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Category   Symbol Source: HGNC EntrezGene Ensembl GeneCards RNA genes CroW21
GIFtS

TAS2R40 Gene

protein-coding   GIFtS: 48
GCID: GC07P142919

Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 40

(Previous name: G protein-coupled receptor 60)
(Previous symbol: GPR60)
  Search for TAS2R40
at  

(According to 1HGNC, 2Entrez Gene,
3UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 4UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 5OMIM, 6GeneLoc, 7Ensembl, 8DME, 9miRBase, 10fRNAdb, 12H-InvDB, 13NCBI, 14NONCODE, and/or 15RNAdb)
About This Section

Aliases
Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 401 2     T2R402 3
GPR601 2 3     T2R582 3
G Protein-Coupled Receptor 601 2     G-Protein Coupled Receptor 602 3
Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 582 3     Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 402

External Ids:    HGNC: 188851   Entrez Gene: 2592862   Ensembl: ENSG000002219377   OMIM: 6139645   UniProtKB: P595353   

Export aliases for TAS2R40 gene to outside databases

Previous GC identifers: GC00U991249 GC07U900008 GC07P142313 GC07P142390 GC07P142436 GC07P142629 GC07P137258


(According to Entrez Gene, Tocris Bioscience, Wikipedia's Gene Wiki, PharmGKB,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
About This Section

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R40 Gene: 
TAS2R40 (taste receptor, type 2, member 40) is a protein-coding gene. Among its related super-pathways are Taste transduction and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R41.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: T2R40_HUMAN, P59535
Function: Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the
gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R40 Gene


(According to GeneLoc and/or HGNC, and/or
Entrez Gene (NCBI build 37),
and/or miRBase,
Genomic Views according to UCSC (hg19) and Ensembl (release 73), Regulatory elements and Epigenetics data according to QIAGEN, SABiosciences, and/or SwitchGear Genomics)
About This Section
RefSeq DNA sequence:
NC_000007.13  NC_018918.2  NT_007914.15  NT_079596.2  
Regulatory elements:
   SABiosciences Regulatory transcription factor binding sites in the TAS2R40 gene promoter:
         Oct-B1   STAT5B   oct-B3   oct-B2   AML1a   Pax-6   STAT5A   FOXL1   POU2F1   ATF6   
         Other transcription factors

SwitchGear Promoter luciferase reporter plasmidTAS2R40 promoter sequence
   Search SABiosciences Chromatin IP Primers for TAS2R40

Epigenetics:
QIAGEN PyroMark CpG Assay predesigned Pyrosequencing DNA Methylation assays in human, mouse, rat TAS2R40


Genomic Location:
Genomic View: UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Entrez Gene cytogenetic band: 7q34   Ensembl cytogenetic band:  7q34   HGNC cytogenetic band: 7q34

TAS2R40 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
TAS2R40 gene location

GeneLoc information about chromosome 7         GeneLoc Exon Structure

GeneLoc location for GC07P142919:  view genomic region     (about GC identifiers)

Start:
142,919,130 bp from pter      End:
142,920,162 bp from pter
Size:
1,033 bases      Orientation:
plus strand

1 alternative location:
Chr7+,CRA_TCAG 142,321,293-142,322,264     

(According to UniProtKB, HORDE, neXtProt, Ensembl, and/or Reactome, Modification sites according to PhosphoSitePlus, Specific Peptides from DME, Protein expression images according to data from SPIRE 1MOPED, 2PaxDb, and 3MAXQB RefSeq according to NCBI, PDB rendering according to OCA and/or Proteopedia, Recombinant Proteins from EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Enzo Life Sciences, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Sino Biological, ProSpec, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.,
Biochemical Assays by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, OriGene, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp., Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 and Entrez Gene, Antibodies by EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, GenScript, Cell Signaling Technology, OriGene, Novus Biologicals, Thermo Fisher Scientific, LSBio, Abcam, and/or Cloud-Clone Corp.)
About This Section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: T2R40_HUMAN, P59535 (See protein sequence)
Recommended Name: Taste receptor type 2 member 40  
Size: 323 amino acids; 36812 Da
Subcellular location: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein
Miscellaneous: Several bitter taste receptors are expressed in a single taste receptor cell
Secondary accessions: A4D2I2 Q645W6

