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TCF4 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 67
GCID: GC18M052889

Transcription Factor 4

  See TCF4-related diseases

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Transcription Factor 41 2     SL3-3 Enhancer Factor 22 3
ITF22 3 5     PTHS2 5
SEF22 3 5     E2-22
Class B Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein 192 3     SEF2-12
Immunoglobulin Transcription Factor 22 3     SEF2-1A2
ITF-22 3     SEF2-1B2
SEF-22 3     SEF2-1D2
TCF-42 3     BHLHB193
bHLHb192 3     

External Ids:    HGNC: 116341   Entrez Gene: 69252   Ensembl: ENSG000001966287   OMIM: 6022725   UniProtKB: P158843   

Export aliases for TCF4 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifiers: GC18M052983 GC18M052797 GC18M052679 GC18M051043 GC18M051045 GC18M049599

(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

Entrez Gene summary for TCF4 Gene:
This gene encodes transcription factor 4, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. The encoded protein
recognizes an Ephrussi-box ('E-box') binding site ('CANNTG') - a motif first identified in immunoglobulin
enhancers. This gene is broadly expressed, and may play an important role in nervous system development. Defects
in this gene are a cause of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode
different proteins have been described. (provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011)

GeneCards Summary for TCF4 Gene:
TCF4 (transcription factor 4) is a protein-coding gene. Diseases associated with TCF4 include pitt-hopkins syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. GO annotations related to this gene include protein C-terminus binding and sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TCF12.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITF2_HUMAN, P15884
Function: Transcription factor that binds to the immunoglobulin enchancer Mu-E5/KE5-motif. Involved in the
initiation of neuronal differentiation. Activates transcription by binding to the E box (5'-CANNTG-3'). Binds to
the E-box present in the somatostatin receptor 2 initiator element (SSTR2-INR) to activate transcription (By
similarity). Preferentially binds to either 5'-ACANNTGT-3' or 5'-CCANNTGG-3'

Gene Wiki entry for TCF4 Gene

(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section

RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000018.9  NT_010966.15  NC_018929.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TCF4 gene promoter:
         FOXD3   C/EBPalpha   E47   CREB   SRY   Nkx6-1   deltaCREB   POU2F1a   Zic3   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTCF4 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TCF4

DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TCF4

Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 18q21.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  18q21.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 18q21.1

TCF4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TCF4 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 18         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC18M052889:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

52,889,562 bp from pter      End:
53,332,018 bp from pter
442,457 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or GeneTex.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITF2_HUMAN, P15884 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Transcription factor 4  
Size: 667 amino acids; 71308 Da
Subunit: Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Forms homo- or heterooligomers
with myogenin. Interacts with HIVEP2. Interacts with NEUROD2 (By similarity). Interacts with AGBL1
Sequence caution: Sequence=AAA60310.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Incomplete and probable erroneous
sequence; Sequence=AAA60312.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Incomplete and probable erroneous sequence;
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for TCF4:
2KWF (3D)    
Secondary accessions: B3KT62 B3KUC0 B4DT37 B4DUG3 B7Z5M6 B7Z6Y1 G0LNT9 G0LNU0 G0LNU1 G0LNU2
G0LNU5 G0LNU8 G0LNU9 G0LNV0 G0LNV1 H3BPQ1 Q08AP2 Q08AP3 Q15439 Q15440 Q15441
Alternative splicing: 14 isoforms:  P15884-1   P15884-2   P15884-3   P15884-4   P15884-5   P15884-6   P15884-7   P15884-8   
P15884-9   P15884-10   P15884-11   P15884-12   P15884-13   P15884-14   

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TCF4: NX_P15884

Explore proteomics data for TCF4 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Modification sites at neXtProt
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TCF4 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins (12 alternative transcripts): 
    NP_001077431.1  NP_001230155.2  NP_001230156.1  NP_001230157.1  NP_001230159.1  NP_001230160.1  NP_001230161.1  NP_001230162.1  
    NP_001230163.1  NP_001230164.1  NP_001230165.1  NP_003190.1  

    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000348374   ENSP00000455135   ENSP00000409447   ENSP00000439656   ENSP00000445202  
     ENSP00000440731   ENSP00000457649   ENSP00000455346   ENSP00000439827   ENSP00000441562  
     ENSP00000455179   ENSP00000457765   ENSP00000455984   ENSP00000455763   ENSP00000455261  
     ENSP00000454366   ENSP00000455418   ENSP00000456125   ENSP00000457263   ENSP00000381382  
     ENSP00000454647   ENSP00000468729   ENSP00000455304   ENSP00000456983   ENSP00000457392  
     ENSP00000455071   ENSP00000458122   ENSP00000456802   ENSP00000457245   ENSP00000454584  
     ENSP00000468277   ENSP00000456220   ENSP00000457113   ENSP00000455163   ENSP00000456917  
     ENSP00000457747   ENSP00000454328   ENSP00000455450   ENSP00000454866   ENSP00000454352  
     ENSP00000457082   ENSP00000454441   ENSP00000346440  
    Reactome Protein details: P15884

    TCF4 Human Recombinant Protein Products:

    Browse Purified and Recombinant Proteins at EMD Millipore
    Browse R&D Systems for human recombinant proteins
    Browse recombinant and purified proteins available from Enzo Life Sciences
    OriGene Purified Proteins for TCF4
    OriGene Protein Over-expression Lysate for TCF4
    OriGene MassSpec for TCF4
    OriGene Custom Protein Services for TCF4
    GenScript Custom Purified and Recombinant Proteins Services for TCF4
    Novus Biologicals TCF4 Protein
    Novus Biologicals TCF4 Lysates
    Browse Sino Biological Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates
    Browse ProSpec Recombinant Proteins
    Browse Proteins at Cloud-Clone Corp.

    Search eBioscience for Proteins for TCF4 

    antibodies-online proteins for TCF4 (3 products) 

    antibodies-online peptides for TCF4

    Search GeneTex for Proteins for TCF4 

    TCF4 Antibody Products:

    EMD Millipore Mono- and Polyclonal Antibodies for the study of TCF4
    Browse R&D Systems for Antibodies
    OriGene Antibodies for TCF4
    OriGene Custom Antibody Services for TCF4
    Novus Biologicals TCF4 Antibodies
    Abcam antibodies for TCF4
    Browse Antibodies at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    ThermoFisher Antibodies for TCF4
    antibodies-online antibodies for TCF4 (41 products) 

    GeneTex Antibodies for TCF4:  
                        TCF4 Antibodies

    TCF4 Assay Products:

    Browse Kits and Assays available from EMD Millipore
    OriGene Custom Assay Services for TCF4
    Browse R&D Systems for biochemical assays
    GenScript Custom Assay Services for TCF4
    Browse Enzo Life Sciences for kits & assays
    Browse ELISAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Browse CLIAs at Cloud-Clone Corp.
    Search eBioscience for ELISAs for TCF4 
    antibodies-online kits for TCF4 (9 products) 

    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    HGNC Gene Families:
    bHLH: Basic helix-loop-helix proteins

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR011598 bHLH_dom

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P15884

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P15884

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB001092 Basic helix-loop-helix dimerization domain bHLH

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITF2_HUMAN, P15884
    Domain: the 9aaTAD motif is a transactivation domain present in a large number of yeast and animal transcription
    Similarity: Contains 1 bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) domain

