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TBCA Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 58
GCID: GC05M077022

Tubulin Folding Cofactor A

(Previous name: tubulin-specific chaperone a)
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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Tubulin Folding Cofactor A1 2
Tubulin-Specific Chaperone A1 2
Tubulin-Folding Cofactor A2 3
CFA2 3
TCP1-Chaperonin Cofactor A2 3
Chaperonin Cofactor A2

External Ids:    HGNC: 115791   Entrez Gene: 69022   Ensembl: ENSG000001715307   OMIM: 6100585   UniProtKB: O753473   

Export aliases for TBCA gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC05M075792 GC05M077221 GC05M077025 GC05M077071 GC05M072194


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TBCA Gene:
The product of this gene is one of four proteins (cofactors A, D, E, and C) involved in the pathway leading to
correctly folded beta-tubulin from folding intermediates. Cofactors A and D are believed to play a role in
capturing and stabilizing beta-tubulin intermediates in a quasi-native confirmation. Cofactor E binds to the
cofactor D/beta-tubulin complex; interaction with cofactor C then causes the release of beta-tubulin polypeptides
that are committed to the native state. This gene encodes chaperonin cofactor A. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for TBCA Gene:
TBCA (tubulin folding cofactor A) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include unfolded protein binding and chaperone binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBCA_HUMAN, O75347
Function: Tubulin-folding protein; involved in the early step of the tubulin folding pathway

Gene Wiki entry for TBCA Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence at NCBI GenBank:
NC_000005.9  NT_034772.7  NC_018916.2  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TBCA gene promoter:
         GR   Pbx1a   AML1a   POU3F2 (N-Oct-5a)   RelA   POU3F2   NF-kappaB   LCR-F1   GR-alpha   NF-kappaB1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTBCA promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TBCA

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TBCA


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 5q14.1   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  5q14.1   HGNC cytogenetic band: 5q14.1

TBCA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TBCA gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 5         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC05M077022:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
76,986,991 bp from pter      End:
77,164,604 bp from pter
Size:
177,614 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., and/or eBioscience, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBCA_HUMAN, O75347 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Tubulin-specific chaperone A  
Size: 108 amino acids; 12855 Da
Subunit: Supercomplex made of cofactors A to E. Cofactors A and D function by capturing and stabilizing tubulin in
a quasi-native conformation. Cofactor E binds to the cofactor D-tubulin complex; interaction with cofactor C then
causes the release of tubulin polypeptides that are committed to the native state
1 PDB 3D structure from and Proteopedia for TBCA:
1H7C (3D)    

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TBCA: NX_O75347

Explore proteomics data for TBCA at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Ubiquitination2 at Lys51, Lys52, Lys105
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

  • See TBCA Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_004598.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000369736   ENSP00000429083   ENSP00000306362   ENSP00000429288   ENSP00000429793  
     ENSP00000429313   ENSP00000429046  
    Reactome Protein details: O75347

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR004226 CofA_tubulin-bd

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry O75347

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: O75347

    1 Blocks protein domain: IPB004226 Tubulin binding cofactor A

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TBCA_HUMAN, O75347
    Similarity: Belongs to the TBCA family


    Find genes that share domains with TBCA           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TBCA_HUMAN, O75347
    Function: Tubulin-folding protein; involved in the early step of the tubulin folding pathway

         Gene Ontology (GO): 3 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0044822poly(A) RNA binding IDA--
    GO:0051082unfolded protein binding IEA--
    GO:0051087chaperone binding TAS8706133
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TBCA           About GenesLikeMe


    Phenotypes:
         3 GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for TBCA:
     Cell cycle / mitosis defect  Increased cell number in G1, a  Increased gamma-H2AX phosphory 

    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory: Let us create your new Knockout/Knockin mouse model for TBCA
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    miRTarBase miRNAs that target TBCA:
    hsa-mir-155-5p (MIRT001495)

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TBCA_HUMAN, O75347: Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    cytoskeleton5
    nucleus4
    cytosol2
    mitochondrion2

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005730nucleolus IDA--
    GO:0005737cytoplasm TAS16130169
    GO:0005874microtubule IEA--
    GO:0015630microtubule cytoskeleton IDA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TBCA           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TBCA About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Protein folding
    Protein folding0.91
    Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway0.00
    2Biosynthesis of the N-glycan precursor (dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide, LLO) and transfer to a nascent protein
    Metabolism of proteins0.30