Explore the universe of human proteins at neXtProt for TAS2R40: NX_P59535

Explore proteomics data for TAS2R40 at MOPED 

Post-translational modifications:

  • View modification sites using PhosphoSitePlus
  • View neXtProt modification sites for NX_P59535

  • TAS2R40 Protein expression data from MOPED1, PaxDb2 and MAXQB3 :    About this image 

    TAS2R40 Protein Expression
    REFSEQ proteins: NP_795363.1  
    ENSEMBL proteins: 
     ENSP00000386210  
    Reactome Protein details: P59535
    Human Recombinant Protein Products for TAS2R40: 
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    Browse Sino Biological Cell Lysates 
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    Cloud-Clone Corp. Proteins for TAS2R40 

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 cellular component terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0005886plasma membrane TAS--
    GO:0016021integral to membrane IEA--

    TAS2R40 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



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    (According to HGNC, IUPHAR, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProtKB, and/or BLOCKS, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks)
    About This Section
    HGNC Gene Families: 
    TASNR: GPCR / Unclassified : Taste receptors
    TAS2R: Taste receptors / Type 2

    IUPHAR Guide to PHARMACOLOGY protein family classification: TAS2R40 
    Taste 2 receptors

    1 InterPro protein domain:
     IPR007960 TAS2_rcpt

    Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry P59535

    ProtoNet protein and cluster: P59535

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: T2R40_HUMAN, P59535
    Similarity: Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family


    TAS2R40 for domains           About GeneDecksing


    (According to 1UniProtKB, Genatlas, LifeMap Discovery™, IUBMB, and/or 2DME, Human phenotypes from GenomeRNAi, Animal models from MGI Mar 06 2013, inGenious Targeting Laboratory, genOway,
    bound targets from SABiosciences, miRNA Gene Targets from miRTarBase, shRNA from OriGene, RNAi from EMD Millipore, siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, microRNA from QIAGEN, Gene Editing from DNA2.0, Sirion Biotech, Clones from EMD Millipore, OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, Sino Biological, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, and Sirion Biotech, Cell Lines from GenScript, LifeMap BioReagents, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene.)
    About This Section

    Molecular Function:

         UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary: T2R40_HUMAN, P59535
    Function: Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the
    gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5

         Gene Ontology (GO): 1 molecular function term (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0004930G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA--
         
    TAS2R40 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing


    Animal Models:
       inGenious Targeting Laboratory - Custom generated mouse model solutions for TAS2R40 
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    (Pathways according to EMD Millipore, R&D Systems, Cell Signaling Technology, KEGG, PharmGKB, BioSystems, Sino Biological, Reactome, Tocris Bioscience, GeneGo (Thomson Reuters), QIAGEN, and/or UniProtKB, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, Interaction Networks according to SABiosciences, and/or STRING, Interactions according to 1UniProtKB, 2MINT, 3I2D, and/or 4STRING, with links to IntAct and Ensembl, Ontologies according to Gene Ontology Consortium 01 Oct 2013 via Entrez Gene).
    About This Section

    SuperPaths for TAS2R40 About                                                                                                See pathways by source

    SuperPathContained pathways About
    1Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)
    Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)0.45
    Taste transduction0.45
    2Signaling by GPCR
    Signaling by GPCR0.90
    Signal Transduction0.55
    GPCR downstream signaling0.90
    3Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)
    GPCR ligand binding0.71
    G alpha (i) signalling events0.46

    Pathways by source                                                                                                                                                                 See SuperPaths
    Show all pathways


    5/6        Reactome Pathways for TAS2R40 (see all 6)
        GPCR downstream signaling
    Signal Transduction
    Class C/3 (Metabotropic glutamate/pheromone receptors)
    Signaling by GPCR
    G alpha (i) signalling events


    1         Kegg Pathway  (Kegg details for TAS2R40):
        Taste transduction


    TAS2R40 for pathways           About GeneDecksing

    Interactions:

        Search SABiosciences Gene Network CentralTM Interacting Genes and Proteins Networks for TAS2R40

    STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see more details)

    1 Interacting protein for TAS2R40 (ENSP000003862104) via UniProtKB, MINT, STRING, and/or I2D
    InteractantInteraction Details
    GeneCardExternal ID(s)
    GNAT3ENSP000003813394STRING: ENSP00000381339
    About this table