    Find genes that share domains with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway, and/or Taconic Biosciences, CRISPR knockouts from OriGene, transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: ITF2_HUMAN, P15884
    Function: Transcription factor that binds to the immunoglobulin enchancer Mu-E5/KE5-motif. Involved in the
    initiation of neuronal differentiation. Activates transcription by binding to the E box (5'-CANNTG-3'). Binds to
    the E-box present in the somatostatin receptor 2 initiator element (SSTR2-INR) to activate transcription (By
    similarity). Preferentially binds to either 5'-ACANNTGT-3' or 5'-CCANNTGG-3'

         Genatlas biochemistry entry for TCF4:
    transcription factor 4,with several alternatively spliced isoforms

         Gene Ontology (GO): Selected molecular function terms (see all 13):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000978RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding ISS8978694
    GO:0001011sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase recruiting transcription factor activity ISS8978694
    GO:0001077RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription ISS8978694
    GO:0001087TFIIB-class binding transcription factor activity ISS8978694
    GO:0001093TFIIB-class transcription factor binding ISS8978694
    Find genes that share ontologies with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for TCF4:
     Increased cell death HMECs cel  Increased viability with TRAIL  Wnt reporter downregulated 

         10 MGI mutant phenotypes (inferred from 4 alleles(MGI details for Tcf4):
     cellular  craniofacial  growth/size/body  hearing/vestibular/ear  hematopoietic system 
     immune system  limbs/digits/tail  mortality/aging  nervous system  skeleton 

    Find genes that share phenotypes with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

    Animal Models:
         MGI mouse knock-outs for TCF4: Tcf4tm1Zhu Tcf4tm1.1Hmb

       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for TCF4

        Taconic Biosicences: Generate A Custom CRISPR Mouse Model For Your Study 

    CRISPR Knockouts: 
       OriGene CRISPR knockouts for TCF4

    Transcription Factor Targeting: 

    Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for TCF4 (see all 562):

    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TCF4:
    hsa-let-7e-5p (MIRT051694), hsa-mir-19b-3p (MIRT031229), hsa-mir-204-5p (MIRT005846), hsa-mir-130b-3p (MIRT020336)

    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TCF4 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TCF4 (see all 187):
    hsa-miR-193a-3p hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-4305 hsa-miR-605 hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-138-2* hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-200b
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TCF4
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TCF4

    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TCF4 (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TCF4
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): TCF4 (NM_001083962)
    Sino Biological Human cDNA Clone for TCF4
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TCF4
    Addgene plasmids for TCF4 

    Cell Line
    GenScript Custom overexpressing Cell Line Services for TCF4
    Browse ESI BIO Cell Lines and PureStem Progenitors for TCF4 
    In Situ Assay

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TCF4

    Flow Cytometry

    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA6-11201) for TCF4 

    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    ITF2_HUMAN, P15884: Nucleus
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 


    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005634nucleus IDA1681116
    GO:0005667transcription factor complex ISS8978694

    Find genes that share ontologies with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for TCF4 About   (see all 15)  
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1ERK Signaling
    MAPK Signaling0.58
    ILK Signaling0.49
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer0.51
    2CDO in myogenesis
    CDO in myogenesis1.00
    3Human Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency
    Human Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency0.50
    Factors Promoting Cardiogenesis in Vertebrates0.50
    4L1CAM interactions
    Developmental Biology0.63
    5Non-Canonical Wnt Pathway
    Canonical Wnt Pathway0.53

    Find genes that share SuperPaths with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                   See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    Selected Downloadable PowerPoint Slides of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for TCF4 (see all 10)
        MAPK Signaling
    Factors Promoting Cardiogenesis in Vertebrates
    Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer
    Colorectal Cancer Metastasis
    Glioblastoma Multiforme

    5 BioSystems Pathways for TCF4
        Neural Crest Differentiation
    Wnt Signaling Pathway NetPath
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone
    Coregulation of Androgen receptor activity
    Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription

    1 Sino Biological Pathway for TCF4
        Canonical Wnt Pathway

    1 Reactome Pathway for TCF4
        CDO in myogenesis

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TCF4: 
              WNT Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              WNT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Liver Cancer in human mouse rat
              Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in human mouse rat
              Cardiotoxicity in human mouse rat


        GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TCF4

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TCF4 (P158841, 2, 3 ENSP000003464404) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 125)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    CTNNB1P352221, 2, 3, ENSP000003444564EBI-533224,EBI-491549 MINT-8399030 MINT-8398882 MINT-8398896 MINT-8398917 MINT-4508268 MINT-8398937 MINT-8398969 MINT-8398862 MINT-4508065 I2D: score=7 STRING: ENSP00000344456
    FERMT2Q96AC11, 2EBI-533224,EBI-4399465 MINT-8398937 MINT-8399030 MINT-8398862 MINT-8398882 MINT-8398896 MINT-8398917 MINT-8398954
    ASCL1P505531, 3, ENSP000002667444EBI-533224,EBI-957042 I2D: score=4 STRING: ENSP00000266744
    DAXXQ9UER73, ENSP000002660004I2D: score=2 STRING: ENSP00000266000
    ENSG00000206206Q9UER73I2D: score=2 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): Selected biological process terms (see all 8):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0000122negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ----
    GO:0006352DNA-templated transcription, initiation ISS8978694
    GO:0006355regulation of transcription, DNA-templated ----
    GO:0006367transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter ISS8978694
    GO:0045666positive regulation of neuron differentiation ISS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TCF4 (ITF2)

    2 Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TCF4 gene    About this table
    Compound   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    mononucleotide 48.4 3 10918391 (2)
    glycogen 32 2 12603528 (1), 14687479 (1)

    Find genes that share compounds with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for TCF4 gene (37 alternative transcripts): 
    NM_001083962.1  NM_001243226.2  NM_001243227.1  NM_001243228.1  NM_001243230.1  NM_001243231.1  NM_001243232.1  NM_001243233.1  
    NM_001243234.1  NM_001243235.1  NM_001243236.1  NM_003199.2  XM_005266739.2  XM_005266741.2  XM_005266743.2  XM_005266744.2  
    XM_005266745.2  XM_005266746.2  XM_005266747.2  XM_005266749.2  XM_005266750.2  XM_005266752.2  XM_005266754.2  XM_005266755.2  
    XM_005266761.2  XM_006722529.1  XM_006722530.1  XM_006722531.1  XM_006722532.1  XM_006722533.1  XM_006722534.1  XM_006722535.1  
    XM_006722536.1  XM_006722537.1  XM_006722538.1  XM_006722539.1  XM_006722540.1  

    Unigene Cluster for TCF4:

    Transcription factor 4
    Hs.605153  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: NM_001083962
    Selected Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant (see all 48):
    ENST00000356073 ENST00000568673 ENST00000457482 ENST00000543082 ENST00000540999
    ENST00000537578 ENST00000564999 ENST00000568740 ENST00000562680 ENST00000537856
    ENST00000544241 ENST00000561992 ENST00000561831 ENST00000565018 ENST00000570287
    ENST00000564228 ENST00000567880 ENST00000566286
    Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TCF4 using miScript Target Protectors
    Selected qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TCF4 (see all 187):
    hsa-miR-193a-3p hsa-miR-106a hsa-miR-4305 hsa-miR-605 hsa-miR-128 hsa-miR-138-2* hsa-miR-519a hsa-miR-200b
    Browse SwitchGear 3'UTR luciferase reporter plasmids
    Inhib. RNA
    OriGene RNAi products in human, mouse, rat for TCF4
    Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human, mouse, rat TCF4
    OriGene clones in human, mouse for TCF4 (see all 11)
    OriGene ORF clones in mouse, rat for TCF4
    OriGene custom cloning services - gene synthesis, subcloning, mutagenesis, variant library, vector shuttling
    GenScript: all cDNA clones in your preferred vector (see all 2): TCF4 (NM_001083962)
    Vector BioLabs ready-to-use adenovirus/AAV for human, mouse, rat TCF4
    Addgene plasmids for TCF4 
    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TCF4
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TCF4
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TCF4
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TCF4
    Flow Cytometry

    eBioscience FlowRNA Probe Sets ( VA6-11201) for TCF4 

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AB209741.1 AK021980.1 AK026674.1 AK095041.1 AK095066.1 AK096862.1 AK122765.1 AK299169.1 
    AK300038.1 AK300612.1 AK300636.1 AK301144.1 AK315074.1 AK316165.1 BC031056.1 BC125084.1 
    BC125085.1 FR748202.1 FR748203.1 FR748205.1 FR748207.1 FR748208.1 FR748209.1 FR748210.1 
    FR748211.1 FR748212.1 FR748213.1 FR748214.1 FR748215.1 FR748216.1 FR748217.1 FR748218.1 
    FR748219.1 FR748220.1 FR748221.1 FR748222.1 FR748223.1 M74718.1 M74719.1 M74720.1 

