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Aliases for TG Gene

Aliases for TG Gene

  • Thyroglobulin 2 3
  • AITD3 3 6
  • TDH3 6
  • TGN 3
  • Tg 4

External Ids for TG Gene

Summaries for TG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TG Gene

  • Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a glycoprotein homodimer produced predominantly by the thryroid gland. It acts as a substrate for the synthesis of thyroxine and triiodothyronine as well as the storage of the inactive forms of thyroid hormone and iodine. Thyroglobulin is secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum to its site of iodination, and subsequent thyroxine biosynthesis, in the follicular lumen. Mutations in this gene cause thyroid dyshormonogenesis, manifested as goiter, and are associated with moderate to severe congenital hypothyroidism. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) such as Graves disease and Hashimoto thryoiditis. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TG Gene

TG (Thyroglobulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TG include thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 and malignant struma ovarii. Among its related pathways are Insulin secretion and Allograft rejection. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TG Gene

  • Precursor of the iodinated thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

Gene Wiki entry for TG Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TG Gene

Genomics for TG Gene

Genomic Location for TG Gene

Start:
132,866,916 bp from pter
End:
133,134,903 bp from pter
Size:
267,988 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TG Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TG Gene

Regulatory Elements for TG Gene

Proteins for TG Gene

  • Protein details for TG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P01266-THYG_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Thyroglobulin
    Protein Accession:
    P01266
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O15274
    • O43899
    • Q15593
    • Q15948
    • Q9NYR1
    • Q9NYR2
    • Q9UMZ0
    • Q9UNY3

    Protein attributes for TG Gene

    Size:
    2768 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    304790 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer

    Alternative splice isoforms for TG Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TG Gene

Proteomics data for TG Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TG Gene

  • Sulfated tyrosines are desulfated during iodination.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Asn76, Asn198, Asn484, Asn529, Asn748, Asn816, Asn947, Asn1220, Asn1348, Asn1349, Asn1365, Asn1716, Asn1774, Asn2013, Asn2250, Asn2295, Asn2582, and Ser2749

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TG Gene

Domains for TG Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

THYG_HUMAN
Domain:
  • Contains 11 thyroglobulin type-1 domains.:
    • P01266
Family:
  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.:
    • P01266
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TG: view

No data available for Gene Families for TG Gene

Function for TG Gene

Molecular function for TG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: thyroglobulin,precursor of thyroid hormone,involved in storage of iodine and of inactive thyroid hormones
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Precursor of the iodinated thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0052689 carboxylic ester hydrolase activity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TG: view

miRNA for TG Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TG

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TG Gene

Localization for TG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TG Gene

Secreted.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TG Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 3
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 2
golgi apparatus 2
lysosome 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
vacuole 2
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS 14718574
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view

Pathways for TG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TG: view

Pathways by source for TG Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for TG Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006590 thyroid hormone generation --
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 3016640
GO:0015705 iodide transport IEA --
GO:0030878 thyroid gland development IEP 15494458
GO:0031641 regulation of myelination IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view

Compounds for TG Gene

(98) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TG Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
iodine 91.3 185
thyroxine 90.9 160
iodide 83.8 98
triiodothyronine 83.3 131
sodium iodide 78.5 22
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TG: view

Transcripts for TG Gene

Unigene Clusters for TG Gene

Thyroglobulin:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TG Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TG
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TG

Expression for TG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (52.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TG Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TG Gene Hs.654591

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TG Gene

P01266-THYG_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Thyroid gland specific
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TG: view

Orthologs for TG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TG 36
  • 98.93 (n)
  • 98.25 (a)
TG 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TG 36
  • 82.08 (n)
  • 77.51 (a)
TG 37
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TG 36
  • 82.42 (n)
  • 78.83 (a)
TG 37
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tg 36
  • 78.6 (n)
  • 74.35 (a)
Tg 16
Tg 37
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TG 37
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TG 37
  • 51 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tg 36
  • 78.02 (n)
  • 73.62 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TG 36
  • 61.3 (n)
  • 55.62 (a)
TG 37
  • 54 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TG 37
  • 53 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tg 36
  • 55.55 (n)
  • 48.51 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tg 36
  • 52.54 (n)
  • 44.44 (a)
tg 37
  • 42 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta alpha-Est8 37
  • 18 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y75B8A.3 37
  • 12 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 17 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for TG:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TG Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TG (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TG (if available)

