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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

TDG Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 68
GCID: GC12P104359

Thymine-DNA Glycosylase

  See related diseases
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Thymine-DNA Glycosylase1 2 3
G/T Mismatch-Specific Thymine DNA Glycosylase1 2
hTDG2 3
EC 3.2.2.293

External Ids:    HGNC: 117001   Entrez Gene: 69962   Ensembl: ENSG000001393727   OMIM: 6014235   UniProtKB: Q135693   

Export aliases for TDG gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12P103472 GC12P104240 GC12P102862 GC12P101419


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for TDG Gene:
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TDG/mug DNA glycosylase family. Thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG)
removes thymine moieties from G/T mismatches by hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond between the sugar-phosphate
backbone of DNA and the mispaired thymine. With lower activity, this enzyme also removes thymine from C/T and T/T
mispairings. TDG can also remove uracil and 5-bromouracil from mispairings with guanine. This enzyme plays a
central role in cellular defense against genetic mutation caused by the spontaneous deamination of
5-methylcytosine and cytosine. This gene may have a pseudogene in the p arm of chromosome 12. (provided by
RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for TDG Gene: 
TDG (thymine-DNA glycosylase) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TDG include plummer's disease, and toxic diffuse goiter, and among its related super-pathways are Removal of DNA patch containing abasic residue and Base-free sugar-phosphate removal via the single-nucleotide replacement pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include damaged DNA binding and mismatched DNA binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TDG_HUMAN, Q13569
Function: DNA glycosylase that plays a key role in active DNA demethylation: specifically recognizes and binds
5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in the context of CpG sites and mediates their excision
through base-excision repair (BER) to install an unmethylated cytosine. Cannot remove 5-hydroxymethylcytosine
(5hmC). According to an alternative model, involved in DNA demethylation by mediating DNA glycolase activity
toward 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU) produced by deamination of 5hmC. Also involved in DNA repair by acting as a
thymine-DNA glycosylase that mediates correction of G/T mispairs to G/C pairs: in the DNA of higher eukaryotes,
hydrolytic deamination of 5-methylcytosine to thymine leads to the formation of G/T mismatches. Its role in the
repair of canonical base damage is however minor compared to its role in DNA demethylation. It is capable of
hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond between the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA and a mispaired thymine. In
addition to the G/T, it can remove thymine also from C/T and T/T mispairs in the order G/T >> C/T > T/T. It has
no detectable activity on apyrimidinic sites and does not catalyze the removal of thymine from A/T pairs or from
single-stranded DNA. It can also remove uracil and 5-bromouracil from mispairs with guanine

Gene Wiki entry for TDG (Thymine-DNA glycosylase) Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000012.11  NT_029419.12  NC_018923.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TDG gene promoter:
         ER-alpha   Pax-5   p300   Pax-2a   Evi-1   RORalpha1   FAC1   FOXO1a   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTDG promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for TDG

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat TDG


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12q24.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12q23.3   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12q24.1

TDG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TDG gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12P104359:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
104,359,582 bp from pter      End:
104,382,656 bp from pter
Size:
23,075 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TDG_HUMAN, Q13569 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: G/T mismatch-specific thymine DNA glycosylase  
Size: 410 amino acids; 46053 Da
Subunit: Homodimer. Interacts with AICDA and GADD45A
Subcellular location: Nucleus
6/8 PDB 3D structures from and Proteopedia for TDG (see all 8):
1WYW (3D)        2D07 (3D)        2RBA (3D)        3UFJ (3D)        3UO7 (3D)        3UOB (3D)    
Secondary accessions: Q8IUZ6 Q8IZM3

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TDG: NX_Q13569

Explore proteomics data for TDG at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • UniProtKB: Sumoylation on Lys-330 by either SUMO1 or SUMO2 induces dissociation of the product DNA
  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_Q13569

  • TDG Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    TDG Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_003202.3  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000376611   ENSP00000390167   ENSP00000266775   ENSP00000445899   ENSP00000439825  
     ENSP00000445716   ENSP00000439054  
    Reactome Protein details: Q13569
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for TDG: 
    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    Browse OriGene full length recombinant human proteins expressed in human HEK293 cells
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for TDG
    OriGene Custom MassSpec 
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for TDG
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for TDG
    Novus Biologicals TDG Proteins
    Novus Biologicals TDG Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
    ProSpec Recombinant Protein for TDG
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for TDG 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA8662714
    GO:0005654nucleoplasm TAS--
    GO:0016605PML body IEA--