    Selected DOTS entries (see all 47):

    DT.448128  DT.86840324  DT.100892351  DT.100806486  DT.121101533  DT.100892349  DT.95169893  DT.100808993 
    DT.441773  DT.95292982  DT.121101581  DT.95169897  DT.121101588  DT.87079130  DT.100789378  DT.75148455 
    DT.75182387  DT.100892345  DT.100789379  DT.100753719  DT.75169556  DT.100892346  DT.40115779  DT.92447456 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 512):

    CR604143 AI359999 BI753610 AA287097 BM787123 BU948052 AI589166 AW612439 
    CA312686 AI003998 AU120273 BP348534 BM669373 AA837089 BQ882546 AI638194 
    BQ706300 AI362674 CA776803 AA287187 AI090983 AU118026 AA677237 AA290666 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure

    Selected Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TCF4 (see all 13)    About this scheme

    ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17a · 17b · 17c ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21a · 21b ^ 22a ·
    SP1:                                -                 -           -     -     -                 -                                               -               
    SP2:                                -                 -           -     -     -                 -                                               -               
    SP3:                                                  -           -     -     -                 -                                               -               
    SP4:                                                              -     -     -                 -                                               -               
    SP5:                                                                                                                                            -               

    ExUns: 22b ^ 23 ^ 24a · 24b · 24c ^ 25a · 25b ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b
    SP1:                          -     -                           
    SP2:                                -                           
    SP3:                          -     -                           
    SP4:                                -                           

    ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for TCF4

    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TCF4 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    TCF4 Expression
    About this image

    TCF4 expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 13) fully expand
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 6 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     Blood (Hematopoietic System)    fully expand to see all 5 entries
             Mature B-Cells Peripheral Blood
             Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells (family)
     Tendon & Ligament
             Cranial Tendons Cells Branchial Arch 1
     Mesoderm (Gastrulation Derivatives)
             Limb Bud Mesenchyme Cells Limb Bud
     Eye (Sensory Organs)    fully expand to see all 4 entries
             nGnG Amacrine Cells Inner Nuclear Layer
    TCF4 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TCF4 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.605153

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITF2_HUMAN, P15884
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in adult heart, brain, placenta, skeletal muscle and to a lesser extent in the lung.
    In developing embryonic tissues, expression mostly occurs in the brain

        Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays including TCF4: 
              WNT Signaling Targets in human mouse rat
              WNT Signaling Pathway in human mouse rat
              Liver Cancer in human mouse rat
              Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in human mouse rat
              Cardiotoxicity in human mouse rat

    OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human, mouse for TCF4
    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TCF4
    QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TCF4
    QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TCF4
    In Situ
    Assay Products:

    Advanced Cell Diagnostics RNAscope RNA in situ hybridization assays for TCF4

    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for TCF4 gene from Selected species (see all 15)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    Gene Description Human
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tcf41 , 5 transcription factor 41, 5 92.64(n)1
      18 (43.23 cM)5
    214131  NM_013685.21  NP_038713.11 
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TCF46
    transcription factor 4
    1 ↔ 1
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia TCF46
    transcription factor 4
    1 ↔ 1
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia CF342043.12   -- 80.67(n)    CF342043.1 
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii CABZ01109624.16
    transcription factor 4
    1 ↔ many
    1 ↔ many
    21(1794705-1800202) ENSDARG00000075546
    21(1602919-1689003) ENSDARG00000087652
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta da3 oogenesis transcription factor 78(a)     --
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea hlh-26
    Protein HLH-2, isoform a (hlh-2) mRNA, complete cd...
    1 → many
    I(7190848-7193916) WBGene00001949

    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TCF4 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TCF4 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to Build 68,Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    Paralogs for TCF4 gene
    TCF122  TCF32  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for TCF4 using alignment to 31 protein entries:     ITF2_HUMAN (see all proteins) (see all similar genes):
    EML2    HOOK2    VPS33A    ZNF814    CRCP    ZNF546
    DCTN5    DNAPTP3    TCF12    SH3PXD2A    UBIAD1    ZNF212
    C4orf21    LAMB4    ZNF283    ZNF527    PLEKHH2    APOPT1

    Find genes that share paralogs with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, and 4UniProtKB, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
    About This Section

    Selected SNPs for TCF4 (see all 6944)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    Chr 18 posSequence#AA
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0668412 R H mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0668402 R P mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0669732 R P mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0586332 R G mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0347042 R Q mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0669722 R H mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0586322 D G mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0669742 A P mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0669712 R Q mis40--------
    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS)4--see VAR_0347052 R W mis40--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TCF4 (52889562 - 53139562 bp, first 250kb of TCF4)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for TCF4 (see all 12):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2635967CNV Deletion19546169
    esv2717133CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv496e201CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2487089CNV Deletion19546169
    esv2659569CNV Deletion23128226
    esv271560CNV Insertion20981092
    esv273068CNV Insertion20981092
    nsv131347CNV Insertion16902084
    esv274560CNV Insertion20981092
    nsv2315CNV Loss18451855

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TCF4
    Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB): TCF4

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TCF4

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Novoseek, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB, Sets of similar genes according to GenesLikeMe)
    About This Section

    OMIM gene information: 602272   
    OMIM disorders: 610954  
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: ITF2_HUMAN, P15884
  • Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) [MIM:610954]: A syndrome characterized by mental retardation, wide mouth and
    distinctive facial features, and intermittent hyperventilation followed by apnea. Features include intellectual
    disability with severe speech impairment, normal growth parameters at birth, postnatal microcephaly, breathing
    anomalies, severe motor developmental delay, motor incoordination, ocular anomalies, constipation, seizures,
    typical behavior and subtle brain abnormalities. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene
    represented in this entry

  • 6 diseases for TCF4:    
    About MalaCards
    pitt-hopkins syndrome    type 2 diabetes mellitus    primary sclerosing cholangitis    fuchs' endothelial dystrophy
    corneal dystrophy, fuchs endothelial, 4    mental retardation, autosomal dominant 6

    1 inferred disease relationship from the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database for TCF4:
    Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy

    Find genes that share disorders with TCF4           About GenesLikeMe

    Selected Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TCF4 gene (see all 14)    About this table