    Gene Ontology (GO): 2 biological process terms (GO ID links to tree view):    About this table

    GO IDQualified GO termEvidencePubMed IDs
    GO:0007186G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ----
    GO:0050909sensory perception of taste IEA--

    TAS2R40 for ontologies           About GeneDecksing



    (Chemical Compounds according to UniProtKB, Enzo Life Sciences, EMD Millipore, Tocris Bioscience HMDB, BitterDB, and/or Novoseek, Ligands according to IUPHAR, and Drugs according to DrugBank, Enzo Life Sciences, and/or PharmGKB, with drugs/clinical trials/news search links to CenterWatch)
    About This Section
    Browse Small Molecules at EMD Millipore
    Browse drugs & compounds from Enzo Life Sciences

    Browse Tocris compounds for TAS2R40 (T2R40)

    1 HMDB Compound for TAS2R40    About this table
    CompoundSynonyms CAS #PubMed Ids
    CalciumCa (see all 2)7440-70-2--

    10 BitterDB Bitter Compounds for TAS2R40 About this table
    CompoundSMILES CAS #
    AdhumuloneCCC(C)C(=O)C1=C(O)C(O)(CC=C(C)C)C(=O)C(CC=C(C)C)C1=O--
    ChlorpheniramineCN(C)CCC(c1ccc(Cl)cc1)c2ccccn2--
    CohumuloneCC(C)C(=O)C1=C(O)C(=C(O)C(O)(CC=C(C)C)C1=O)CC=C(C)C--
    ColupuloneCC(C)C(=O)C1=C(O)C(=C(O)C(CC=C(C)C)(CC=C(C)C)C1=O)CC=C(C)C--
    dapsoneNc1ccc(cc1)S(=O)(=O)c2ccc(N)cc2--
    diphenidolOC(CCCN1CCCCC1)(c2ccccc2)c3ccccc3--
    Humulon,Humulone CC(C)CC(=O)C1=C(O)C(=C(O)[C@@](O)(CC=C(C)C)C1=O)CC=C(C)C26472-41-3
    IsoxanthohumolCOc1cc(O)c(CC=C(C)C)c2OC(CC(=O)c12)c3ccc(O)cc3--
    Quinine COc1ccc2nccc([C@@H](O)[C@@H]3CC4CCN3C[C@@H]4C=C)c2c1--
    XanthohumolCOc1cc(O)c(CC=C(C)C)c(O)c1C(=O)C=Cc2ccc(O)cc2--


    Search CenterWatch for drugs/clinical trials and news about TAS2R40 / T2R40

    (Secondary structures according to fRNAdb,
    GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ Accessions according to
    Unigene (Build 236 Homo sapiens; Apr 25 2013) or GenBank,
    RefSeq according to Entrez Gene,
    DOTS (version 10), and/or AceView, transcript ids from Ensembl with links to UCSC,
    Conferences by KenesGroup, exon structure from GeneLoc, alternative splicing isoforms according to ASD and/or ECgene,
    RNAi Products from EMD Millipore,
    siRNAs from OriGene, QIAGEN, shRNA from OriGene, microRNA from QIAGEN,
    Tagged/untagged cDNA clones from OriGene, SwitchGear Genomics, GenScript, DNA2.0, Vector BioLabs, Sirion Biotech, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN )
    About This Section

    REFSEQ mRNAs for TAS2R40 gene: 
    NM_176882.1  

    Unigene Cluster for TAS2R40:

    Taste receptor, type 2, member 40
    Hs.352241
    Unigene Representative Sequence: BC101795
    1 Ensembl transcript including schematic representation, and UCSC links where relevant:
    ENST00000408947(uc011ksx.2)
    miRNA
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    Additional mRNA sequence: 

    BC101795.1 BC101797.1 

    1 DOTS entry:

    DT.100703603 

    1 AceView cDNA sequence:

    NM_176882 

    GeneLoc Exon Structure


    (RNA expression data according to H-InvDB, NONCODE, miRBase, and RNAdb, Expression images according to data from BioGPS, Illumina Human BodyMap, and CGAP SAGE, Sets of similar genes according to GeneDecks, in vivo and in vitro expression data from LifeMap Discovery™, plus additional links to Genevestigator, and/or SOURCE, and/or BioGPS, and/or UniProtKB,
    PCR Arrays from SABiosciences, Primers from OriGene, SABiosciences, and/or QIAGEN, In Situ Hybridization Assays from Advanced Cell Diagnostics)
    About This Section