    TDG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    TDG Antibody Products: 
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    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for TDG
    GenScript Custom Superior Antibodies Services for TDG
    Novus Biologicals TDG Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for TDG
    Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for TDG 
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for TDG
    LSBio Antibodies in human, mouse, rat for TDG 

    Assay Products for TDG: 
    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for TDG
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for TDG
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Cloud-Clone Corp. ELISAs for TDG 
    Cloud-Clone Corp. CLIAs for TDG


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    3 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR005122 Uracil-DNA_glycosylase-like
     IPR015637 DNA_glycosylase_G/T-mismatch
     IPR003310 Thymine-DNA_glycosylase

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q13569

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q13569

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB005122 Uracil-DNA glycosylase superfamily

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TDG_HUMAN, Q13569
    Similarity: Belongs to the TDG/mug DNA glycosylase family


    TDG for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TDG_HUMAN, Q13569
    Function: DNA glycosylase that plays a key role in active DNA demethylation: specifically recognizes and binds
    5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in the context of CpG sites and mediates their excision
    through base-excision repair (BER) to install an unmethylated cytosine. Cannot remove 5-hydroxymethylcytosine
    (5hmC). According to an alternative model, involved in DNA demethylation by mediating DNA glycolase activity
    toward 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU) produced by deamination of 5hmC. Also involved in DNA repair by acting as a
    thymine-DNA glycosylase that mediates correction of G/T mispairs to G/C pairs: in the DNA of higher eukaryotes,
    hydrolytic deamination of 5-methylcytosine to thymine leads to the formation of G/T mismatches. Its role in the
    repair of canonical base damage is however minor compared to its role in DNA demethylation. It is capable of
    hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond between the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA and a mispaired thymine. In
    addition to the G/T, it can remove thymine also from C/T and T/T mispairs in the order G/T >> C/T > T/T. It has
    no detectable activity on apyrimidinic sites and does not catalyze the removal of thymine from A/T pairs or from
    single-stranded DNA. It can also remove uracil and 5-bromouracil from mispairs with guanine
    Catalytic activity: Hydrolyzes mismatched double-stranded DNA and polynucleotides, releasing free thymine

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TDG:
    DNA glycosylase,thymine,46-55 kDa,nuclear G/T mismatch,also active toward 3,N-ethenocysteine adducts,specific,base
    excision repair,with delimited role in pancreatic ductal carcinogenesis

         Enzyme Number (IUBMB): EC 3.2.2.291

         Gene Ontology (GO): 5/13 molecular function terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0001104RNA polymerase II transcription cofactor activity IEA--
    GO:0003684damaged DNA binding TAS9489705
    GO:0003690double-stranded DNA binding IDA--
    GO:0005080protein kinase C binding IEA--
    GO:0005515protein binding IPI--
         
    TDG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Phenotypes:
         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 3 alleles(MGI details for Tdg):
     cardiovascular system  cellular  craniofacial  embryogenesis  growth/size 
     homeostasis/metabolism  limbs/digits/tail  liver/biliary system  mortality/aging  nervous system 

    TDG for phenotypes           About GeneDecksing

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for TDG: Tdgtm1.1Abc Tdgtm1Psch

       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for TDG 
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated inducible mouse model solutions for TDG

       genOway customized KO model: permanent, tissue-specific or time-controlled inactivation for TDG 
       genOway customized Knockin model: humanization, point mutation, expression monitoring, etc. for TDG 

    miRNA
    Products:
        
    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TDG:
    hsa-mir-29c (MIRT001921)

    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat TDG
    8/28 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate TDG (see all 28):
    hsa-miR-30c hsa-miR-217 hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-509-5p hsa-miR-767-5p hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-29c hsa-miR-30d
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTDG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
        
    Browse for Gene Knock-down Tools from EMD Millipore
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TDG
    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TDG

    Gene Editing
    Products:
    DNA2.0 Custom Protein Engineering Service for TDG
    Sirion Biotech Customized adenovirus for overexpression of TDG

    Clone
    Products:
         
    Browse Clones for the Expression of Recombinant Proteins Available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TDG (see all 9)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TDG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TDG (NM_003211)
    Browse Sino Biological Human cDNA Clones
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TDG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TDG
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of TDG 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of TDG 

    Cell Line
    Products:
         
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for TDG
    Search LifeMap BioReagents cell lines for TDG
    In Situ Assay
    Products:
       