    Disease   -log (P-Val)   Hits   PubMed IDs for Articles with Shared Sentences (# sentences)
    familial adenomatous polyposis 70.8 3 12460462 (1), 11396184 (1), 15342948 (1)
    colon cancer 52.9 2 15667799 (1), 17167838 (1)
    endometrial carcinoma 43 4 18798221 (2), 15806138 (1), 10597289 (1)
    colorectal cancer 40.8 2 18439914 (1), 19376641 (1)
    colorectal tumors 28.8 1 10597289 (1)
    gastric cancer 27.9 13 18635522 (5), 16311123 (2), 10597289 (1)
    cancer 24.7 1 15667799 (1)
    hepatocellular carcinoma 21.6 6 14687479 (2), 15040893 (2), 12566320 (1)
    microsatellite instability 20.9 1 10597289 (1)
    tumors 14.9 16 15667799 (3), 16311123 (2), 10918391 (2), 18635522 (2) (see all 5)

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TCF4
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TCF4 (251 documents)

    Export disorders for TCF4 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
    About This Section

    PubMed articles for TCF4 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 249) (see top 10):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TCF4)

    1. A novel, heritable, expanding CTG repeat in an intron of the SEF2-1 gene on chromosome 18q21.1. (PubMed id 9302263)1, 2, 3 Breschel T.S.... Ross C.A. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1997)
    2. Sequence of the cDNA encoding ITF-2, a positive-acting transcription factor. (PubMed id 2308860)1, 2, 3 Henthorn P.... Kadesch T. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1990)
    3. Helix-loop-helix transcriptional activators bind to a sequence in glucocorticoid response elements of retrovirus enhancers. (PubMed id 1681116)1, 2, 9 Corneliussen B.... Grundstroem T. (J. Virol. 1991)
    4. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia. (PubMed id 19571808)1, 4, 9 Stefansson H....Collier D.A. (Nature 2009)
    5. Mutations in AGBL1 cause dominant late-onset Fuchs corneal dystrophy and alter protein-protein interaction with TCF4. (PubMed id 24094747)1, 2 Riazuddin S.A....Gottsch J.D. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2013)
    6. Functional analysis of TCF4 missense mutations that cause Pitt- Hopkins syndrome. (PubMed id 22777675)1, 2 Forrest M....Blake D.J. (Hum. Mutat. 2012)
    7. Novel comprehensive diagnostic strategy in Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: clinical score and further delineation of the TCF4 mutational spectrum. (PubMed id 22045651)1, 2 Whalen S.... Giurgea I. (Hum. Mutat. 2012)
    8. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci. (PubMed id 21926974)1, 4 (Nat. Genet. 2011)
    9. Functional diversity of human basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TCF4 isoforms generated by alternative 5' exon usage and splicing. (PubMed id 21789225)1, 2 Sepp M.... Timmusk T. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    10. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    11. Common variants in major histocompatibility complex region and TCF4 gene are significantly associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese. (PubMed id 20673877)1, 4 Li T....Shi Y. (Biol. Psychiatry 2010)
    12. E2-2 protein and Fuchs's corneal dystrophy. (PubMed id 20825314)1, 4 Baratz K.H....Edwards A.O. (N. Engl. J. Med. 2010)
    13. Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. (PubMed id 19571811)1, 4  ....Sklar P. (Nature 2009)
    14. Mutational, functional, and expression studies of the TCF4 gene in Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. (PubMed id 19235238)1, 2 de Pontual L.... Amiel J. (Hum. Mutat. 2009)
    15. High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men. (PubMed id 19453261)1, 4 Yerges L.M....Zmuda J.M. (J. Bone Miner. Res. 2009)
    16. Mutations in TCF4, encoding a class I basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, are responsible for Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a severe epileptic encephalopathy associated with autonomic dysfunction. (PubMed id 17436254)1, 2 Amiel J.... Colleaux L. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007)
    17. Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 causes syndromal mental retardation with intermittent hyperventilation (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome). (PubMed id 17436255)1, 2 Zweier C.... Rauch A. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2007)
    18. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PubMed id 14702039)1, 2 Ota T.... Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004)
    19. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    20. Two distinct transcription factors that bind the immunoglobulin enhancer microE5/kappa 2 motif. (PubMed id 2105528)1, 2 Henthorn P.... Kadesch T. (Science 1990)
    21. CpG methylation in exon 1 of transcription factor 4 increases with age in normal gastric mucosa and is associated with gene silencing in intestinal-type gastric cancers. (PubMed id 18635522)1, 9 Kim S.K....Kim Y.S. (Carcinogenesis 2008)
    22. Development of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells depends on the combined action of the basic helix-loop-helix factor E2-2 and the Ets factor Spi-B. (PubMed id 18792017)1, 9 Nagasawa M....Blom B. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2008)
    23. HASH-1 and E2-2 are expressed in human neuroblastoma cells and form a functional complex. (PubMed id 10903890)1, 9 Persson P....Axelson H. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000)
    24. Transcription factor E2-2 is an essential and specific regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development. (PubMed id 18854153)1, 9 Cisse B....Reizis B. (Cell 2008)
    25. Disruption of the TCF4 gene in a girl with mental retardation but without the classical Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. (PubMed id 18627065)1, 9 Kalscheuer V.M....Ropers H.H. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2008)
    26. Short communication: RNA interference directed against Axin1 upregulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene expression by activating the Wnt signaling pathway in HeLa-derived J111 cells. (PubMed id 19778269)1, 9 Kameoka M....Auwanit W. (AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 2009)
    27. A negative regulatory element-dependent inhibitory role of ITF2B on IL-2 receptor alpha gene. (PubMed id 16126178)1, 9 Lu Y....Shen Y.F. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005)
    28. Modulation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription complex formation by Id proteins during neuronal differentiation. (PubMed id 11756408)1, 9 JAPgi A....Axelson H. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    29. Further delineation of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: phenotypic and genotypic description of 16 novel patients. (PubMed id 18728071)2, 9 Zweier C.... Rauch A. (J. Med. Genet. 2008)
    30. Association and Familial Segregation of CTG18.1 Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion of TCF4 Gene in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy. (PubMed id 24255041)1 Mootha V.V....Xing C. (amp 2014)
    31. Associations between TCF4 gene polymorphism and cognitive functions in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. (PubMed id 23249814)1 Zhu X....Chen C. (Neuropsychopharmacology 2013)
    32. ABCD2 is a direct target of I^-catenin and TCF-4: implications for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy therapy. (PubMed id 23437103)1 Park C.Y....Kim D.W. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    33. Confirmation of the association between the TCF4 risk allele and Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy in patients from the Midwestern United States. (PubMed id 22998502)1 Stamler J.F....Fingert J.H. (Ophthalmic Genet. 2013)
    34. Epstein-Barr virus induces global changes in cellular mRNA isoform usage that are important for the maintenance of latency. (PubMed id 24027308)1 Homa N.J....Luftig M.A. (J. Virol. 2013)
