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Aliases for TCN2 Gene

Aliases for TCN2 Gene

  • Transcobalamin 2 2 3 5
  • Transcobalamin II 2 3 4
  • Transcobalamin II; Macrocytic Anemia 2 3
  • Macrocytic Anemia 2 3
  • TC II 3 4
  • TC-2 3 4
  • TCII 3 4
  • TC2 3 4
  • Vitamin B12-Binding Protein 2 3
  • D22S676 3
  • D22S750 3
  • TC 3
  • II 3

External Ids for TCN2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TCN2 Gene

  • GC22P027699
  • GC22P029327
  • GC22P031002
  • GC22P013965

Summaries for TCN2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TCN2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the vitamin B12-binding protein family. This family of proteins, alternatively referred to as R binders, is expressed in various tissues and secretions. This plasma protein binds cobalamin and mediates the transport of cobalamin into cells. This protein and other mammalian cobalamin-binding proteins, such as transcobalamin I and gastric intrisic factor, may have evolved by duplication of a common ancestral gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GeneCards Summary for TCN2 Gene

TCN2 (Transcobalamin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TCN2 include Transcobalamin Ii Deficiency and Transcobalamin Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Diseases of metabolism and One carbon pool by folate. GO annotations related to this gene include cobalamin binding. An important paralog of this gene is TCN1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TCN2 Gene

  • Primary vitamin B12-binding and transport protein. Delivers cobalamin to cells.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TCN2 Gene

Genomics for TCN2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TCN2 Gene

Enhancers for TCN2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TCN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TCN2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TCN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TCN2 Gene

30,606,838 bp from pter
30,627,278 bp from pter
20,441 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TCN2 Gene

Genes around TCN2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TCN2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TCN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TCN2 Gene

Proteins for TCN2 Gene

  • Protein details for TCN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q96FD4
    • Q9BVI8
    • Q9UCI5
    • Q9UCI6
    • Q9UDM0

    Protein attributes for TCN2 Gene

    427 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47535 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TCN2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TCN2 Gene


neXtProt entry for TCN2 Gene

Proteomics data for TCN2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TCN2 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for TCN2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for TCN2 (Transcobalamin II)
  • Abcam antibodies for TCN2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TCN2 Gene

Domains & Families for TCN2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TCN2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the eukaryotic cobalamin transport proteins family.
  • Belongs to the eukaryotic cobalamin transport proteins family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TCN2: view

No data available for Gene Families for TCN2 Gene

Function for TCN2 Gene

Molecular function for TCN2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
transcobalamin II,plasma protein vitamin B12 binding
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Primary vitamin B12-binding and transport protein. Delivers cobalamin to cells.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TCN2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TCN2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TCN2 Gene

Localization for TCN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TCN2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TCN2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TCN2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
lysosome 5
vacuole 5
endosome 4
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 2
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TCN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0043202 lysosomal lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TCN2: view

Pathways & Interactions for TCN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TCN2: view

Interacting Proteins for TCN2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TCN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006767 water-soluble vitamin metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006824 cobalt ion transport IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TCN2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TCN2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TCN2 Gene

(13) Drugs for TCN2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cyanocobalamin Approved Nutra Transporter, substrate 234
Hydroxocobalamin Approved Pharma Carrier, substrate 234
Cobalamin Nutra 234
Cobalt Pharma 159

(6) Additional Compounds for TCN2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TCN2: view

Transcripts for TCN2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TCN2 Gene

Transcobalamin II:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TCN2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for TCN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TCN2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TCN2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TCN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Kidney - Cortex (x5.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TCN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Cerebrospinal fluid (40.7) and Neutrophil (18.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TCN2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TCN2 Gene Hs.417948

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TCN2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TCN2 Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TCN2 Gene

Orthologs for TCN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TCN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TCN2 35
  • 79.22 (n)
  • 72.86 (a)
TCN2 36
  • 72 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TCN2 35
  • 82.31 (n)
  • 76.77 (a)
TCN2 36
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tcn2 35
  • 78.06 (n)
  • 73.54 (a)
Tcn2 16
Tcn2 36
  • 72 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TCN2 35
  • 98.91 (n)
  • 98.13 (a)
TCN2 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tcn2 35
  • 78.12 (n)
  • 74.64 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TCN2 36
  • 53 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TCN2 36
  • 47 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TCN2 35
  • 56.02 (n)
  • 43.75 (a)
TCN2 36
  • 36 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TCN2 36
  • 39 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tcn2 35
  • 51.36 (n)
  • 43.92 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tcn2l 35
  • 48.84 (n)
  • 36.02 (a)
tcn2l 36
  • 28 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 24 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TCN2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TCN2 Gene

Gene Tree for TCN2 (if available)
Gene Tree for TCN2 (if available)

Paralogs for TCN2 Gene

Paralogs for TCN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TCN2: view

Variants for TCN2 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TCN2 Gene

Pro/Arg-259 polymorphism affects TCN2 plasma concentration and may interfere in vitamin B(12) cellular availability and homocysteine metabolism (PubMed:11159542).

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TCN2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 22 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_001638 -
VAR_001639 -
rs1801198 - 30,615,623(+) CATGC(A/C/G)TGGGG reference, missense
rs1131603 - 30,622,988(+) CTCCT(C/T)GTCAG reference, missense
rs9606756 - 30,610,873(+) AAGAA(A/G)TACCA reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TCN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv829171 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv834175 CNV Gain 17160897
esv1367588 CNV Insertion 17803354

Variation tolerance for TCN2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 95.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 8.06; 84.38% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TCN2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for TCN2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(21) MalaCards diseases for TCN2 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
transcobalamin ii deficiency
  • tcn2 deficiency
transcobalamin deficiency
  • transcobalamin ii deficiency
  • epidemic typhus
vitamin b12 deficiency
  • cobalamin deficiency
  • infection by fasciolopsis buski
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TCN2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Transcobalamin II deficiency (TCN2 deficiency) [MIM:275350]: Results in various forms of anemia. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for TCN2 Gene

anemia,megalobastic,severe with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia,methylmalonic acidemia and homocystinuria

Relevant External Links for TCN2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TCN2: view

Publications for TCN2 Gene

  1. The cDNA sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence of human transcobalamin II show homology with rat intrinsic factor and human transcobalamin I. (PMID: 1708393) Platica O. … Rothenberg S.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Association of homocysteine (but not of MTHFR 677 C>T, MTR 2756 A>G, MTRR 66 A>G and TCN2 776 C>G) with ischaemic cerebrovascular disease in Sicily. (PMID: 16894458) Bosco P. … GuAcant J.L. (Thromb. Haemost. 2006) 3 23 25 26
  3. Polymorphism C776G in the transcobalamin II gene and homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Association with MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms in healthy children. (PMID: 16820193) AlAcssio A.C. … Annichino-Bizzacchi J.M. (Thromb. Res. 2007) 3 25 26
  4. Influence of cobalamin deficiency compared with that of cobalamin absorption on serum holo-transcobalamin II. (PMID: 15640468) Chen X. … Carmel R. (Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005) 23 25 26
  5. The cloning and characterization of the human transcobalamin II gene. (PMID: 7742531) Regec A. … Rothenberg S.P. (Blood 1995) 2 3 23

Products for TCN2 Gene

Sources for TCN2 Gene