     
    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TDG


    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for TDG About   (see all 6)                                                                                              See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Resolution of Abasic Sites (AP sites)
    Resolution of Abasic Sites (AP sites)0.89
    Removal of DNA patch containing abasic residue0.89
    Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway0.89
    Base excision repair0.53
    Base Excision Repair0.89
    2Base-Excision Repair, AP Site Formation
    Base-free sugar-phosphate removal via the single-nucleotide replacement pathway0.90
    Recognition and association of DNA glycosylase with site containing an affected pyrimidine0.62
    Displacement of DNA glycosylase by APE10.90
    Cleavage of the damaged pyrimidine 0.62
    Base-Excision Repair, AP Site Formation0.89
    Depyrimidination0.62
    Resolution of AP sites via the single-nucleotide replacement pathway0.83
    3Transcription P53 signaling pathway
    Transcription P53 signaling pathway0.98
    4Fluoropyrimidine Activity
    Fluoropyrimidine Activity0.69
    5Nucleotide Excision Repair
    DNA Repair0.46

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 EMD Millipore Pathway for TDG
        Transcription P53 signaling pathway


    1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) Pathway for TDG
        Transcription P53 signaling pathway

    1 BioSystems Pathway for TDG
        Fluoropyrimidine Activity

    5/12        Reactome Pathways for TDG (see all 12)
        Recognition and association of DNA glycosylase with site containing an affected pyrimidine
    Removal of DNA patch containing abasic residue
    DNA Repair
    Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway
    Base-Excision Repair, AP Site Formation

    1 PharmGKB Pathway for TDG
        Fluoropyrimidine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics

    1         Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for TDG):
        Base excision repair


    TDG for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Network for TDG

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    5/44 Interacting proteins for TDG (Q135691, 2, 3 ENSP000003766114) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 44)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    SNIP1Q8TAD82, 3MINT-62160 I2D: score=3 
    DDX39BQ138383, ENSP000003794754I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000379475
    ENSG00000215425Q138383I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000225073Q138383I2D: score=2 
    ENSG00000225859Q138383I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5/12 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view) (see all 12):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA--
    GO:0006281DNA repair TAS--
    GO:0006284base-excision repair TAS--
    GO:0006285base-excision repair, AP site formation TAS--
    GO:0006298mismatch repair IDA--

    TDG for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section

    TDG for compounds           About GeneDecksing

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for TDG

    1 HMDB Compound for TDG    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    Fructosamine1-Amino-1-deoxy-D-fructose (see all 2)4429-04-3--

    10 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TDG gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    3,n(4)-ethenocytosine 95.3 23 12493755 (6), 17270163 (4), 10767625 (1), 10995256 (1) (see all 5)
    thymine 92.2 156 9867812 (7), 12493755 (6), 9685338 (5), 11554300 (4) (see all 45)
    5-methylcytosine 90.8 17 12493755 (2), 10767625 (1), 11889051 (1), 9299239 (1) (see all 9)
    cytosine 79.8 11 11889051 (1), 17270163 (1), 18512959 (1), 10938281 (1) (see all 6)
    guanine 69.9 7 12954776 (1), 16984202 (1), 18789404 (1), 11554300 (1) (see all 6)
    adenine 57.3 3 12954776 (1), 16984202 (1), 17270163 (1)
    purine 38.1 1 12711670 (1)
    5fluorouracil 25.2 12 19402749 (6), 18054558 (1)
    atp 0 3 15157103 (1), 11376160 (1)
    estrogen 0 3 19652917 (2), 12874288 (1)

    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about TDG

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for TDG gene (2 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_003211.4  NM_001008411.1  

    Unigene Cluster for TDG:

    Thymine-DNA glycosylase
    Hs.584809  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_003211
    11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000392872(uc001tkg.3 uc009zuk.3 uc010swi.2 uc010swj.2)
    ENST00000436021 ENST00000545698 ENST00000266775 ENST00000544861 ENST00000537100
    ENST00000544060(uc010swh.1) ENST00000542926 ENST00000540956 ENST00000536395
    ENST00000542036
    miRNA
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    QIAGEN Custom miScript Target Protector blocks miRNA-binding site of human, mouse, rat TDG
    8/28 QIAGEN miScript miRNA Assays for microRNAs that regulate TDG (see all 28):
    hsa-miR-30c hsa-miR-217 hsa-miR-125a-5p hsa-miR-509-5p hsa-miR-767-5p hsa-miR-29a hsa-miR-29c hsa-miR-30d
    SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmidTDG 3' UTR sequence
    Inhib. RNA
    Products:
         