    35. T cell factor 4 is a pro-catabolic and apoptotic factor in human articular chondrocytes by potentiating nuclear factor I_B signaling. (PubMed id 23603903)1 Ma B....Karperien M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    36. TCF4 (e2-2; ITF2): a schizophrenia-associated gene with pleiotropic effects on human disease. (PubMed id 23129290)1 Navarrete K....Collier D.A. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2013)
    37. Henryin, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid, inhibits Wnt signaling through interference with I^-catenin/TCF4 interaction in colorectal cancer cells. (PubMed id 23844215)1 Li X....Li Y. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    38. Nuclear LEF1/TCF4 correlate with poor prognosis but not with nuclear I^-catenin in cerebral metastasis of lung adenocarcinomas. (PubMed id 23224985)1 Bleckmann A....Pukrop T. (amp 2013)
    39. Unique genome-wide map of TCF4 and STAT3 targets using ChIP-seq reveals their association with new molecular subtypes of glioblastoma. (PubMed id 23295773)1 Zhang J.X....Kang C.S. (Neuro-oncology 2013)
    40. Genome-wide SNP and CNV analysis identifies common and low-frequency variants associated with severe early-onset obesity. (PubMed id 23563609)1 Wheeler E....Farooqi I.S. (Nat. Genet. 2013)
    41. BMI1 polycomb group protein acts as a master switch for growth and death of tumor cells: regulates TCF4-transcriptional factor-induced BCL2 signaling. (PubMed id 23671559)1 Siddique H.R....Saleem M. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    42. Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia. (PubMed id 23974872)1 Ripke S....Sullivan P.F. (Nat. Genet. 2013)
    43. A comprehensive family-based replication study of schizophrenia genes. (PubMed id 23894747)1 Aberg K.A....van den Oord E.J. (JAMA Psychiatry 2013)
    44. The expression and significance of WWOX and I^-catenin in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 23030478)1 Li Y.P....Chai C.Y. (APMIS 2013)
    45. Development of a high-throughput screen to detect inhibitors of TRPS1 sumoylation. (PubMed id 23772552)1 Brandt M....Kirkpatrick R.B. (Assay Drug Dev Technol 2013)
    46. GRG5/AES interacts with T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) and downregulates Wnt signaling in human cells and zebrafish embryos. (PubMed id 23840876)1 Costa A.M....da Costa L.T. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    47. Acetylation of human TCF4 (TCF7L2) proteins attenuates inhibition by the HBP1 repressor and induces a conformational change in the TCF4::DNA complex. (PubMed id 23613959)1 Elfert S....Hecht A. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    48. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis. (PubMed id 23453885)1 (Lancet 2013)
    49. SOX9 regulates low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) expression and Wnt/I^-catenin activation in breast cancer. (PubMed id 23306204)1 Wang H....Yuan X. (J. Biol. Chem. 2013)
    50. Genome-wide association analysis in primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis identifies risk loci at GPR35 and TCF4. (PubMed id 22821403)1 Ellinghaus D....Karlsen T.H. (Hepatology 2013)
    51. Association of TCF4 and CLU polymorphisms with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and implication of CLU and TGFBI proteins in the disease process. (PubMed id 22234156)1 Kuot A....Burdon K.P. (Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 2012)
    52. Genome-wide association study in a Swedish population yields support for greater CNV and MHC involvement in schizophrenia compared with bipolar disorder. (PubMed id 22688191)1 Bergen S.E....Sullivan P.F. (Mol. Psychiatry 2012)
    53. TCF4 sequence variants and mRNA levels are associated with neurodevelopmental characteristics in psychotic disorders. (PubMed id 22832956)1 Wirgenes K.V....Andreassen O.A. (Transl Psychiatry 2012)
    54. SPINDLIN1 promotes cancer cell proliferation through activation of WNT/TCF-4 signaling. (PubMed id 22258766)1 Wang J.X....Pei X.T. (Mol. Cancer Res. 2012)
    55. Systems-wide analysis of ubiquitylation dynamics reveals a key role for PAF15 ubiquitylation in DNA-damage bypass. (PubMed id 23000965)1 Povlsen L.K....Choudhary C. (Nat. Cell Biol. 2012)
    56. Beta-catenin inhibits promyelocytic leukemia protein tumor suppressor function in colorectal cancer cells. (PubMed id 22155184)1 Satow R.... Yamada T. (Gastroenterology 2012)
    57. The TCF4/I^-catenin pathway and chromatin structure cooperate to regulate D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase expression in breast cancer. (PubMed id 22805760)1 Mostovich L.A....Grigorieva E.V. (Epigenetics 2012)
    58. Role of I^-catenin and TCF/LEF family members in transcriptional activity of HIV in astrocytes. (PubMed id 22156527)1 Narasipura S.D....Al-Harthi L. (J. Virol. 2012)
    59. Transcription factor 4 and myocyte enhancer factor 2C mutations are not common causes of Rett syndrome. (PubMed id 22383159)1 Armani R....Christodoulou J. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2012)
    60. KLF4 and SOX9 transcription factors antagonize I^-catenin and inhibit TCF-activity in cancer cells. (PubMed id 22766303)1 Sellak H....Lincoln T.M. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2012)
    61. Role of the TCF4 gene intronic variant in normal variation of corneal endothelium. (PubMed id 22146553)1 Mackey D.A....Pennell C.E. (Cornea 2012)
    62. Mosaic 18q21.2 deletions including the TCF4 gene: a clinical report. (PubMed id 23165966)1 Rossi M....Sanlaville D. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2012)
    63. Capsaicin represses transcriptional activity of I^-catenin in human colorectal cancer cells. (PubMed id 21764279)1 Lee S.H....Baek S.J. (J. Nutr. Biochem. 2012)
    64. Kindlin 2 forms a transcriptional complex with beta-catenin and TCF4 to enhance Wnt signalling. (PubMed id 22699938)1 Yu Y....Zhang H. (EMBO Rep. 2012)
    65. Schizophrenia risk polymorphisms in the TCF4 gene interact with smoking in the modulation of auditory sensory gating. (PubMed id 22451930)1 Quednow B.B....Winterer G. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2012)
    66. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome-associated mutations in TCF4 lead to variable impairment of the transcription factor function ranging from hypomorphic to dominant-negative effects. (PubMed id 22460224)1 Sepp M....Timmusk T. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2012)
    67. Differing roles for TCF4 and COL8A2 in central corneal thickness and fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. (PubMed id 23110055)1 Igo R.P....Iyengar S.K. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    68. Sox4 functions as a positive regulator of I^-catenin signaling through upregulation of TCF4 during morular differentiation of endometrial carcinomas. (PubMed id 22231735)1 Saegusa M....Kuwata T. ( a journal of technical methods and pathology 2012)
    69. Inhibition of Tcf-4 induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity of colon cancer cells. (PubMed id 23029137)1 Xie J....Wang X.L. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    70. Identification of novel T cell factor 4 (TCF-4) binding sites on the HIV long terminal repeat which associate with TCF-4, I^-catenin, and SMAR1 to repress HIV transcription. (PubMed id 22674979)1 Henderson L.J....Al-Harthi L. (J. Virol. 2012)
    71. Transcription factor TCF4 maintains the properties of human corneal epithelial stem cells. (PubMed id 22232078)1 Lu R....Li D.Q. (Stem Cells 2012)
    72. A common trinucleotide repeat expansion within the transcription factor 4 (TCF4, E2-2) gene predicts Fuchs corneal dystrophy. (PubMed id 23185296)1 Wieben E.D....Baratz K.H. (PLoS ONE 2012)
    73. The role of the TCF4 gene in the phenotype of individuals with 18q segmental deletions. (PubMed id 21671075)1 Hasi M....Cody J.D. (Hum. Genet. 2011)
