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TAS2R9 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 52
GCID: GC12M010972

Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 9

  Search for TAS2R9
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 91 2
T2R92 3 5
TRB62 3 5
Taste Receptor Family B Member 62 3
Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 92
Taste Receptor, Family B, Member 62

External Ids:    HGNC: 149171   Entrez Gene: 508352   Ensembl: ENSG000001213817   OMIM: 6047955   UniProtKB: Q9NYW13   

Export aliases for TAS2R9 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC12M010665 GC12M011105 GC12M010862 GC12M010853 GC12M010963 GC12M010965 GC12M010968


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TAS2R9 Gene:
This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled
receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and
palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence
bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This
gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. (provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008)

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R9 Gene:
TAS2R9 (taste receptor, type 2, member 9) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include taste receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R41.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TA2R9_HUMAN, Q9NYW1
Function: Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the
gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5 (By similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R9 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000012.12  NC_018923.2  NT_009714.18  NT_187658.1  
Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TAS2R9 gene promoter:
         STAT5B   p53   FOXD1   E47   C/EBPalpha   MEF-2A   Nkx6-1   Chx10   Hand1   MRF-2   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTAS2R9 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TAS2R9

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TAS2R9


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12p13   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12p13.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12p13

TAS2R9 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TAS2R9 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12M010972:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
10,961,693 bp from pter      End:
10,962,767 bp from pter
Size:
1,075 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

2 alternative locations:
Chr12-,NW_003571047 7,800-8,874      Chr12-,NW_003571050 7,800-8,874     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TA2R9_HUMAN, Q9NYW1 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Taste receptor type 2 member 9  
Size: 312 amino acids; 35611 Da
Miscellaneous: Several bitter taste receptors are expressed in a single taste receptor cell
Secondary accessions: Q502V7 Q50KT0 Q50KT1 Q645W9

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TAS2R9: NX_Q9NYW1

Explore proteomics data for TAS2R9 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn164

  • See TAS2R9 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_076406.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000240691  
    Reactome Protein details: Q9NYW1

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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    TASNR: GPCR / Unclassified : Taste receptors
    TAS2R: Taste receptors / Type 2

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: TAS2R9
    Taste 2 receptors

    2 InterPro protein domains:
     IPR017452 GPCR_Rhodpsn_7TM
     IPR007960 TAS2_rcpt

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry Q9NYW1

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: Q9NYW1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TA2R9_HUMAN, Q9NYW1
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family


    TAS2R9 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, and Vector BioLabs, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: TA2R9_HUMAN, Q9NYW1
    Function: Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the
    gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5 (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 2 molecular function terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity ----
    GO:0008527taste receptor activity TAS10761934
         
    TAS2R9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Animal Models:
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    hsa-mir-26b-5p (MIRT030201)

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    TA2R9_HUMAN, Q9NYW1: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein
    Subcellular locations from COMPARTMENTS: 

    CompartmentConfidence
    plasma membrane3

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane IEA--

    TAS2R9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TAS2R9 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Taste transduction
    Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)0.45
    Taste transduction0.45
    2Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    3Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44
    4Sweet Taste Signaling
    Bitter Taste Signaling0.44

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways

    1 Downloadable PowerPoint Slide of GeneGlobe Pathway Central Maps for TAS2R9
        Bitter Taste Signaling

    2 Reactome Pathways for TAS2R9
        Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)
    G alpha (i) signalling events


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for TAS2R9):
        Taste transduction


    TAS2R9 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TAS2R9
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TAS2R9

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    1 Interacting protein for TAS2R9 (ENSP000002406914) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GNAT3ENSP000003813394STRING: ENSP00000381339
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 4 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0008150biological_process ND--
    GO:0050909sensory perception of taste ----
    GO:0050912detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of taste TAS10761934

    TAS2R9 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
       Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences
      Browse compounds at ApexBio 

    Browse Tocris compounds for TAS2R9 (TA2R9)

    1 HMDB Compound for TAS2R9    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--

    3 BitterDB Bitter Compounds for TAS2R9    About this table
    CompoundSMILES CAS #
    ofloxacinCC1COc2c(N3CCN(C)CC3)c(F)cc4C(=O)C(=CN1c24)C(=O)O--
    pirenzapinCN1CCN(CC(=O)N2c3ccccc3C(=O)Nc4cccnc24)CC1--
    procainamidCCN(CC)CCNC(=O)c1ccc(N)cc1--




    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TAS2R9 gene: 
    NM_023917.2  

    Unigene Cluster for TAS2R9:

    Taste receptor, type 2, member 9
    Hs.272391
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC095519
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000240691(uc001qyx.3)
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    BC069066.1 BC095519.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.91669346 

    3 AceView cDNA sequences:

    BC069066 NM_023917 CF147794 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TAS2R9 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: AGGGCCATAA
    TAS2R9 Expression
    About this image

    TAS2R9 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TAS2R9 Protein Expression

