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Aliases for TG Gene

Aliases for TG Gene

  • Thyroglobulin 2 3
  • AITD3 3
  • TGN 3
  • Tg 4

External Ids for TG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TG Gene

  • GC08P132608
  • GC08P133966
  • GC08P133550
  • GC08P133835
  • GC08P133948
  • GC08P129197
  • GC08P133879

Summaries for TG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TG Gene

  • Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a glycoprotein homodimer produced predominantly by the thryroid gland. It acts as a substrate for the synthesis of thyroxine and triiodothyronine as well as the storage of the inactive forms of thyroid hormone and iodine. Thyroglobulin is secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum to its site of iodination, and subsequent thyroxine biosynthesis, in the follicular lumen. Mutations in this gene cause thyroid dyshormonogenesis, manifested as goiter, and are associated with moderate to severe congenital hypothyroidism. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) such as Graves disease and Hashimoto thryoiditis. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TG Gene

TG (Thyroglobulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TG include familial thyroid dyshormonogenesis and autoimmune thyroid disease 3. Among its related pathways are Thyroxine (Thyroid Hormone) Production and Insulin secretion. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and carboxylic ester hydrolase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TG Gene

  • Precursor of the iodinated thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

Gene Wiki entry for TG Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TG Gene

Genomics for TG Gene

Regulatory Elements for TG Gene

Genomic Location for TG Gene

132,866,935 bp from pter
133,134,903 bp from pter
267,969 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TG Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TG Gene

Proteins for TG Gene

  • Protein details for TG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O15274
    • O43899
    • Q15593
    • Q15948
    • Q9NYR1
    • Q9NYR2
    • Q9UMZ0
    • Q9UNY3

    Protein attributes for TG Gene

    2768 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    304790 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer

    Alternative splice isoforms for TG Gene


neXtProt entry for TG Gene

Proteomics data for TG Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TG Gene

  • Sulfated tyrosines are desulfated during iodination.
  • Glycosylation at Asn 76, Asn 198, Asn 484, Asn 529, Asn 748, Asn 816, Asn 947, Asn 1220, Asn 1348, Asn 1349, Asn 1365, Asn 1716, Asn 1774, Asn 2013, Asn 2250, Asn 2295, Asn 2582, and Ser 2749
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TG Gene

Domains & Families for TG Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TG Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 11 thyroglobulin type-1 domains.
  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.
  • Contains 11 thyroglobulin type-1 domains.
  • Belongs to the type-B carboxylesterase/lipase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TG: view

No data available for Gene Families for TG Gene

Function for TG Gene

Molecular function for TG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thyroglobulin,precursor of thyroid hormone,involved in storage of iodine and of inactive thyroid hormones
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Precursor of the iodinated thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005102 receptor binding --
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0032403 protein complex binding IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
GO:0043168 anion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TG: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TG Gene

Localization for TG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TG Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TG Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
golgi apparatus 2
lysosome 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
vacuole 2
endosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS 14718574
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
GO:0043234 protein complex IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view

Pathways & Interactions for TG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TG: view

Pathways by source for TG Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for TG Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction NAS 3016640
GO:0009268 response to pH IEA --
GO:0015705 iodide transport IEA --
GO:0030878 thyroid gland development IEP 15494458
GO:0031641 regulation of myelination IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TG: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TG Gene

(55) Drugs for TG Gene - From: NovoSeek and ClinicalTrials

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Atorvastatin Approved Pharma Competitive, Inhibitor 690
Fluoxetine Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor 217
Amiodarone Approved, Investigational Pharma Pore Blocker 110
Carbachol Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 3
Chlorpromazine Approved Pharma Channel blocker 13

(52) Additional Compounds for TG Gene - From: NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
18F Fluorodeoxyglucose
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TG: view

Transcripts for TG Gene

Unigene Clusters for TG Gene

Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TG Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (x52.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (68.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TG Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TG Gene Hs.654591

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TG Gene

Tissue specificity: Thyroid gland specific
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TG: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners for TG Gene