    74. Association between TCF4 and schizophrenia does not exert its effect by common nonsynonymous variation or by influencing cis-acting regulation of mRNA expression in adult human brain. (PubMed id 21812098)1 Williams H.J....O'Donovan M.C. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2011)
    75. I^-catenin/Tcf-4 complex transcriptionally regulates AKT1 in glioma. (PubMed id 21720709)1 Chen L....Kang C. (Int. J. Oncol. 2011)
    76. Common variants at VRK2 and TCF4 conferring risk of schizophrenia. (PubMed id 21791550)1 Steinberg S....Stefansson K. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2011)
    77. I^-catenin/TCF4 complex induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-activator ZEB1 to regulate tumor invasiveness. (PubMed id 22080605)1 SA!nchez-TillA^ E....Postigo A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011)
    78. Epigenetic deregulation of TCF21 inhibits metastasis suppressor KISS1 in metastatic melanoma. (PubMed id 21771727)1 Arab K....Plass C. (Carcinogenesis 2011)
    79. Human FasL gene is a target of I^-catenin/T-cell factor pathway and complex FasL haplotypes alter promoter functions. (PubMed id 22022540)1 Wu J....Kimberly R.P. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    80. Extending the scope of diagnostic chromosome analysis: detection of single gene defects using high-resolution SNP microarrays. (PubMed id 21850686)1 Bruno D.L....Slater H.R. (Hum. Mutat. 2011)
    81. A directed protein interaction network for investigating intracellular signal transduction. (PubMed id 21900206)1 Vinayagam A....Wanker E.E. (Sci Signal 2011)
    82. Toward an understanding of the protein interaction network of the human liver. (PubMed id 21988832)1 Wang J....Yang X. (Mol. Syst. Biol. 2011)
    83. Differential LEF1 and TCF4 expression is involved in melanoma cell phenotype switching. (PubMed id 21599871)1 Eichhoff O.M....Hoek K.S. (amp 2011)
    84. Association of TCF4 gene polymorphisms with Fuchs' corneal dystrophy in the Chinese. (PubMed id 21659310)1 Thalamuthu A....Vithana E.N. (amp 2011)
    85. The schizophrenia risk allele C of the TCF4 rs9960767 polymorphism disrupts sensorimotor gating in schizophrenia spectrum and healthy volunteers. (PubMed id 21543597)1 Quednow B.B....Kumari V. (J. Neurosci. 2011)
    86. Most genome-wide significant susceptibility loci for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder reported to date cross-traditional diagnostic boundaries. (PubMed id 21037240)1 Williams H.J....O'Donovan M.C. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2011)
    87. Novel schizophrenia risk gene TCF4 influences verbal learning and memory functioning in schizophrenia patients. (PubMed id 21228604)1 Lennertz L....MAPssner R. (Neuropsychobiology 2011)
    88. Genome-wide meta-analysis for severe diabetic retinopathy. (PubMed id 21441570)1 Grassi M.A....Nicolae D.L. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2011)
    89. Histone H4 Lys 20 monomethylation by histone methylase SET8 mediates Wnt target gene activation. (PubMed id 21282610)1 Li Z....Li L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011)
    90. Tumor-suppressive effects of psoriasin (S100A7) are mediated through the I^-catenin/T cell factor 4 protein pathway in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells. (PubMed id 22016394)1 Deol Y.S....Ganju R.K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2011)
    91. Replication of the TCF4 intronic variant in late-onset Fuchs corneal dystrophy and evidence of independence from the FCD2 locus. (PubMed id 21245398)1 Riazuddin S.A....Gottsch J.D. (amp 2011)
    92. Replication of TCF4 through association and linkage studies in late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. (PubMed id 21533127)1 Li Y.J....Afshari N.A. (PLoS ONE 2011)
    93. Silencing of the Wnt transcription factor TCF4 sensitizes colorectal cancer cells to (chemo-) radiotherapy. (PubMed id 21983179)1 Kendziorra E....Grade M. (Carcinogenesis 2011)
    94. Interference of E2-2-mediated effect in endothelial cells by FAM96B through its limited expression of E2-2. (PubMed id 21722264)1 Yang W....Kato M. (Cancer Sci. 2011)
    95. System-wide temporal characterization of the proteome and phosphoproteome of human embryonic stem cell differentiation. (PubMed id 21406692)2 Rigbolt K.T....Blagoev B. (Sci. Signal. 2011)
    96. TIF1gamma controls erythroid cell fate by regulating transcription elongation. (PubMed id 20603019)1 Bai X....Zon L.I. (Cell 2010)
    97. Two percent of patients suspected of having Angelman syndrome have TCF4 mutations. (PubMed id 20184619)2 Takano K.... Schwartz C.E. (Clin. Genet. 2010)
    98. An atlas of combinatorial transcriptional regulation in mouse and man. (PubMed id 20211142)1 Ravasi T....Hayashizaki Y. (Cell 2010)
    99. TCF4, schizophrenia, and Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome. (PubMed id 20421335)1 Blake D.J....Owen M.J. (Schizophr Bull 2010)
    100. Pathway-based approaches to imaging genetics association studies: Wnt signaling, GSK3beta substrates and major depression. (PubMed id 20219685)4 Inkster B....Matthews P.M. (Neuroimage 2010)
    101. CpG methylation of transcription factor 4 in gastric carcinoma. (PubMed id 20585880)1 Joo J.K....Lee J.H. (Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2010)
    102. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: report of a case with a TCF4 gene mutation. (PubMed id 20205897)1 Taddeucci G....Tarantino E. (Ital J Pediatr 2010)
    103. Global regulator SATB1 recruits beta-catenin and regulates T(H)2 differentiation in Wnt-dependent manner. (PubMed id 20126258)1 Notani D....Galande S. (PLoS Biol. 2010)
    104. ITF2 is a target of CXCR4 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and is associated with reduced survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. (PubMed id 20603605)1 Appaiah H....Nakshatri H. (amp 2010)
    105. The ubiquitin specific protease 4 (USP4) is a new player in the Wnt signalling pathway. (PubMed id 20141612)1 Zhao B....Lindsten K. (J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2009)
    106. Daxx positively modulates beta-catenin/TCF4-mediated transcriptional potential. (PubMed id 19563778)1 Huang Y.S. and Shih H.M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2009)
    107. The transcription factor ITF-2A induces cell cycle arrest via p21(Cip1). (PubMed id 19635457)1 Herbst A....Kolligs F.T. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2009)
    108. ITF-2 is disrupted via allelic loss of chromosome 18q21, and ITF-2B expression is lost at the adenoma-carcinoma transition. (PubMed id 19394332)1 Herbst A....Kolligs F.T. (Gastroenterology 2009)
    109. Genotype-phenotype analysis of TCF4 mutations causing Pitt-Hopkins syndrome shows increased seizure activity with missense mutations. (PubMed id 19938247)1 Rosenfeld J.A....Shaffer L.G. (Genet. Med. 2009)
    110. Deletion 18q21.2q21.32 involving TCF4 in a boy diagnosed by CGH-array. (PubMed id 18222743)1 Andrieux J....Holder-Espinasse M. (Eur J Med Genet 2008)
    111. A conserved domain in the transcription factor ITF-2B attenuates its activity. (PubMed id 18371301)1 Herbst A. and Kolligs F.T. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2008)
    112. Trabid, a new positive regulator of Wnt-induced transcription with preference for binding and cleaving K63-linked ubiquitin chains. (PubMed id 18281465)1 Tran H.... Bienz M. (Genes Dev. 2008)
    113. Menin promotes the Wnt signaling pathway in pancreatic endocrine cells. (PubMed id 19074834)1 Chen G....Sawicki M.P. (Mol. Cancer Res. 2008)
    114. Genetic correlates of longevity and selected age-related phenotypes: a genome-wide association study in the Framingham Study. (PubMed id 17903295)4 Lunetta K.L....Murabito J.M. (BMC Med. Genet. 2007)
    115. Severe mental retardation with breathing abnormalities (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome) is caused by haploinsufficiency of the neuronal bHLH transcription factor TCF4. (PubMed id 17478476)1 Brockschmidt A....Weber R.G. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 2007)