Paralogs for TG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TG: view

No data available for Paralogs for TG Gene

Variants for TG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs3161 -- 133,027,845(+) AGTTT(C/T)TTCAC intron-variant
rs10571 -- 133,134,821(+) AACCT(A/C)ACCCG utr-variant-3-prime
rs180193 -- 132,865,017(+) gTGGA(C/T)CTGAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs180194 -- 132,865,182(+) GTTTA(C/T)ATCAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs180195 -- 132,865,378(+) ttaaa(A/G)gaaat upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831463 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv509279 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv33367 CNV Loss 17666407
esv32666 CNV Gain 17666407
esv1530894 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv2622999 CNV Insertion 19546169
esv32776 CNV Gain 17666407
esv6449 OTHER Inversion 19470904
esv33561 CNV Loss 17666407
nsv482993 CNV Loss 15286789
esv32991 CNV Loss 17666407
nsv6402 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv525105 CNV Loss 19592680
esv33548 CNV Gain 17666407
nsv465818 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv526697 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv6403 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv891456 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for TG Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
TG
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TG

Disorders for TG Gene

(2) OMIM Diseases for TG Gene (188450)

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

THYG_HUMAN
  • Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 (TDH3) [MIM:274700]: A disorder due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis, causing large goiters of elastic and soft consistency in the majority of patients. Although the degree of thyroid dysfunction varies considerably among patients with defective thyroglobulin synthesis, patients usually have a relatively high serum free triiodothyronine (T3) concentration with disproportionately low free tetraiodothyronine (T4) level. The maintenance of relatively high free T3 levels prevents profound tissue hypothyroidism except in brain and pituitary, which are dependent on T4 supply, resulting in neurologic and intellectual defects in some cases. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10199792, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16477365, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17244789, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17532758, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19509106}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease 3 (AITD3) [MIM:608175]: A complex autoimmune disorder comprising two related diseases affecting the thyroid: Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In both disorders, thyroid-reactive T-cells are formed and infiltrate the thyroid gland. In Graves disease, the majority of the T-cells undergo a Th2 differentiation and activate B-cells to produce antibodies against the TSH receptor, which stimulate the thyroid and cause clinical hyperthyroidism. In contrast, Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by Th1 switching of the thyroid-infiltrating T-cells, which induces apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells and clinical hypothyroidism. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14657345}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(95) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TG Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
thyroid carcinoma 95.4 172
thyroid cancer 95 172
autoimmune thyroid disease 92.8 91
hashimotos thyroiditis 90.5 75
graves disease 89.4 98

Genatlas disease for TG Gene

goiter associated to hypothyroidism and variant type of adenomatous goiter

Relevant External Links for TG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TG
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TG
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TG: view

Publications for TG Gene

  1. Characterization of hormonogenic sites in an N-terminal, cyanogen bromide fragment of human thyroglobulin. (PMID: 7793989) Xiao S. … Rawitch A.B. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1995) 3 4 23
  2. Preferential sites of proteolytic cleavage of bovine, human and rat thyroglobulin. The use of limited proteolysis to detect solvent- exposed regions of the primary structure. (PMID: 8269951) Gentile F. … Salvatore G. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1993) 3 4 23
  3. Characterization of the type-1 repeat from thyroglobulin, a cysteine- rich module found in proteins from different families. (PMID: 8797845) Molina F. … Granier C. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1996) 3 4 23
  4. Glycosylation in human thyroglobulin: location of the N-linked oligosaccharide units and comparison with bovine thyroglobulin. (PMID: 8615697) Yang S.X. … Rawitch A.B. (Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1996) 3 4 23
  5. Two novel cysteine substitutions (C1263R and C1995S) of thyroglobulin cause a defect in intracellular transport of thyroglobulin in patients with congenital goiter and the variant type of adenomatous goiter. (PMID: 10199792) Hishinuma A. … Ieiri T. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1999) 3 4 23

Products for TG Gene

Sources for TG Gene

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