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    QIAGEN FlexiTube/FlexiPlate siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TDG
    Clone
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    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TDG (see all 9)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TDG
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector: TDG (NM_003211)
    DNA2.0 Custom Codon Optimized Gene Synthesis Service for TDG
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TDG
    Sirion Biotech Customized lentivirus for stable overexpression of TDG 
                         Customized lentivirus expression plasmids for stable overexpression of TDG 
    Primer
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    OriGene qPCR primer pairs and template standards for TDG
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TDG
    SABiosciences RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse / rat TDG
      QIAGEN QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TDG
      QIAGEN QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TDG

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AK295387.1 AK299832.1 AK303631.1 AK309792.1 AK311673.1 AK313234.1 BC001307.1 BC010945.1 
    BC019925.1 BC037557.1 BC071714.1 BC104477.1 DQ786320.1 XR_133016.3 

    22 DOTS entries:

    DT.100773293  DT.100824974  DT.313550  DT.95203205  DT.121182756  DT.101977448  DT.100835319  DT.100824975 
    DT.121182982  DT.121182926  DT.92469593  DT.121182693  DT.121182927  DT.100705623  DT.100710034  DT.449388 
    DT.100024114  DT.121182704  DT.95356374  DT.120703001  DT.455637  DT.75112079 

    24/213 AceView cDNA sequences (see all 213):

    AI521526 BM479641 BM476558 BX492385 BU187359 AI769788 AI669972 AI754361 
    CA426619 AW136393 AL120270 AA496947 AA477757 BM667014 F08625 AA316331 
    AI360256 AA748478 AA808472 CR595551 BM986950 AI285792 CK430453 F04833 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    5/9 Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TDG (see all 9)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b
    SP1:                                                                          -           -                                                   
    SP2:                                                                          -           -                                                   
    SP3:                                                                          -           -                                                   
    SP4:                                                                          -     -     -                                                   
    SP5:                                                                                                                                          


    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TDG

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TDG expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)      TDG embryonic expression: see
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: ACAGATGAGT
    TDG Expression
    About this image


    TDG expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database 
     5/34 selected tissues (see all 34) fully expand
     
     Epithelium
             vagina ; squamous epithelial cells   
     
     Uterus
             uterus, post-menopause ; glandular cells   
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
             seminal vesicle ; glandular cells   
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Kidney (Urinary System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Metanephros
             kidney ; cells in tubules   

    See TDG Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for TDG

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.584809
        SABiosciences Expression via Pathway-Focused PCR Array including TDG: 
              DNA Repair in human mouse rat

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for TDG gene from 6/16 species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tdg1 , 5 thymine DNA glycosylase1, 5 83.21(n)1
    88.51(a)1
      10 (39.72 cM)5
    216651  NM_172552.31  NP_766140.21 
     826298285 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TDG1 thymine-DNA glycosylase 78.11(n)
    80.35(a)
      395510  NM_204750.1  NP_990081.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TDG6
    Uncharacterized protein
    74(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    5(18190817-18205856)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.235732 Xenopus laevis, Similar to hypothetical protein E13 more 78.82(n)    BC041496.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tdg1 thymine-DNA glycosylase 62.33(n)
    62.5(a)
      553789  NM_001020751.1  NP_001018587.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta Thd13 nucleotide-excision repair
    pyrimidine-specific more
    50(a)   102C2   --


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TDG (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TDG (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for TDG gene

    TDG for paralogs           About GeneDecksing


    1 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogene for TDG
    PGOHUM00000239708


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/674 SNPs in TDG are shown (see all 674)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1433696771,2
    --104357663(+) ACAAAA/GACAAA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs111118581,2
    C,F,H--104357682(+) TTTTTT/AATAGA 1 -- us2k1 trp39Minor allele frequency- A:0.08NS EA WA CSA NA 722
    rs1728141,2
    C,F,A,H--104357814(-) TCTCAA/GCATCC 1 -- us2k17Minor allele frequency- G:0.08NS EA NA WA 630
    rs111118591,2
    A,H--104358082(+) acagaG/Aatggg 1 -- us2k14Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NS EA 416
    rs557800861,2
    C--104358127(+) CTGACC/GTCAGG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs760936941,2
    C--104358247(+) CTGGTC/ATCTTG 1 -- us2k12Minor allele frequency- A:0.10WA NA 122
    rs3221071,2
    C,F,A,H--104358331(-) GCACTC/TGGGGA 1 -- us2k114Minor allele frequency- T:0.09NS EA NA WA 1478
    rs1461967331,2
    --104358403(+) AAAGCA/TTTCAG 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1379253021,2
    --104358535(+) TCATTA/CACTCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs41350351,2
    C,F--104358647(+) AAACTTT/-AAACA 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- -:0.01NS 166

