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TAS2R46 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 39
GCID: GC12M011214

Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 46

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(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
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Aliases
Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 461 2
T2R462 3 5
T2R542 3 5
Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 542 3
Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 462

External Ids:    HGNC: 188771   Entrez Gene: 2592922   Ensembl: ENSG000002267617   OMIM: 6127745   UniProtKB: P595403   

Export aliases for TAS2R46 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC00U991255 GC12M011114 GC12M011107 GC12M011108 GC12M011109


(According to Entrez Gene, GeneCards, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
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Entrez Gene summary for TAS2R46 Gene:
TAS2R46 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells
and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002
(PubMed 12584440)). For further information on TAS2Rs, see MIM 604791.(supplied by OMIM, Sep 2009)

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R46 Gene:
TAS2R46 (taste receptor, type 2, member 46) is a protein-coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R41.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: T2R46_HUMAN, P59540
Function: Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role
in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate
alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity). In airway
epithelial cells, binding of bitter compounds increases the intracellular calcium ion concentration and
stimulates ciliary beat frequency (By similarity)

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R46 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 75), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
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Regulatory elements:
   Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TAS2R46 gene promoter:
         Sox5   FOXC1   FOXO4   FOXO3   FOXO3a   FOXO1a   Nkx2-5   FOXO3b   FOXO1   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTAS2R46 promoter sequence
   Search Chromatin IP Primers for TAS2R46

Epigenetics:
DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human, mouse, rat TAS2R46


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 12p13.2   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  12p13.2   HGNC cytogenetic band: 12p13.2

TAS2R46 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TAS2R46 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 12         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC12M011214:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
11,213,964 bp from pter      End:
11,214,893 bp from pter
Size:
930 bases      Orientation:
minus strand

2 alternative locations:
Chr12-,NW_003571047 262,241-263,170      Chr12-,NW_003571050 260,071-261,000     

(According to 1UniProtKB, HORDE, 2neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, Cloud-Clone Corp., eBioscience, and/or antibodies-online, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Abcam, Cloud-Clone Corp, antibodies-online, and/or others.)
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: T2R46_HUMAN, P59540 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Taste receptor type 2 member 46  
Size: 309 amino acids; 35523 Da
Miscellaneous: Most taste cells may be activated by a limited number of bitter compounds; individual taste cells
can discriminate among bitter stimuli
Secondary accessions: P59548 Q645X6

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TAS2R46: NX_P59540

Explore proteomics data for TAS2R46 at MOPED

Post-translational modifications: 

  • Glycosylation2 at Asn161, Asn176

  • See TAS2R46 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED, PaxDB, and MaxQB

    REFSEQ proteins: NP_795368.2  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000436450  
    Reactome Protein details: P59540

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    antibodies-online kits for TAS2R46 (3 products) 


    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
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    HGNC Gene Families:
    TASNR: GPCR / Unclassified : Taste receptors
    TAS2R: Taste receptors / Type 2

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: TAS2R46
    Taste 2 receptors

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR007960 TAS2_rcpt

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P59540

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P59540

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: T2R46_HUMAN, P59540
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family


    Find genes that share domains with TAS2R46           About GenesLikeMe


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, genOway,
    transcription factor targeting from QIAGEN and/or HOMER, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs and/or Addgene, Cell Lines from GenScript, ESI BIO, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Flow cytometry from eBioscience, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: T2R46_HUMAN, P59540
    Function: Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role
    in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate
    alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity). In airway
    epithelial cells, binding of bitter compounds increases the intracellular calcium ion concentration and
    stimulates ciliary beat frequency (By similarity)

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA--
         
    Find genes that share ontologies with TAS2R46           About GenesLikeMe


    Animal Models:
       genOway: Develop your customized and physiologically relevant rodent model for TAS2R46

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    (According to UniProtKB, COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization database, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene.)
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    Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    T2R46_HUMAN, P59540: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell projection, cilium membrane. Note=In airway
    epithelial cells, localizes to motile cilia

    Gene Ontology (GO): 3 cellular component terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016021integral component of membrane IEA--
    GO:0060170ciliary membrane IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TAS2R46           About GenesLikeMe


