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Aliases for TDO2 Gene

Aliases for TDO2 Gene

  • Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase 2 3 5
  • Tryptamin 2,3-Dioxygenase 3 4
  • Tryptophan Oxygenase 3 4
  • Tryptophan Pyrrolase 3 4
  • Tryptophanase 3 4
  • EC 1.13.11.11 4 63

External Ids for TDO2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TDO2 Gene

  • GC04P157712
  • GC04P157252
  • GC04P157402
  • GC04P157182
  • GC04P157044
  • GC04P156824
  • GC04P152563

Summaries for TDO2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TDO2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a heme enzyme that plays a critical role in tryptophan metabolism by catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway. Increased activity of the encoded protein and subsequent kynurenine production may also play a role in cancer through the suppression of antitumor immune responses, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with autism. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GeneCards Summary for TDO2 Gene

TDO2 (Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TDO2 include Trichodontoosseous Syndrome and Amelogenesis Imperfecta, Type Iv. Among its related pathways are Monoamine Transport and Histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, proline and tryptophan catabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include heme binding and amino acid binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TDO2 Gene

  • Incorporates oxygen into the indole moiety of tryptophan. Has a broad specificity towards tryptamine and derivatives including D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for TDO2 Gene

Gene Wiki entry for TDO2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TDO2 Gene

Genomics for TDO2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TDO2 Gene

Enhancers for TDO2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TDO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TDO2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TDO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TDO2 Gene

Chromosome:
4
Start:
155,854,738 bp from pter
End:
155,920,406 bp from pter
Size:
65,669 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TDO2 Gene

Genes around TDO2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TDO2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TDO2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TDO2 Gene

Proteins for TDO2 Gene

  • Protein details for TDO2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P48775-T23O_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
    Protein Accession:
    P48775
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K053

    Protein attributes for TDO2 Gene

    Size:
    406 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47872 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=heme; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:30413;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TDO2 Gene

neXtProt entry for TDO2 Gene

Proteomics data for TDO2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TDO2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TDO2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for TDO2 Gene

Protein Domains for TDO2 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TDO2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P48775

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

T23O_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TDO2: view

No data available for Gene Families for TDO2 Gene

Function for TDO2 Gene

Molecular function for TDO2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tryptophan 2-3 dioxygenase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-tryptophan + O(2) = N-formyl-L-kynurenine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Incorporates oxygen into the indole moiety of tryptophan. Has a broad specificity towards tryptamine and derivatives including D- and L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin (By similarity).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TDO2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TDO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004833 tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16189514
GO:0019825 oxygen binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TDO2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TDO2: view

Animal Models for TDO2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TDO2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TDO2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TDO2 Gene

Localization for TDO2 Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TDO2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TDO2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
vacuole 1

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TDO2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TDO2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TDO2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P48775-T23O_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-tryptophan degradation via kynurenine pathway; L-kynurenine from L-tryptophan: step 1/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TDO2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006569 tryptophan catabolic process TAS --
GO:0019441 tryptophan catabolic process to kynurenine IEA --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TDO2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TDO2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TDO2 Gene

(20) Drugs for TDO2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Tryptophan Approved Nutra Positive, Allosteric regulator, Enzyme, substrate 0
Nalidixic Acid Approved Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 1
Tolmetin Approved Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 0
Febuxostat Pharma Xanthine oxidase inhibitor 50
Tranylcypromine hydrochloride Pharma Irreversible inhibitor of LSD1; also inhibits MAO 0

(17) Additional Compounds for TDO2 Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
oxygen
  • Dioxygen
  • Molecular oxygen
  • O2
  • Oxygen
  • Oxygen molecule
7782-44-7
L-Formylkynurenine
680C91
163239-22-3
MDL 72527
93565-01-6
RN 1 dihydrochloride

(5) Tocris Compounds for TDO2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
680C91 Potent and selective inhibitor of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 163239-22-3
Febuxostat Xanthine oxidase inhibitor 144060-53-7
MDL 72527 Polyamine oxidase (PAO) inhibitor 93565-01-6
RN 1 dihydrochloride LSD1 inhibitor
Tranylcypromine hydrochloride Irreversible inhibitor of LSD1; also inhibits MAO 1986-47-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TDO2: view

Transcripts for TDO2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TDO2 Gene

Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TDO2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - - -

Relevant External Links for TDO2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TDO2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TDO2

Expression for TDO2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TDO2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TDO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x49.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TDO2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (64.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TDO2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TDO2 Gene Hs.183671

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TDO2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TDO2 Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TDO2 Gene

Orthologs for TDO2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TDO2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TDO2 35
  • 86.78 (n)
  • 91.87 (a)
TDO2 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TDO2 35
  • 91.87 (n)
  • 94.33 (a)
TDO2 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tdo2 35
  • 83.58 (n)
  • 88.67 (a)
Tdo2 16
Tdo2 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TDO2 35
  • 99.59 (n)
  • 99.75 (a)
TDO2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tdo2 35
  • 83.99 (n)
  • 88.67 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TDO2 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TDO2 35
  • 78.33 (n)
  • 83.74 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TDO2 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tdo2 35
  • 75.78 (n)
  • 82.51 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.30711 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tdo2b 35
  • 67.57 (n)
  • 75.31 (a)
wufi30d08 35
tdo2a 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
tdo2b 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta v 37
  • 56 (a)
v 35
  • 60.11 (n)
  • 58.49 (a)
v 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta T23O_ANOGA 35
  • 55.64 (n)
  • 54.17 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C28H8.11 35
  • 56.28 (n)
  • 53.27 (a)
tdo-2 36
  • 51 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 47 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 41 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for TDO2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TDO2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TDO2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TDO2 (if available)

Paralogs for TDO2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TDO2 Gene

Variants for TDO2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TDO2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830121 CNV Gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for TDO2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 14.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.47; 43.38% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TDO2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TDO2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TDO2 Gene

Disorders for TDO2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for TDO2 Gene - From: OMIM, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
trichodontoosseous syndrome
  • tricho-dento-osseous syndrome
amelogenesis imperfecta, type iv
  • amelogenesis imperfecta, hypomaturation-hypoplastic type, with taurodontism
photoparoxysmal response 1
  • photosensitivity disease
swayback
  • swayback of sheep
parapsoriasis
  • parapsoriasis nos
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TDO2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TDO2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TDO2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TDO2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TDO2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TDO2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TDO2 Gene

Publications for TDO2 Gene

  1. Sequence of human tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2): presence of a glucocorticoid response-like element composed of a GTT repeat and an intronic CCCCT repeat. (PMID: 8666386) Comings D.E. … Forest G.L. (Genomics 1995) 3 4 23 67
  2. Oxidation of L-tryptophan in biology: a comparison between tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. (PMID: 19290871) Rafice S.A. … Raven E.L. (Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2009) 23 25 26
  3. Cooperative binding of L-trp to human tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase: resonance Raman spectroscopic analysis. (PMID: 19218188) Fukumura E. … Shiro Y. (J. Biochem. 2009) 3 23
  4. Antimicrobial and immunoregulatory properties of human tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. (PMID: 19637229) Schmidt S.K. … DAoubener W. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2009) 3 23
  5. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, tolmetin and sulindac, inhibit liver tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity and alter brain neurotransmitter levels. (PMID: 16952380) Dairam A. … Daya S. (Life Sci. 2006) 23 25

Products for TDO2 Gene

Sources for TDO2 Gene

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