    TAS2R40 expression in normal human tissues (normalized intensities)
    See probesets specificity/sensitivity at GeneAnnot
    About this imageBioGPS <intensity>2/3
    CGAP TAG: --
    TAS2R40 Expression
    About this image


    See TAS2R40 Protein Expression from SPIRE MOPED and PaxDB
    Genevestigator expression for TAS2R40

    SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster: Hs.352241

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: T2R40_HUMAN, P59535
    Tissue specificity: Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in
    gustducin-positive cells

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    (Orthologs according to 1,2HomoloGene (2older version, for species not in 1newer version), 3euGenes, 4SGD , 5MGI Mar 06 2013, with possible further links to Flybase and/or WormBase, and/or 6Ensembl pan taxonomic compara , Gene Trees according to Ensembl and TreeFam)
    About This Section

    This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

    Orthologs for TAS2R40 gene from 3/8 species (see all 8)    About this table
    Organism Taxonomic
    classification
    Gene Description Human
    Similarity
    Orthology
    Type
    Details
    mouse
    (Mus musculus)
    Mammalia Tas2r1441 , 5 taste receptor, type 2, member 1441, 5 78.51(n)1
    66.35(a)1
      6 (20.48 cM)5
    3875151  NM_001001453.11  NP_001001453.11 
     422153285 
    chicken
    (Gallus gallus)
    Aves TAS2R76
    taste receptor type 2 member 7
    25(a)
    possible ortholog
    3(109476673-109477638)
    zebrafish
    (Danio rerio)
    Actinopterygii tas2r200.26
    tas2r200.16
    taste receptor, type 2, member 200.1
    17(a)
    15(a)
    many ↔ many
    many ↔ many
    8(31629027-31630131)
    8(31631970-31633062)


    ENSEMBL Gene Tree for TAS2R40 (if available)
    TreeFam Gene Tree for TAS2R40 (if available)

    (Paralogs according to 1HomoloGene,
    2Ensembl, and 3SIMAP, Pseudogenes according to 4Pseudogene.org Build 68)
    About This Section
    Paralogs for TAS2R40 gene
    TAS2R412  TAS2R52  TAS2R462  TAS2R162  TAS2R32  TAS2R432  TAS2R142  TAS2R392  
    TAS2R382  TAS2R422  TAS2R92  TAS2R42  TAS2R302  TAS2R12  TAS2R192  TAS2R72  
    TAS2R202  TAS2R82  TAS2R102  TAS2R502  TAS2R132  TAS2R602  TAS2R312  
    18/30 SIMAP similar genes for TAS2R40 using alignment to 1 protein entry:     T2R40_HUMAN(see all similar genes):
    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R40    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R40    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R39    TAS2R39    Hosa(Adygei)-T2R4    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R4
    TAS2R4    TAS2R1    TAS2R3    TAS2R8    Hosa(Adygei)-T2R7    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R1
    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R10    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R3    Hosa(Biaka)-T2R7    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R1    Hosa(Japanese)-T2R10    TAS2R7

    TAS2R40 for paralogs           About GeneDecksing



    (SNPs/Variants according to the 1NCBI SNP Database, 2Ensembl, 3PupaSUITE, 4UniProtKB, and DNA2.0, Linkage Disequilibrium by HapMap, Structural Variations(CNVs/InDels/Inversions) from the Database of Genomic Variants, Mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the Locus Specific Mutation Databases (LSDB), Blood group antigen gene mutations by BGMUT, Resequencing Primers from QIAGEN, Cancer Mutation PCR Arrays and Assays and Copy Number PCR Arrays from SABiosciences)
    About This Section