    (SuperPaths according to PathCards, Pathways according to R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to QIAGEN, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Apr 2014 via Entrez Gene).
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    SuperPaths for TAS2R46 About    
    See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Taste transduction
    Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)0.45
    Taste transduction0.45
    2Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.58
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    3Peptide ligand-binding receptors
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.44


    Find genes that share SuperPaths with TAS2R46           About GenesLikeMe

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    2 Reactome Pathways for TAS2R46
        Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)
    G alpha (i) signalling events


    1 Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for TAS2R46):
        Taste transduction

        Custom Pathway & Disease-focused RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays for TAS2R46
    Interactions:

        Search GeneGlobe Interaction Network for TAS2R46

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms:    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0050909sensory perception of taste IEA--

    Find genes that share ontologies with TAS2R46           About GenesLikeMe



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, ApexBio, HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB)
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    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
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    Browse Tocris compounds for TAS2R46 (T2R46)

    Selected BitterDB Bitter Compounds for TAS2R46 (see all 27)    About this table
    CompoundSMILES CAS #
    AbsinthinC[C@H]1[C@@H]2CC[C@](C)(O)[C@@H]3[C@H]4[C@@H]5C=C(C)[C@@]6([C@H]7OC(=O)[C@@H](C)[C@@H]7CC[C@](C)(O)[C@H]56)[C@H]4C(=C3[C@H]2OC1=O)C1362-42-1
    amarogentinOC[C@H]1O[C@@H](O[C@@H]2OC=C3[C@@H](CCOC3=O)[C@H]2C=C)[C@H](OC(=O)c4c(O)cc(O)cc4c5cccc(O)c5)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O21018-84-8
    andrographolideC[C@@]1(CO)[C@H](O)CC[C@@]2(C)[C@H](CC=C3/[C@H](O)COC3=O)C(=C)CC[C@H]125508-58-7
    ArborescinCC1C2CCC3(C)OC34CC=C(C)C4C2OC1=O--
    ArglabinCC1=CC[C@]23O[C@@]2(C)CC[C@@H]4[C@H](OC(=O)C4=C)[C@H]13--
    ArtemorinCC1=C/[C@H]2OC(=O)C(=C)[C@@H]2CCC(=C)[C@H](O)CC1--
    AzathioprineCn1cnc(c1Sc2ncnc3nc[nH]c23)[N+](=O)[O-]--
    brucineCOc1cc2N3C4[C@@H]5C(CC3=O)OCC=C6CN7CC[C@]4([C@@H]7C[C@H]56)c2cc1OC357-57-3
    CaffeineCN1C(=O)N(C)c2ncn(C)c2C1=O58-08-2
    CascarillinC[C@@H]1[C@@H](C[C@]2(C)[C@H](CC[C@@H](O)[C@]2(C)O)[C@]1(C[C@@H](O)c3cocc3)C=O)OC(=O)C10118-56-6




    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN, SwitchGear Genomics,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and/or Addgene, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, Flow cytometry from eBioscience )
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    REFSEQ mRNAs for TAS2R46 gene: 
    NM_176887.2  

    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000533467(uc001qzp.1)
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    1 AceView cDNA sequence:

    NM_176887 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MaxQB, plus additional links to SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Primers from OriGene, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
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    TAS2R46 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    TAS2R46 Expression
    About this image

    TAS2R46 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MaxQB3    About this image

    TAS2R46 Protein Expression

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: T2R46_HUMAN, P59540
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in
    gustducin-positive cells. Expressed on ciliated airway epithelium

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
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    This gene was present in the common ancestor of human and mouse.

    Orthologs for TAS2R46 gene from Selected species (see all 6)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tas2r1201 taste receptor, type 2, member 120 67.25(n)
    51.39(a)
      387348  NM_207023.1  NP_996906.1 