Orthologs for TG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TG 35
  • 82.08 (n)
  • 77.51 (a)
TG 36
  • 78 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TG 35
  • 82.42 (n)
  • 78.83 (a)
TG 36
  • 79 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tg 35
  • 78.6 (n)
  • 74.35 (a)
Tg 16
Tg 36
  • 74 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TG 35
  • 98.93 (n)
  • 98.25 (a)
TG 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tg 35
  • 78.02 (n)
  • 73.62 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TG 36
  • 63 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TG 36
  • 51 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TG 35
  • 61.3 (n)
  • 55.62 (a)
TG 36
  • 54 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TG 36
  • 53 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tg 35
  • 55.55 (n)
  • 48.51 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tg 35
  • 52.54 (n)
  • 44.44 (a)
tg 36
  • 42 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta alpha-Est8 36
  • 18 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y75B8A.3 36
  • 12 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 17 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TG:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TG Gene

Gene Tree for TG (if available)
Gene Tree for TG (if available)

Paralogs for TG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TG: view

No data available for Paralogs for TG Gene

Variants for TG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs3161 -- 133,027,845(+) AGTTT(C/T)TTCAC intron-variant
rs10571 -- 133,134,821(+) AACCT(A/C)ACCCG utr-variant-3-prime
rs180193 -- 132,865,017(+) gTGGA(C/T)CTGAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs180194 -- 132,865,182(+) GTTTA(C/T)ATCAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs180195 -- 132,865,378(+) ttaaa(A/G)gaaat upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831463 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv509279 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv33367 CNV Loss 17666407
esv32666 CNV Gain 17666407
esv1530894 CNV Insertion 17803354
esv2622999 CNV Insertion 19546169
esv32776 CNV Gain 17666407
esv6449 OTHER Inversion 19470904
esv33561 CNV Loss 17666407
nsv482993 CNV Loss 15286789
esv32991 CNV Loss 17666407
nsv6402 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv525105 CNV Loss 19592680
esv33548 CNV Gain 17666407
nsv465818 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv526697 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv6403 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv891456 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for TG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 99.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 17.54; 98.24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TG Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TG Gene

Disorders for TG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(86) MalaCards diseases for TG Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
familial thyroid dyshormonogenesis
  • thyroid dyshormonogenesis
autoimmune thyroid disease 3
  • autoimmune thyroid disease, susceptibility to, 3
thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3
  • tdh3
  • thyroid deficiency
- elite association
Search TG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Autoimmune thyroid disease 3 (AITD3) [MIM:608175]: A complex autoimmune disorder comprising two related diseases affecting the thyroid: Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In both disorders, thyroid-reactive T-cells are formed and infiltrate the thyroid gland. In Graves disease, the majority of the T-cells undergo a Th2 differentiation and activate B-cells to produce antibodies against the TSH receptor, which stimulate the thyroid and cause clinical hyperthyroidism. In contrast, Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized by Th1 switching of the thyroid-infiltrating T-cells, which induces apoptosis of thyroid follicular cells and clinical hypothyroidism. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14657345}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 3 (TDH3) [MIM:274700]: A disorder due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis, causing large goiters of elastic and soft consistency in the majority of patients. Although the degree of thyroid dysfunction varies considerably among patients with defective thyroglobulin synthesis, patients usually have a relatively high serum free triiodothyronine (T3) concentration with disproportionately low free tetraiodothyronine (T4) level. The maintenance of relatively high free T3 levels prevents profound tissue hypothyroidism except in brain and pituitary, which are dependent on T4 supply, resulting in neurologic and intellectual defects in some cases. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10199792, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16477365, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17244789, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17532758, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19509106}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for TG Gene

goiter associated to hypothyroidism and variant type of adenomatous goiter

Relevant External Links for TG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TG: view

Publications for TG Gene

  1. Photoassisted synthesis of luminescent mannose-Au nanodots for the detection of thyroglobulin in serum. (PMID: 20063339) Huang C.C. … Chang H.T. (Chem Asian J 2010) 23 67
  2. Genetics and phenomics of hypothyroidism and goiter due to thyroglobulin mutations. (PMID: 20093166) Targovnik H.M. … Rivolta C.M. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2010) 23 67
  3. Evolution of mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPR300 and 46): lysosomal enzyme sorting proteins. (PMID: 20201808) Nadimpalli S.K. … Amancha P.K. (Curr. Protein Pept. Sci. 2010) 23 67
  4. Low thyroglobulin concentrations after thyroidectomy increase the prognostic value of undetectable thyroglobulin levels on levo-thyroxine suppressive treatment in low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer. (PMID: 19636213) Piccardo A. … Orlandi F. (J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2010) 23 67
  5. TSH receptor and thyroid-specific gene expression in human skin. (PMID: 19641516) Cianfarani F. … D'Armiento M. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 2010) 23 67

Products for TG Gene

Sources for TG Gene

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