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with TBCA           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways



    1 Reactome Pathway for TBCA
        Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway


        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TBCA
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TBCA

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 5 interactants - click image to see 25)

    Selected Interacting proteins for TBCA (O753473 ENSP000003697364) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D (see all 74)
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    ENSG00000206289P287023I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000227322P287023I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000228333P287023I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000231321P287023I2D: score=1 
    ENSG00000235712P287023I2D: score=1 
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 5 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0006457protein folding TAS8706133
    GO:0007021tubulin complex assembly IEA--
    GO:0007023post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway TAS8706133
    GO:0044267cellular protein metabolic process TAS--
    GO:0051084'de novo' posttranslational protein folding TAS--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TBCA           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TBCA



    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TBCA gene: 
    NM_004607.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TBCA:

    Tubulin folding cofactor A
    Hs.291212  [show with all ESTs]
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC067837
    9 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000380377(uc003kfh.1) ENST00000518218 ENST00000517679 ENST00000306388(uc003kfi.1)
    ENST00000520361 ENST00000517881 ENST00000518338 ENST00000522370 ENST00000520039

    miRNA
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    Search for qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate TBCA
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    Inhib. RNA
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    Pre-validated RT2 qPCR Primer Assay in human, mouse, rat TBCA
      QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human, mouse, rat TBCA
      QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human, mouse, rat TBCA

    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    AF038952.1 AK300031.1 AK312207.1 BC018210.1 BC067837.1 BC105285.1 BT007354.1 CR542170.1 
    CR542186.1 

    17 DOTS entries:

    DT.215722  DT.86846553  DT.208079  DT.121283223  DT.97858949  DT.100822339  DT.95279247  DT.120834597 
    DT.97858950  DT.100044565  DT.100641832  DT.120834615  DT.121283207  DT.75100797  DT.120866799  DT.92439561 
    DT.92439565 

    Selected AceView cDNA sequences (see all 227):

    AA770126 AA593605 AI364865 BG215577 CB107282 BQ186127 AA746341 BG235959 
    CD677594 BI492241 AA504095 BF055320 BC018210 BF940058 CB068556 BQ436639 
    BG030197 BU676261 AA649574 BX102390 CA337813 BF726655 AI199999 AI479967 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TBCA expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: GCCGATCCTC
    TBCA Expression
    About this image


    TBCA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells    About this table
    Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
     selected tissues (see all 23) fully expand
     
     Brain (Nervous System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Cerebral Cortex
     
     Skeletal Muscle (Muscoskeletal System)    fully expand to see all 3 entries
             Mononuclear Myocytes Hyoid Arch Muscles
     
     Ovary (Reproductive System)    fully expand to see all 2 entries
             Ovarian Mesenchymal Stroma Cells Ovary Interstitium
             Oviduct
     
     Testis (Reproductive System)
             Leydig Cells Testis Interstitium
     
     Liver (Hepatobiliary System)
             Hepatocytes Liver Lobule
    TBCA Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TBCA Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.291212
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    In Situ
    Assay Products:
     

     
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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

    Orthologs for TBCA gene from Selected species (see all 16)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tbca1 , 5 tubulin cofactor A1, 5 87.04(n)1
    92.59(a)1
      13 (49.22 cM)5
    213711  NM_009321.21  NP_033347.11 
     947889435 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TBCA1 tubulin folding cofactor A 80.25(n)
    82.41(a)
      416367  NM_001167729.1  NP_001161201.1 
    lizard
    (Anolis carolinensis)
    Reptilia --
    --
    Uncharacterized protein
    78(a)
    76(a)
    many → 1
    many → 1
    2(13783129-13819055)
    GL343427.1(37828-38154)
    African clawed frog
    (Xenopus laevis)
    Amphibia Xl.200532 Xenopus laevis transcribed sequence with moderate similarity more 77.35(n)    BJ095977.1 
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii zgc562622 similar to tubulin cofactor a 76.06(n)   394029  BC046032.1 
    fruit fly
    (Drosophila melanogaster)
    Insecta CG18901 CG1890 50.47(n)
    42.99(a)
      43737  NM_143628.2  NP_651885.1 
    worm
    (Caenorhabditis elegans)
    Secernentea Y39G10AR.206
    Protein Y39G10AR.20 (Y39G10AR.20) mRNA, complete c...
    33(a)
    1 ↔ 1
    I(2312496-2313008) WBGene00021475