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TAS2R46 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TAS2R46 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
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    Paralogs for TAS2R46 gene
    TAS2R412  TAS2R52  TAS2R162  TAS2R32  TAS2R432  TAS2R142  TAS2R392  TAS2R382  
    TAS2R422  TAS2R92  TAS2R42  TAS2R302  TAS2R12  TAS2R192  TAS2R72  TAS2R202  
    TAS2R82  TAS2R102  TAS2R502  TAS2R132  TAS2R402  TAS2R602  TAS2R312  
    Selected SIMAP similar genes for TAS2R46 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     T2R46_HUMAN(see all similar genes):
    Hosa(Adygei)-T2R46    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R46    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R43    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R45    TAS2R43    TAS2R45
    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R47    TAS2R30    TAS2R31    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R48    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R48    TAS2R19
    Hosa(Adygei)-T2R50    TAS2R50    Hosa(Adygei)-T2R49    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R49    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R50    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R49

    Find genes that share paralogs with TAS2R46           About GenesLikeMe



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD), the Human Cytochrome P450 Allele Nomenclature Database, and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays, and Copy Number PCR Arrays from QIAGEN)
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    1 SNPs for TAS2R46    About this table                                 

    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 12 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs27083801,2,4
    ----see VAR_0620912 mis40--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TAS2R46 (11213964 - 11214893 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Selected variations for TAS2R46 (see all 23):    About this table    
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    esv2745549CNV Deletion23290073
    dgv265e199CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2675860CNV Deletion23128226
    dgv267e199CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2745548CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2745546CNV Deletion23290073
    nsv436149CNV Deletion17901297
    dgv191e201CNV Deletion23290073
    esv2665068CNV Deletion23128226
    esv2670207CNV Deletion23128226

    Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD): TAS2R46
    Site Specific Mutation Identification with PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
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    OMIM gene information: 612774    OMIM disorders: --


    Find genes that share disorders with TAS2R46           About GenesLikeMe


    Export disorders for TAS2R46 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TAS2R46 gene integrated from 10 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TAS2R46)
        Utopia: connect your pdf to the dynamic
    world of online information

    1. The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta- glucopyranosides. (PubMed id 12379855)1, 2, 3 Bufe B.... Meyerhof W. (Nat. Genet. 2002)
    2. Evolution of bitter taste receptors in humans and apes. (PubMed id 15496549)1, 2 Fischer A.... Paeaebo S. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 2005)
    3. Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways. (PubMed id 12581520)1, 2 Zhang Y.... Ryba N.J. (Cell 2003)
    4. Identification and characterization of human taste receptor genes belonging to the TAS2R family. (PubMed id 12584440)1, 2 Conte C.... Andres-Barquin P.J. (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 2002)
    5. Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction. (PubMed id 11696554)1, 2 Margolskee R.F. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002)
    6. Receptors for bitter and sweet taste. (PubMed id 12139982)1, 2 Montmayeur J.-P. and Matsunami H. (Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 2002)
    7. Bone marrow stromal and vascular smooth muscle cells have chemosensory capacity via bitter taste receptor expression. (PubMed id 23520545)1 Lund T.C....Tolar J. (PLoS ONE 2013)
    8. Motile cilia of human airway epithelia are chemosensory. (PubMed id 19628819)2 Shah A.S.... Welsh M.J. (Science 2009)
    9. Lineage-specific loss of function of bitter taste receptor genes in humans and nonhuman primates. (PubMed id 15744053)1 Go Y.... Takahata N. (Genetics 2005)
    10. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 259292 HGNC: 18877 AceView: TAS2R46 Ensembl:ENSG00000226761 euGenes: HUgn259292
    ECgene: TAS2R46 Kegg: 259292 H-InvDB: TAS2R46

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, and/or others, e.g. Wikipedia and GeneReviews, via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
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    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TAS2R46 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways
    Protein Spotlighthttp://web.expasy.org/spotlight/back_issues/119

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TAS2R46 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TAS2R46

    GeneCards and IP:
    Japan Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     European Patent Office Licenses GeneCards     Improving the IP Search



    (Antibodies, recombinant proteins, and assays from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, QIAGEN, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, Enzo Life Sciences, Abcam, ProSpec, Cloud-Clone Corp., Thermo Fisher Scientific, eBioscience, antibodies-online, and/or others, Gene Editing from DNA2.0. Clones from OriGene, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, SwitchGear Genomics, Vector BioLabs, Addgene, Cell lines from GenScript, and ESI BIO, Flow cytometery from eBioscience, PCR Arrays from QIAGEN, Drugs and/or compounds from EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or ApexBio, In Situ Hybridization Assays from
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