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Aliases for TAT Gene

Aliases for TAT Gene

  • Tyrosine Aminotransferase 2 3 5
  • EC 4 61
  • L-Tyrosine:2-Oxoglutarate Aminotransferase 4

External Ids for TAT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TAT Gene

  • GC16M062492
  • GC16M072323
  • GC16M071336
  • GC16M071376
  • GC16M070158
  • GC16M071599
  • GC16M057368

Summaries for TAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAT Gene

  • This nuclear gene encodes a mitochondrial protein tyrosine aminotransferase which is present in the liver and catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Mutations in this gene cause tyrosinemia (type II, Richner-Hanhart syndrome), a disorder accompanied by major skin and corneal lesions, with possible mental retardation. A regulator gene for tyrosine aminotransferase is X-linked. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TAT Gene

TAT (Tyrosine Aminotransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TAT include Tyrosinemia, Type Ii and Hanhart Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Tyrosine metabolism and Viral mRNA Translation. GO annotations related to this gene include pyridoxal phosphate binding and amino acid binding. An important paralog of this gene is KYAT1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAT Gene

  • Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TAT Gene

Genomics for TAT Gene

Regulatory Elements for TAT Gene

Enhancers for TAT Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH16G071625 0.9 ENCODE 10.7 -50.3 -50326 3.7 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 ZNF121 ELK1 SP3 SP5 PHLPP2 RNU6-208P TAT SNORA70D MARVELD3 HPR ENSG00000260593 LOC105371336
GH16G071492 0.9 ENCODE 9.8 +84.9 84898 0.2 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT TCF12 GATA2 NCOA1 ZNF592 MAFF SMARCA4 PBX2 ZNF23 ENSG00000247324 CALB2 TAT ENSG00000261611 LOC105371335
GH16G071721 1.1 ENCODE 7 -146.0 -145963 3.0 HDGF PKNOX1 ZFP64 SIN3A ARID4B DMAP1 YBX1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B SLC30A9 PHLPP2 MARVELD3 TAT AP1G1 ENSG00000261513 SNORA70D
GH16G071630 0.6 ENCODE 10.7 -53.9 -53853 0.1 ZNF217 CTBP1 GATA3 JUND FOS CUX1 RCOR1 DPF2 RNU6-208P PHLPP2 TAT SNORA70D LOC105371336 ENSG00000260593
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TAT Gene

71,565,660 bp from pter
71,577,130 bp from pter
11,471 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TAT Gene

Genes around TAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TAT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAT Gene

Proteins for TAT Gene

  • Protein details for TAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tyrosine aminotransferase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R8I1
    • D3DWS2

    Protein attributes for TAT Gene

    454 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    50399 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TAT Gene

neXtProt entry for TAT Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TAT Gene


Post-translational modifications for TAT Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TAT Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for TAT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAT: view

No data available for Gene Families for TAT Gene

Function for TAT Gene

Molecular function for TAT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tyrosine aminotransferase,catalyzing the first step of tyrosine catabolism
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-glutamate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004838 L-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25910212
GO:0008483 transaminase activity IEA --
GO:0016597 amino acid binding IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TAT: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TAT Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for TAT Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TAT

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TAT Gene

Localization for TAT Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAT gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
lysosome 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005575 cellular_component ND --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAT: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAT Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAT: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P17735-ATTY_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amino-acid degradation; L-phenylalanine degradation; acetoacetate and fumarate from L-phenylalanine: step 2/6.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006103 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process IDA 7999802
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006536 glutamate metabolic process IDA 7999802
GO:0006559 L-phenylalanine catabolic process TAS --
GO:0006572 tyrosine catabolic process IDA 7999802
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TAT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TAT Gene

(66) Drugs for TAT Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Phenylalanine Approved Nutra Target 0
L-Tyrosine Approved Nutra Target 0
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 61
L-Methionine Approved Nutra 0
L-Glutamic Acid Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 0

(48) Additional Compounds for TAT Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid
  • 2-Keto-4-methylthiobutyrate
  • 2-Keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid
  • 2-Ketomethiobutyrate
  • 2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate
  • 2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid
  • (p-hydroxyphenyl)-Pyruvate
  • (p-hydroxyphenyl)-Pyruvic acid
  • (p-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate
  • (p-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvic acid
  • 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxo-propanoate
Oxoglutaric acid
  • 2-Ketoglutarate
  • 2-Ketoglutaric acid
  • 2-Oxo-1,5-pentanedioate
  • 2-Oxo-1,5-pentanedioic acid
  • 2-Oxoglutarate
Phenylpyruvic acid
  • 2-Hydroxy-3-phenyl-2-propenoic acid, 9CI
  • 2-Oxo-3-phenylpropanoate
  • 2-Oxo-3-phenylpropanoic acid
  • 2-Oxo-3-phenylpropanoic acid (Mixture oxo and keto)
  • 3-Phenyl-2-oxopropanoate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAT: view