    10/71 SNPs in TAS2R40 are shown (see all 71)    About this table     
    Genomic DataTranscription Related DataAllele Frequencies
    SNP IDValidClinical
    significance
    Chr 7 posSequence#AA
    Chg
    TypeMore#Allele
    freq
    PopTotal
    sample
    More
    ----------
    rs1879923811,2
    --142917197(+) CTCCGC/TCTCCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1813238501,2
    C--142917204(+) TCCCAA/GGCTCA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1399279841,2
    --142917257(+) GTGCAA/TGCCAC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1497123591,2
    C--142917347(+) TCAAGC/TAATCC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1154293551,2
    C,F--142917530(+) TGTGAA/GGGATG 1 -- us2k11Minor allele frequency- G:0.02WA 118
    rs1456561701,2
    C--142917566(+) TTTTCA/GGAGGC 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1484784381,2
    C--142917681(+) ATGCAC/TCTGTA 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1863355111,2
    --142917693(+) TCCCAA/GCTACT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1903448761,2
    --142917788(+) GGTGAC/TAGAGT 1 -- us2k10--------
    rs1816742531,2
    --142917866(+) ACTGGC/TACTCA 1 -- us2k10--------

    HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report for TAS2R40 (142919130 - 142920162 bp)

    Structural Variations
         Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) 2 variations for TAS2R40:    About this table     
    Variant IDTypeSubtypePubMed ID
    nsv831169CNV Loss17160897
    nsv508488CNV Loss20534489

    SABiosciences Cancer Mutation PCR Assays
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    (in which this Gene is Involved, According to MalaCards, OMIM, UniProtKB, the University of Copenhagen DISEASES database, Conferences by KenesGroup, Genatlas, GeneTests, GAD, HuGE Navigator, and/or TGDB.)
    About This Section

    TAS2R40 for disorders           About MalaCards
    OMIM gene information: 613964    OMIM disorders: --


    TAS2R40 for disorders           About GeneDecksing


    Export disorders for TAS2R40 gene to outside databases

    (in PubMed. Associations of this gene to articles via 1Entrez Gene, 2UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 3HGNC, 4GAD, 5PharmGKB, 6HMDB, 7DrugBank, 8UniProtKB/TrEMBL, 9 Novoseek, and/or 10fRNAdb)
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    PubMed articles for TAS2R40 gene integrated from 9 sources:
    (articles sorted by number of sources associating them with TAS2R40)
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    1. The human TAS2R16 receptor mediates bitter taste in response to beta- glucopyranosides. (PubMed id 12379855)1, 2, 3 Bufe B.... Meyerhof W. (2002)
    2. Evolution of bitter taste receptors in humans and apes. (PubMed id 15496549)1, 2 Fischer A.... Paeaebo S. (2005)
    3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PubMed id 15489334)1, 2 Gerhard D.S....Malek J. (2004)
    4. Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology. (PubMed id 12690205)1, 2 Scherer S.W.... Tsui L.-C. (2003)
    5. Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways. (PubMed id 12581520)1, 2 Zhang Y.... Ryba N.J. (2003)
    6. Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction. (PubMed id 11696554)1, 2 Margolskee R.F. (2002)
    7. Receptors for bitter and sweet taste. (PubMed id 12139982)1, 2 Montmayeur J.-P. and Matsunami H. (2002)
    8. Lineage-specific loss of function of bitter taste receptor genes in humans and nonhuman primates. (PubMed id 15744053)1 Go Y.... Takahata N. (2005)
    9. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. (PubMed id 12477932)1 Strausberg R.L....Marra M.A. (2002)

    (in PubMed, OMIM, and NCBI Bookshelf)
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    (According to Entrez Gene, HGNC, AceView, euGenes, Ensembl, miRBase, ECgene, Kegg, and/or H-InvDB)
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    Entrez Gene: 259286 HGNC: 18885 AceView: TAS2R40 Ensembl:ENSG00000221937 euGenes: HUgn259286
    ECgene: TAS2R40 Kegg: 259286 H-InvDB: TAS2R40

    (According to HUGE)
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      --

    (According to PharmGKB, ATLAS, HORDE, IMGT, LEIDEN, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, and/or UniProtKB/TrEMBL,
    Wikipedia and/or GeneReviews via UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    About This Section
    NameDescription
    PharmGKB entry for TAS2R40 Pharmacogenomics, SNPs, Pathways

    (Patent information from GeneIP,
    Licensable technologies from WIS Yeda, Salk, Tufts,
    IP news from LifeMap Sciences, Inc.)
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    Patent Information for TAS2R40 gene:
    Search GeneIP for patents involving TAS2R40

    GeneCards and IP:
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