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.272391

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: TA2R9_HUMAN, Q9NYW1
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelium and
    exclusively in gustducin-positive cells

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for TAS2R9 gene from Selected species (see all 4)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    dog
    (Canis familiaris)
    Mammalia TAS2R91 taste receptor, type 2, member 9 82.42(n)
    72.58(a)
      100686911  XM_003639978.1  XP_003640026.1 
    tropical clawed frog
    (Xenopus tropicalis)
    Amphibia tas2r71 taste receptor, type 2, member 7 45.71(n)
    35(a)
      100335054  NM_001171994.1  NP_001165465.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TAS2R9 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TAS2R9 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TAS2R9 gene
    TAS2R412  TAS2R52  TAS2R462  TAS2R162  TAS2R32  TAS2R432  TAS2R142  TAS2R392  
    TAS2R382  TAS2R422  TAS2R42  TAS2R302  TAS2R12  TAS2R192  TAS2R72  TAS2R202  
    TAS2R82  TAS2R102  TAS2R502  TAS2R132  TAS2R402  TAS2R602  TAS2R312  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for TAS2R9 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     TA2R9_HUMAN(see all similar genes):
    Hosa(Adygei)-T2R7    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R7    TAS2R7    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R8    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R8    TAS2R8
    Hosa(Adygei)-T2R3    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R3    TAS2R10    TAS2R3    Hosa(Adygei)-T2R10    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R10
    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R10    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R13    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R43    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R47    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R13    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R49

    TAS2R9 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    Selected SNPs for TAS2R9 (see all 115)    About this table    
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1910540991,2
    --10961665(+) AATGCA/CAACAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1808860321,2
    --10961677(+) AGAAGA/GGAGAA 1 -- ds50010--------
    rs1414248601,2
    C--10961741(+) CTATGG/AAACAA 2 /P /S mis11Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NA 4328
    rs21599031,2
    H--10961749(+) CAAAAG/AGCTTT 2 /P /L mis14Minor allele frequency- A:0.00NS EA 420
    rs39440351,2
    C,F,H--10961765(+) TCTAAG/AGAAAC 2 /L /F mis1 ese311Minor allele frequency- A:0.01NS EA NA 1400
    rs2005369731,2
    --10961771(+) GAAACA/TCTTCA 2 S C mis10--------
    rs1498441701,2
    C,F--10961777(+) CTTCAC/TAAATC 2 M V mis11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4474
    rs1468352721,2
    F--10961795(+) CTTCAG/TAAAAG 2 M L mis11Minor allele frequency- T:0.00NA 4528
    rs753939651,2
    C--10961869(+) TTACTA/TTGTCA 2 K I mis10--------
    rs1436940961,2
    C,F--10961878(+) CACCAA/GTCATC 2 T I mis12Minor allele frequency- G:0.00NA EU 5711

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TAS2R9 (10961693 - 10962767 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 1 variation for TAS2R9:    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv898776CNV Loss21882294

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TAS2R9
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
    SeqTarget long-range PCR primers for resequencing TAS2R9
    DNA2.0 Custom Variant and Variant Library Synthesis for TAS2R9

    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 604795    OMIM disorders: --


    TAS2R9 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for TAS2R9 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TAS2R9 gene, integrated from 10 sources (see all 12):
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TAS2R9)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. A novel family of mammalian taste receptors. (PubMed id 10761934)1, 2, 3 Adler E....Zuker C.S. (Cell 2000)
    2. Evolution of bitter taste receptors in humans and apes. (PubMed id 15496549)1, 2 Fischer A.... Paeaebo S. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 2005)
    3. Lineage-specific loss of function of bitter taste receptor genes in humans and nonhuman primates. (PubMed id 15744053)1, 2 Go Y.... Takahata N. (Genetics 2005)
    4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S.... Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004)
    5. Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways. (PubMed id 12581520)1, 2 Zhang Y.... Ryba N.J. (Cell 2003)
    6. Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction. (PubMed id 11696554)1, 2 Margolskee R.F. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    7. Receptors for bitter and sweet taste. (PubMed id 12139982)1, 2 Montmayeur J.-P. and Matsunami H. (Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 2002)
    8. A family of candidate taste receptors in human and mouse. (PubMed id 10766242)1, 3 Matsunami H....Buck L.B. (Nature 2000)
    9. T2Rs function as bitter taste receptors. (PubMed id 10761935)1, 2 Chandrashekar J.... Ryba N.J.P. (Cell 2000)
    10. Bitter taste receptors influence glucose homeostasis. (PubMed id 19092995)1 Dotson C.D....Munger S.D. (PLoS ONE 2008)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 50835 HGNC: 14917 AceView: TAS2R9 Ensembl:ENSG00000121381 euGenes: HUgn50835
    ECgene: TAS2R9 Kegg: 50835 H-InvDB: TAS2R9

    (According to HUGE)
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    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TAS2R9 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
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    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TAS2R9 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TAS2R9

    GeneCards and IP:
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