Transcripts for TAT Gene

Unigene Clusters for TAT Gene

Tyrosine aminotransferase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAT Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12a · 12b
SP1: - -
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for TAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TAT Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x51.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TAT Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TAT Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TAT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAT Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TAT Gene

  • Liver(4.9)
  • Kidney(3.7)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TAT Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • eye
  • head
  • kidney
  • ankle
  • digit
  • foot
  • hand
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • upper limb
  • blood
  • skin
  • sweat gland
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TAT: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TAT Gene

Orthologs for TAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAT 34 35
  • 99.49 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TAT 34 35
  • 90.6 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TAT 34 35
  • 90.16 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TAT 35
  • 90 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tat 34
  • 87.15 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tat 34 16 35
  • 86.2 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TAT 35
  • 72 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TAT 34 35
  • 76.28 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TAT 35
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tat 34
  • 70.13 (n)
Str.15963 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.32186 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tat 34 35
  • 68.05 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7145 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG1461 36 34 35
  • 57.13 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000327 34
  • 57.08 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tatn-1 34 35
  • 51.21 (n)
F42D1.2 36
  • 44 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes BNA3 35
  • 20 (a)
HIS5 37
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G36160 34
  • 47.86 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0302700 34
  • 47.04 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 57 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.10155 34
Species where no ortholog for TAT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TAT Gene

Gene Tree for TAT (if available)
Gene Tree for TAT (if available)

Paralogs for TAT Gene

Paralogs for TAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TAT: view

Variants for TAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs28934277 Tyrosinemia 2 (TYRSN2) [MIM:276600]
rs118203914 Pathogenic 71,576,247(-) CCATC(C/T)GAGCC reference, stop-gained
rs118203915 Pathogenic 71,572,224(-) TGGGT(C/G)AGTGT nc-transcript-variant, reference, stop-gained
rs118203916 Pathogenic 71,568,260(-) TCATC(C/T)GAGTG intron-variant, reference, stop-gained
rs587776511 Pathogenic 71,569,894(+) GGAGT(A/C)CAGGG intron-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7285 OTHER inversion 18451855

Variation tolerance for TAT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 26.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.19; 69.71% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TAT Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAT Gene

Disorders for TAT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(12) MalaCards diseases for TAT Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
tyrosinemia, type ii
  • tyrosinemia type ii
hanhart syndrome
  • hypoglossia-hypodactylia
  • hereditary tyrosinemia
small cell sarcoma
  • sarcoma, small cell
ipex syndrome
  • immunodeficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TAT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Tyrosinemia 2 (TYRSN2) [MIM:276600]: An inborn error of metabolism characterized by elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine, and oculocutaneous manifestations. Typical features include palmoplantar keratosis, painful corneal ulcers, and mental retardation. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1357662}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for TAT Gene

tyrosinemia II,oculocutaneous,Richner-Hanhart syndrome,with palmoplantar keratoderma (hyperkeratosis),ectodermal dysplasia and corneal dystrophy

Relevant External Links for TAT

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TAT: view

Publications for TAT Gene

  1. Cloning and expression of human tyrosine aminotransferase cDNA. (PMID: 7999802) Seralini G.E. … Labrie F. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1995) 3 4 22 64
  2. Nucleotide sequence of the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene. (PMID: 7908801) Zelenin S.M. … Mertvetsov N.P. (Bioorg. Khim. 1994) 3 4 22 64
  3. Point mutations in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene in tyrosinemia type II. (PMID: 1357662) Natt E. … Scherer G. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1992) 3 4 22 64
  4. Isolation and characterization of the human tyrosine aminotransferase gene. (PMID: 1973834) Rettenmeier R. … Scherer G. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1990) 3 4 22 64
  5. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci influencing human serum metabolite levels. (PMID: 22286219) Kettunen J. … Ripatti S. (Nat. Genet. 2012) 3 46 64

Products for TAT Gene

Sources for TAT Gene

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