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TDG (104359582 - 104382656 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 10/13 variations for TDG (see all 13):    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2746304CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv218e201CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv217e201CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2039358CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2746302CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2746303CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2341266CNV Deletion18987734
    dgv216e201CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2137081CNV Deletion18987734
    esv9163CNV Loss19470904

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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section
    OMIM gene information: 601423    OMIM disorders: --

    20/24 diseases for TDG (see all 24):    About MalaCards
    plummer's disease    toxic diffuse goiter    xeroderma pigmentosum, group c    familial colorectal cancer
    goiter    xeroderma pigmentosum    pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma    graft versus host disease
    choroiditis    skin cancer    multiple myeloma    meningioma
    myeloma    colorectal cancer    multiple sclerosis    colon cancer
    gastric cancer    retinitis    adenocarcinoma    pancreatitis

    1 disease from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TDG:
    Toxic diffuse goiter

    TDG for disorders           About GeneDecksing

    3 Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TDG gene    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    tumors 5.25 1 9230216 (1)
    cancer 1.93 6 19402749 (2), 20428781 (1), 9230216 (1), 15225156 (1) (see all 5)
    cancer lung 0 2 15225156 (2)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TDG
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TDG (11 documents)

    Export disorders for TDG gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for TDG gene, integrated from 9 sources (see all 120):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TDG)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. Cloning and expression of human G/T mismatch-specific thymine-DNA glycosylase. (PubMed id 8662714)1, 2, 3, 9 Neddermann P.... Jiricny J. (1996)
    2. Crystal structure of SUMO-3-modified thymine-DNA glycosylase. (PubMed id 16626738)1, 2, 9 Baba D.... Shirakawa M. (2006)
    3. Modification of the human thymine-DNA glycosylase by ubiquitin-like proteins facilitates enzymatic turnover. (PubMed id 11889051)1, 2, 9 Hardeland U.... Schaer P. (2002)
    4. Polymorphisms in TDG and MGMT genes - epidemiological and functional study in lung cancer patients from Poland. (PubMed id 15225156)1, 4, 9 Krzesniak M....Rusin M. (2004)
    5. Crystal structure of human thymine DNA glycosylase bound to DNA elucidates sequence-specific mismatch recognition. (PubMed id 18587051)1, 2, 9 Maiti A....Drohat A.C. (2008)
    6. Crystal structure of thymine DNA glycosylase conjugated to SUMO-1. (PubMed id 15959518)1, 2, 9 Baba D.... Shirakawa M. (2005)
    7. Chromosomal localizations and molecular analysis of TDG gene-related sequences. (PubMed id 9299239)1, 3, 9 Sard L....Radice P. (1997)
    8. Polymorphisms in uracil-processing genes, but not one-carbon nutrients, are associated with altered DNA uracil concentrations in an urban Puerto Rican population. (PubMed id 19403629)1, 4, 9 Chanson A....Mason J.B. (2009)
    9. Thymine DNA glycosylase specifically recognizes 5-carb oxylcytosine-modified DNA. (PubMed id 22327402)1, 2 Zhang L....He C. (2012)
    10. Excision of 5-hydroxymethyluracil and 5-carboxylcytosi ne by the thymine DNA glycosylase domain: its structural basis and implications for active DNA demethylation. (PubMed id 22962365)1, 2 Hashimoto H....Cheng X. (2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
    About This Section
     ANDOR
    Aliases
    Disorders
    Free Text  

      Query String
    PubMed
    OMIM
    NCBI Bookshelf
      (Note: In FireFox, select the above section and copy using Ctrl-C)

    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
    About This Section
    Entrez Gene: 6996 HGNC: 11700 AceView: TDG Ensembl:ENSG00000139372 euGenes: HUgn6996
    ECgene: TDG Kegg: 6996 H-InvDB: TDG

    (According to HUGE)
    About This Section
      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TDG Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    ATLAS Chromosomes in Cancer entry for TDG Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    NIEHS-SNPshttp://egp.gs.washington.edu/data/tdg/

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
    About This Section
    Patent Information for TDG gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TDG

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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    About This Section

     
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