Thyroid gland(5)
  • Heart(3.7)
  • Kidney(3.3)
  • Lymph node(3.2)
  • Intestine(3)
  • Blood(2.6)
  • Adrenal gland(2.5)
  • Lung(2.5)
  • Nervous system(2.2)
  • Liver(2)
  • Muscle(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TG Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • face
  • head
  • hypothalamus
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • parathyroid
  • pharynx
  • pituitary gland
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • tongue
  • breast
  • heart
  • lung
  • abdominal wall
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • small intestine
  • ovary
  • rectum
  • urinary bladder
  • uterus
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • sweat gland
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TG: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for TG Gene

Orthologs for TG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TG 34 33
  • 98.93 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TG 33 34
  • 82.42 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TG 33 34
  • 82.08 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tg 34 16 33
  • 78.6 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tg 33
  • 78.02 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TG 34
  • 63 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TG 34
  • 51 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TG 34 33
  • 61.3 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TG 34
  • 53 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tg 33
  • 55.55 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tg 34 33
  • 52.54 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta alpha-Est8 34
  • 18 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y75B8A.3 34
  • 12 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 17 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TG Gene

Gene Tree for TG (if available)
Gene Tree for TG (if available)

Paralogs for TG Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TG Gene

Variants for TG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs121912649 Pathogenic, Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 (TDH3) [MIM:274700] 132,967,797(+) AGGTT(A/G)TGTGC reference, missense
rs121912650 Pathogenic, Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 (TDH3) [MIM:274700] 133,022,121(+) CTACC(A/G)AGTGG reference, missense
rs137854434 Pathogenic, Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 (TDH3) [MIM:274700] 133,029,907(+) TTGGC(A/G)GGGAC reference, missense
rs2076738 Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 (TDH3) [MIM:274700] 132,906,843(+) TGATA(C/T)GTAGC reference, missense
rs2076739 Pathogenic, Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 (TDH3) [MIM:274700] 132,971,804(+) TTGAA(A/T)GTGAA reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv981981 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv949988 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv831463 CNV gain 17160897
nsv6403 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv6402 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv612328 CNV loss 21841781
nsv526697 CNV loss 19592680
nsv525105 CNV loss 19592680
nsv509279 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv482993 CNV loss 15286789
nsv473380 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv465818 CNV loss 19166990
esv6449 OTHER inversion 19470904
esv3618884 CNV loss 21293372
esv3618883 CNV loss 21293372
esv3573002 CNV loss 25503493
esv3573001 CNV loss 25503493
esv33561 CNV loss 17666407
esv33548 CNV gain 17666407
esv33367 CNV loss 17666407
esv32991 CNV loss 17666407
esv32776 CNV gain 17666407
esv32666 CNV gain 17666407
esv2622999 CNV insertion 19546169
esv1530894 CNV insertion 17803354
dgv2116e212 CNV loss 25503493

Variation tolerance for TG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 99.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 17.54; 98.24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TG Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TG Gene

Disorders for TG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(89) MalaCards diseases for TG Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3
  • tdh3
familial thyroid dyshormonogenesis
  • thyroid dyshormonogenesis
autoimmune thyroid disease 3
  • aitd3
  • goitre
  • thyroid deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Autoimmune thyroid disease 3 (AITD3) [MIM:608175]: A complex autoimmune disorder comprising two related diseases affecting the thyroid: Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In both disorders, thyroid-reactive T-cells are formed and infiltrate the thyroid gland. In Graves disease, the majority of the T-cells undergo a Th2 differentiation and activate B-cells to produce antibodies against the TSH receptor, which stimulate the thyroid and cause clinical hyperthyroidism. In contrast, Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by Th1 switching of the thyroid-infiltrating T-cells, which induces apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells and clinical hypothyroidism. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14657345}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 (TDH3) [MIM:274700]: A disorder due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis, causing large goiters of elastic and soft consistency in the majority of patients. Although the degree of thyroid dysfunction varies considerably among patients with defective thyroglobulin synthesis, patients usually have a relatively high serum free triiodothyronine (T3) concentration with disproportionately low free tetraiodothyronine (T4) level. The maintenance of relatively high free T3 levels prevents profound tissue hypothyroidism except in brain and pituitary, which are dependent on T4 supply, resulting in neurologic and intellectual defects in some cases. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10199792, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16477365, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17244789, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17532758, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19509106, ECO:0000269 PubMed:27305979}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for TG Gene

goiter associated to hypothyroidism and variant type of adenomatous goiter

Relevant External Links for TG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TG: view

Publications for TG Gene

  1. The p.A2215D thyroglobulin gene mutation leads to deficient synthesis and secretion of the mutated protein and congenital hypothyroidism with wide phenotype variation. (PMID: 19509106) Pardo V … Medeiros-Neto G (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2009) 3 4 22 60
  2. Congenital hypothyroidism with goitre caused by new mutations in the thyroglobulin gene. (PMID: 17532758) Caputo M … Targovnik HM (Clinical endocrinology 2007) 3 4 22 60
  3. A novel compound heterozygous mutation in the thyroglobulin gene resulting in congenital goitrous hypothyroidism with high serum triiodothyronine levels. (PMID: 16477365) Kitanaka S … Igarashi T (Journal of human genetics 2006) 3 4 22 60
  4. Possible interaction between HLA-DRbeta1 and thyroglobulin variants in Graves' disease. (PMID: 16646680) Hodge SE … Tomer Y (Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association 2006) 3 22 45 60
  5. Two novel cysteine substitutions (C1263R and C1995S) of thyroglobulin cause a defect in intracellular transport of thyroglobulin in patients with congenital goiter and the variant type of adenomatous goiter. (PMID: 10199792) Hishinuma A … Ieiri T (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 1999) 3 4 22 60

Products for TG Gene

Sources for TG Gene

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