    116. SOX6 suppresses cyclin D1 promoter activity by interacting with beta-catenin and histone deacetylase 1, and its down-regulation induces pancreatic beta-cell proliferation. (PubMed id 17412698)1 Iguchi H....Sakai J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007)
    117. Nine-amino-acid transactivation domain: establishment and prediction utilities. (PubMed id 17467953)2 Piskacek S....Piskacek M. (Genomics 2007)
    118. HER-2/neu transcriptionally activates Jab1 expression via the AKT/beta-catenin pathway in breast cancer cells. (PubMed id 17914096)1 Hsu M.C....Hung W.C. (Endocr. Relat. Cancer 2007)
    119. CBP/p300 are bimodal regulators of Wnt signaling. (PubMed id 17410209)1 Li J....Cadigan K.M. (EMBO J. 2007)
    120. Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes. (PubMed id 16344560)1 Kimura K.... Sugano S. (Genome Res. 2006)
    121. Parafibromin/Hyrax activates Wnt/Wg target gene transcription by direct association with beta-catenin/Armadillo. (PubMed id 16630820)1 Mosimann C.... Basler K. (Cell 2006)
    122. HIC1 attenuates Wnt signaling by recruitment of TCF-4 and beta- catenin to the nuclear bodies. (PubMed id 16724116)1 Valenta T.... Korinek V. (EMBO J. 2006)
    123. NARF, an nemo-like kinase (NLK)-associated ring finger protein regulates the ubiquitylation and degradation of T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF). (PubMed id 16714285)1 Yamada M.... Shibuya H. (J. Biol. Chem. 2006)
    124. ETO2 coordinates cellular proliferation and differentiation during erythropoiesis. (PubMed id 16407974)1 Goardon N....Hoang T. (EMBO J. 2006)
    125. Protein interaction screening by quantitative immunoprecipitation combined with knockdown (QUICK). (PubMed id 17072306)1 Selbach M. and Mann M. (Nat. Methods 2006)
    126. Essential role of T-cell factor/beta-catenin in regulation of Rad6B: a potential mechanism for Rad6B overexpression in breast cancer cells. (PubMed id 17050667)1 Shekhar M.P....Gerard B. (Mol. Cancer Res. 2006)
    127. DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 18. (PubMed id 16177791)2 Nusbaum C.... Lander E.S. (Nature 2005)
    128. Interaction of phosphorylated c-Jun with TCF4 regulates intestinal cancer development. (PubMed id 16007074)1 Nateri A.S....Behrens A. (Nature 2005)
    129. Interaction between Smad7 and beta-catenin: importance for transforming growth factor beta-induced apoptosis. (PubMed id 15684397)1 Edlund S....LandstrAPm M. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2005)
    130. SUMO-1 modification of PIASy, an E3 ligase, is necessary for PIASy- dependent activation of Tcf-4. (PubMed id 15831457)1 Ihara M.... Kikuchi A. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2005)
    131. Beta-catenin interacts with the FUS proto-oncogene product and regulates pre-mRNA splicing. (PubMed id 16230076)1 Sato S....Yamada T. (Gastroenterology 2005)
    132. Activator protein 2alpha associates with adenomatous polyposis coli/beta-catenin and Inhibits beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity in colorectal cancer cells. (PubMed id 15331612)1 Li Q. and Dashwood R.H. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    133. E protein silencing by the leukemogenic AML1-ETO fusion protein. (PubMed id 15333839)1 Zhang J....Roeder R.G. (Science 2004)
    134. The APC tumor suppressor binds to C-terminal binding protein to divert nuclear beta-catenin from TCF. (PubMed id 15525529)1 Hamada F. and Bienz M. (Dev. Cell 2004)
    135. Differential cooperation between dHAND and three different E-proteins. (PubMed id 15351717)1 Murakami M....Kurihara H. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2004)
    136. A direct beta-catenin-independent interaction between androgen receptor and T cell factor 4. (PubMed id 12799378)1 Amir A.L....Balk S.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    137. Hot spots in Tcf4 for the interaction with beta-catenin. (PubMed id 12657632)1 Fasolini M....Knapp S. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003)
    138. Sumoylation is involved in beta-catenin-dependent activation of Tcf- 4. (PubMed id 12727872)1 Yamamoto H.... Kikuchi A. (EMBO J. 2003)
    139. Functional localization and competition between the androgen receptor and T-cell factor for nuclear beta-catenin: a means for inhibition of the Tcf signaling axis. (PubMed id 12944908)1 Mulholland D.J....Nelson C.C. (Oncogene 2003)
    140. Phosphorylation and regulation of beta-catenin by casein kinase I epsilon. (PubMed id 12417018)1 Sakanaka C. (J. Biochem. 2002)
    141. Human Hand1 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein: extra-embryonic expression pattern, interaction partners and identification of its transcriptional repressor domains. (PubMed id 11802795)1 KnAPfler M....Husslein P. (Biochem. J. 2002)
    142. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)
    143. A novel target recognition revealed by calmodulin in complex with the basic helix--loop--helix transcription factor SEF2-1/E2-2. (PubMed id 11266605)1 Larsson G....Wijmenga S.S. (Protein Sci. 2001)
    144. Tcf4 can specifically recognize beta-catenin using alternative conformations. (PubMed id 11713475)1 Graham T.A.... Xu W. (Nat. Struct. Biol. 2001)
    145. Protein-protein interaction panel using mouse full-length cDNAs. (PubMed id 11591653)1 Suzuki H....Hayashizaki Y. (Genome Res. 2001)
    146. Negative regulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway by the transcriptional repressor HBP1. (PubMed id 11500377)1 Sampson E.M.... Yee A.S. (EMBO J. 2001)
    147. Structure of a human Tcf4-beta-catenin complex. (PubMed id 11713476)1 Poy F.... Eck M.J. (Nat. Struct. Biol. 2001)
    148. Sgn1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor delineates the salivary gland duct cell lineage in mice. (PubMed id 11784080)1 Yoshida S....Nabeshima Y. (Dev. Biol. 2001)
    149. Allelic distribution of CTG18.1 in Caucasian populations: association studies in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and ataxia. (PubMed id 10889556)4 McInnis M.G....Ross C.A. (Mol. Psychiatry 2000)
    150. A novel type of calmodulin interaction in the inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. (PubMed id 10757985)1 Onions J....GrundstrAPm T. (Biochemistry 2000)
    151. Characterization of ABF-1, a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in activated B lymphocytes. (PubMed id 9584154)1 Massari M.E.... Murre C. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1998)
    152. A splice variant of E2-2 basic helix-loop-helix protein represses the brain-specific fibroblast growth factor 1 promoter through the binding to an imperfect E-box. (PubMed id 9668116)1 Liu Y....Chiu I.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1998)
    153. SCL binds the human homologue of DRG in vivo. (PubMed id 9824680)1 Zhao X.-F. and Aplan P.D. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1998)
    154. The role of E-proteins in B- and T-lymphocyte development. (PubMed id 9618760)1 Bain G. and Murre C. (Semin. Immunol. 1998)
    155. Differential interactions of Id proteins with basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors. (PubMed id 9242638)1 Langlands K....Prochownik E.V. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997)
    156. Physical and functional interactions between the transcriptional inhibitors Id3 and ITF-2b. Evidence toward a novel mechanism regulating muscle-specific gene expression. (PubMed id 8999959)1 Chen B. and Lim R.W. (J. Biol. Chem. 1997)
    157. Determinants of helix-loop-helix dimerization affinity. Random mutational analysis of SCL/tal. (PubMed id 8576241)1 Goldfarb A.N....Shoham M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1996)
    158. The helix-loop-helix transcription factor SEF-2 regulates the activity of a novel initiator element in the promoter of the human somatostatin receptor II gene. (PubMed id 8978694)1 Pscherer A....SchA1le R. (EMBO J. 1996)