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TBCA (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TBCA (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TBCA gene

    Find genes that share paralogs with TBCA           About GenesLikeMe


    2 Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for TBCA
    PGOHUM00000256861 PGOHUM00000241692


    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TBCA (see all 1653)    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 5 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1421081241,2
    --76986520(+) TTGTTC/GATAAG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1478095721,2
    --76986548(+) TAAATC/GGTTGG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1914988621,2
    --76986561(+) GTGTTC/TTCTGT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs26522031,2
    C,F,A--76986580(+) GTCCTG/CGAAAA 1 -- ds500116Minor allele frequency- C:0.46NA WA CSA EA 518
    rs748234521,2
    C,F--76986690(+) TTTATA/GTCAGT 1 -- ds50011Minor allele frequency- G:0.08WA 118
    rs1827736781,2
    C--76986760(+) TGTTCC/TGTAGG 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1858974241,2
    --76986787(+) TAATCA/CTACCT 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs26522061,2
    C,F,A--76986847(+) CCCCAG/ATAGTT 1 -- ds500110Minor allele frequency- A:0.37WA NA CSA EA 373
    rs68884821,2
    C,F,H--76986900(+) TTGTTA/GTTTGA 1 -- ds500116Minor allele frequency- G:0.11NS EA NA WA CSA 1988
    rs1448299851,2
    --76987012(+) CTATGC/TGGTTT 1 -- ut310--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TBCA (76986991 - 77164604 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for TBCA (see all 13):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2538870CNV Deletion19546169
    esv2730329CNV Deletion23290073
    esv4231CNV Deletion18987735
    esv989167CNV Deletion20482838
    esv2730330CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2228193CNV Deletion18987734
    esv2669417CNV Deletion23128226
    esv1483892CNV Deletion17803354
    nsv328235CNV Loss16902084
    nsv823103CNV Loss20364138

    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TBCA
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 610058    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with TBCA           About GenesLikeMe

    Genetic Association Database (GAD): TBCA
    Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator: TBCA (3 documents)

    Export disorders for TBCA gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TBCA gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 32):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TBCA)
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    1. Identification of genes expressed in human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells by expressed sequence tags and efficient full- length cDNA cloning. (PubMed id 9653160)1, 2, 3 Mao M.... Chen Z. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998)
    2. A genome-wide study reveals copy number variants exclusive to childhood obesity cases. (PubMed id 20950786)1, 4 Glessner J.T....Grant S.F. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2010)
    3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PubMed id 20379614)1, 4 Rose J.E....Uhl G.R. (Mol. Med. 2010)
    4. Human variation in alcohol response is influenced by variation in neuronal signaling genes. (PubMed id 20201926)1, 4 Joslyn G....White R.L. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2010)
    5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    6. Three-dimensional structure of human tubulin chaperone cofactor A. (PubMed id 12054808)1, 2 Guasch A.... Coll M. (J. Mol. Biol. 2002)
    7. Pathway leading to correctly folded beta-tubulin. (PubMed id 8706133)1, 3 Tian G....Cowan N.J. (Cell 1996)
    8. Pathway Analysis of ChIP-Seq-Based NRF1 Target Genes Suggests a Logical Hypothesis of their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases. (PubMed id 24250222)1 Satoh J....Yamamoto Y. (Gene Regul Syst Bio 2013)
    9. Tubulin cofactor A functions as a novel positive regulator of ccRCC progression, invasion and metastasis. (PubMed id 23740643)1 Zhang P....Zhang X. (Int. J. Cancer 2013)
    10. A census of human soluble protein complexes. (PubMed id 22939629)1 Havugimana P.C....Emili A. (Cell 2012)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 6902 HGNC: 11579 AceView: TBCA Ensembl:ENSG00000171530 euGenes: HUgn6902
    ECgene: TBCA H-InvDB: TBCA

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TBCA Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TBCA gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TBCA

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



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