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Aliases for TFF2 Gene

Aliases for TFF2 Gene

  • Trefoil Factor 2 2 3 5
  • Spasmolytic Polypeptide 3 4
  • Spasmolytic Protein 1 2 3
  • Spasmolysin 3 4
  • SML1 3 4
  • SP 3 4

External Ids for TFF2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TFF2 Gene

  • SML1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TFF2 Gene

  • GC21M040314
  • GC21M042661
  • GC21M042660
  • GC21M042639
  • GC21M043766
  • GC21M029184

Summaries for TFF2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TFF2 Gene

  • Members of the trefoil family are characterized by having at least one copy of the trefoil motif, a 40-amino acid domain that contains three conserved disulfides. They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. Their functions are not defined, but they may protect the mucosa from insults, stabilize the mucus layer and affect healing of the epithelium. The encoded protein inhibits gastric acid secretion. This gene and two other related trefoil family member genes are found in a cluster on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TFF2 Gene

TFF2 (Trefoil Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TFF2 include Gastritis and Gastric Cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include CXCR4 chemokine receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is TFF1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TFF2 Gene

  • Inhibits gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion. Could function as a structural component of gastric mucus, possibly by stabilizing glycoproteins in the mucus gel through interactions with carbohydrate side chains (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for TFF2 Gene

Additional gene information for TFF2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TFF2 Gene

Genomics for TFF2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TFF2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TFF2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH21I042348 Promoter/Enhancer 1.1 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 +0.8 794 3.2 TCF12 MAX HMBOX1 LOC105372815 TFF2 TFF1 TFF3
GH21I042218 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 +130.4 130385 3.9 PKNOX1 SIN3A ZBTB40 ZNF335 GLIS2 SCRT2 SMARCA5 ZNF362 RXRA ZBTB11 ABCG1 RNA5SP492 TFF2 ZBTB21 UMODL1 LOC105372814
GH21I042512 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 -165.0 -164988 6.7 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK NEUROD1 SIN3A BRCA1 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF207 FOS SLC37A1 ENSG00000235772 RSPH1 PKNOX1 TFF2 ENSG00000227698 ENSG00000231867
GH21I042402 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 -54.0 -53992 4.6 ATF1 FOXA2 ARNT TCF12 ZNF766 GATA2 ATF7 NCOA1 ZNF592 MBD2 UBASH3A TFF1 TFF2 TFF3 TMPRSS3 RNU6-1149P
GH21I042231 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11 +115.7 115666 7.7 HDGF PKNOX1 SIN3A FEZF1 IRF4 TCF12 GLIS2 ZNF207 ZNF143 ATF7 GC21M042234 ABCG1 UMODL1 PRDM15 ENSG00000233754 U2AF1 TFF2 ZBTB21 WDR4 C2CD2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TFF2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TFF2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TFF2 Gene

Genomic Locations for TFF2 Gene
4,772 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TFF2 Gene

Genes around TFF2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TFF2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TFF2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TFF2 Gene

Proteins for TFF2 Gene

  • Protein details for TFF2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Trefoil factor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15854

    Protein attributes for TFF2 Gene

    129 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    14284 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for TFF2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TFF2 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for TFF2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TFF2 Gene

Domains & Families for TFF2 Gene

Gene Families for TFF2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for TFF2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TFF2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TFF2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TFF2 Gene

Function for TFF2 Gene

Molecular function for TFF2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
spasmolytic protein,spasmolysin inhibitor of gastric acid secretion and spasmolytic activity in pig,overexpressed in gastritis ulceration,metaplasia and in some digestive tumors (stomach,pancreas,biliary tract)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Inhibits gastrointestinal motility and gastric acid secretion. Could function as a structural component of gastric mucus, possibly by stabilizing glycoproteins in the mucus gel through interactions with carbohydrate side chains (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TFF2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TFF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21982860
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TFF2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TFF2: view

Animal Models for TFF2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TFF2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for TFF2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TFF2

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TFF2 Gene

Localization for TFF2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TFF2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TFF2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TFF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA,HDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TFF2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TFF2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TFF2 Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TFF2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007586 digestion TAS 8836141
GO:0042060 wound healing IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TFF2: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for TFF2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TFF2 Gene

(7) Drugs for TFF2 Gene - From: DrugBank and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pidolic Acid Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma Target 0

(1) Additional Compounds for TFF2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TFF2: view

Transcripts for TFF2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TFF2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TFF2 Gene

Trefoil factor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TFF2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c
SP2: -
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for TFF2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TFF2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TFF2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TFF2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x52.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TFF2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreatic juice (44.3) and Urine (19.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TFF2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TFF2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TFF2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TFF2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TFF2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Stomach.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TFF2 Gene

  • Stomach(4.9)
  • Intestine(4.5)
  • Lung(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TFF2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TFF2 Gene

Orthologs for TFF2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TFF2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TFF2 33 34
  • 99.74 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tff2 33 16 34
  • 83.33 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TFF2 33 34
  • 79.33 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tff2 33
  • 79.07 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TFF2 33 34
  • 75.97 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TFF2 34
  • 62 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TFF2 34
  • 41 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 47 (a)
-- 34
  • 22 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TFF2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TFF2 Gene

Gene Tree for TFF2 (if available)
Gene Tree for TFF2 (if available)

Paralogs for TFF2 Gene

Paralogs for TFF2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TFF2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TFF2: view

Variants for TFF2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TFF2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 21 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000395550 -- 42,348,275(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1002532139 -- 42,348,965(-) A/T intron_variant
rs1003734794 -- 42,346,202(-) A/G downstream_transcript_variant
rs1003755707 -- 42,353,010(-) G/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1003843111 -- 42,347,979(-) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TFF2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1119498 CNV insertion 24896259
nsv1125746 CNV tandem duplication 24896259

Variation tolerance for TFF2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 92.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.79; 33.83% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TFF2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TFF2 Gene

Disorders for TFF2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for TFF2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • acute gastric mucosal erosion
gastric cancer
  • gastric cancer, somatic
gastrointestinal adenoma
  • gi adenoma
barrett esophagus
  • barrett metaplasia
inflammatory bowel disease
  • inflammatory bowel diseases
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TFF2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TFF2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TFF2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TFF2 Gene

Publications for TFF2 Gene

  1. The three human trefoil genes TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 are located within a region of 55 kb on chromosome 21q22.3. (PMID: 9070946) Seib T … Welter C (Genomics 1997) 3 4 22 58
  2. Human trefoil peptides: genomic structure in 21q22.3 and coordinated expression. (PMID: 9043862) Gött P … Blin N (European journal of human genetics : EJHG 1996) 2 3 22 58
  3. The gene encoding the human spasmolytic protein (SML1/hSP) is in 21q 22.3, physically linked to the homologous breast cancer marker gene BCEI/pS2. (PMID: 1505966) Tomasetto C … Rio MC (Genomics 1992) 2 3 22 58
  4. Synthesis and localization of trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides in the human urinary tract and TFF2 excretion into the urine. (PMID: 20063012) Rinnert M … Hoffmann W (Cell and tissue research 2010) 3 22 58
  5. Secreted trefoil factor 2 activates the CXCR4 receptor in epithelial and lymphocytic cancer cell lines. (PMID: 19064997) Dubeykovskaya Z … Wang TC (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 22 58

Products for TFF2 Gene

Sources for TFF2 Gene

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