    159. Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome (PubMed id 22934316)1 Pagon R.A....Stephens K. (1993)
    160. Axin downregulates TCF-4 transcription via beta-catenin, but not p53, and inhibits the proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells. (PubMed id 20122174)9 Yang L.H....Wang E.H. (Mol. Cancer 2010)
    161. Expression of T cell factor-4 in non-small-cell lung cancer. (PubMed id 15667799)9 Li C.Y....Wang E.H. (Chin. Med. J. 2005)
    162. Inhibition of endothelial cell activation by bHLH protein E2-2 and its impairment of angiogenesis. (PubMed id 20231428)9 Tanaka A....Kato M. (Blood 2010)
    163. Ku70 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 competitively regulate beta-catenin and T-cell factor-4-mediated gene transactivation: possible linkage of DNA damage recognition and Wnt signaling. (PubMed id 17283121)9 Idogawa M....Yamada T. (Cancer Res. 2007)
    164. Transcription factor Egr1 acts as an upstream regulator of beta-catenin signalling through up-regulation of TCF4 and p300 expression during trans-differentiation of endometrial carcinoma cells. (PubMed id 18798221)9 Saegusa M....Okayasu I. (J. Pathol. 2008)
    165. Upregulation of TCF4 expression as a transcriptional target of beta-catenin/p300 complexes during trans-differentiation of endometrial carcinoma cells. (PubMed id 15806138)9 Saegusa M....Okayasu I. ( a journal of technical methods and pathology 2005)
    166. Alterations of beta-catenin and Tcf-4 instead of GSK-3beta contribute to activation of Wnt pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed id 14687479)9 Cui J....Romeih M. (Chin. Med. J. 2003)
    167. Regulation of Wnt signaling by the nuclear pore complex. (PubMed id 18439914)9 Shitashige M....Yamada T. (Gastroenterology 2008)
    168. Nuclear translocations of beta-catenin and TCF4 in gastric cancers correlate with lymph node metastasis but probably not with CD44 expression. (PubMed id 16311123)9 Chen X.Y....Liu J. (Hum. Pathol. 2005)
    169. Aberrant expression and function of TCF4 in the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7402. (PubMed id 15040893)9 Zhao D.H....Li C.J. (Cell Res. 2004)
    170. Id2 is a primary partner for the E2-2 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor in the human placenta. (PubMed id 15249128)9 Liu Y.P....Golos T.G. (Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2004)
    171. The transcriptional factor Tcf-4 contains different binding sites for beta-catenin and plakoglobin. (PubMed id 11711551)9 Miravet S....DuA+ach M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    172. HOXB13 is downregulated in colorectal cancer to confer TCF4-mediated transactivation. (PubMed id 15928669)9 Jung C....Kao C. (Br. J. Cancer 2005)
    173. Wnt signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of mutation and expression of beta-catenin, T-cell factor-4 and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta genes. (PubMed id 12603528)9 Cui J....Romeih M. (J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2003)
    174. beta-Catenin and plakoglobin N- and C-tails determine ligand specificity. (PubMed id 15381698)9 Solanas G....DuA+ach M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004)
    175. The human T-cell factor-4 gene splicing isoforms, Wnt signal pathway, and apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma. (PubMed id 12796377)9 Shiina H....Dahiya R. (Clin. Cancer Res. 2003)
    176. Variable mutation frequencies in coding repeats of TCF-4 and other target genes in colon, gastric and endometrial carcinoma showing microsatellite instability. (PubMed id 10597289)9 Duval A....Hamelin R. (Oncogene 1999)
    177. HEB, a helix-loop-helix protein related to E2A and ITF2 that can modulate the DNA-binding ability of myogenic regulatory factors. (PubMed id 1312219)9 Hu J.S.... Kingston R.E. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1992)
    178. The class I bHLH factors E2-2A and E2-2B regulate EMT. (PubMed id 19295128)9 Sobrado V.R....Cano A. (J. Cell. Sci. 2009)
    179. Characterization of sequences in human TWIST required for nuclear localization. (PubMed id 19534813)9 Singh S. and Gramolini A.O. (BMC Cell Biol. 2009)
    180. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a component of the oncogenic T-cell factor-4/beta-catenin complex. (PubMed id 15940627)9 Idogawa M....Hirohashi S. (Gastroenterology 2005)
    181. Evolution of vertebrate E protein transcription factors: comparative analysis of the E protein gene family in Takifugu rubripes and humans. (PubMed id 15713784)9 Hikima J....Warr G.W. (Physiol. Genomics 2005)
    182. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma induces apoptosis of leukemia cells by down-regulating the c-myc gene expression via blockade of the Tcf-4 activity. (PubMed id 11973610)9 Yamakawa-Karakida N....Nakazawa S. (Cell Death Differ. 2002)
    183. TAL1/SCL relieves the E2-2-mediated repression of VEGFR2 promoter activity. (PubMed id 19029143)9 Tanaka A....Kato M. (J. Biochem. 2009)
    184. Agelastatin A: a novel inhibitor of osteopontin-mediated adhesion, invasion, and colony formation. (PubMed id 18347142)9 Mason C.K....El-Tanani M. (Mol. Cancer Ther. 2008)
    185. E-box protein E2-2 is a crucial regulator of plasmacytoid DC development. (PubMed id 18792016)9 Esashi E. and Liu Y.J. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2008)
    186. BMPs restrict the position of premuscle masses in the limb buds by influencing Tcf4 expression. (PubMed id 17005177)9 Bonafede A....Brand-Saberi B. (Dev. Biol. 2006)
    187. Regulation of human neurotropic JCV in colon cancer cells. (PubMed id 16619477)9 Enam S....Khalili K. (Anticancer Res. 2006)
    188. Quercetin, a potent inhibitor against beta-catenin/Tcf signaling in SW480 colon cancer cells. (PubMed id 15670774)9 Park C.H....Yang C.H. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005)
    189. APC 3 x 15 beta-catenin-binding domain potentiates beta-catenin association to TBP and upregulates TCF-4 transcriptional activity. (PubMed id 13679048)9 Roura S....DuA+ach M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003)
    190. Nitric oxide-donating aspirin inhibits beta-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) signaling in SW480 colon cancer cells by disrupting the nuclear beta-catenin-TCF association. (PubMed id 14566053)9 Nath N....Rigas B. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003)
    191. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by the Wnt and ras pathways. (PubMed id 12566320)9 Araki Y....Harris C.C. (Cancer Res. 2003)
    192. Reconstructed beta-catenin/TCF4 signaling in yeast applicable to functional evaluation of APC mutations. (PubMed id 14633595)9 Yamada H....Katoh H. (Am. J. Pathol. 2003)
    193. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 effects on junctional plakoglobin and induction of a cadherin switch. (PubMed id 19584275)9 Shair K.H....Raab-Traub N. (Cancer Res. 2009)
    194. Silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor and nuclear receptor corepressor attenuate transcriptional activation by the beta-catenin-TCF4 complex. (PubMed id 18632669)9 Song L.N. and Gelmann E.P. (J. Biol. Chem. 2008)
    195. Acetylation of beta-catenin by p300 regulates beta-catenin-Tcf4 interaction. (PubMed id 15060161)9 LAcvy L....Neuveut C. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2004)

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    Entrez Gene: 6925 HGNC: 11634 AceView: TCF4 Ensembl:ENSG00000196628 euGenes: HUgn6925
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    PharmGKB entry for TCF4 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
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     Block miRNA regulation of human, mouse, rat TCF4 using miScript Target Protectors SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TCF4
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