Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for TAS2R38 Gene

Aliases for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 38 2 3
  • T2R61 3 4 6
  • PTC 3 4 6
  • Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 61 3 4
  • PTC Bitter Taste Receptor 3 4
  • T2R38 3 4
  • Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 38 3
  • Phenylthiocarbamide Tasting 2

External Ids for TAS2R38 Gene

Previous Symbols for TAS2R38 Gene

  • PTC

Summaries for TAS2R38 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

  • This gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that controls the ability to taste glucosinolates, a family of bitter-tasting compounds found in plants of the Brassica sp. Synthetic compounds phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) have been identified as ligands for this receptor and have been used to test the genetic diversity of this gene. Although several allelic forms of this gene have been identified worldwide, there are two predominant common forms (taster and non-taster) found outside of Africa. These alleles differ at three nucleotide positions resulting in amino acid changes in the protein (A49P, A262V, and V296I) with the amino acid combination PAV identifying the taster variant (and AVI identifying the non-taster variant). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

TAS2R38 (Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 38) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TAS2R38 include dental caries. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R42.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R38 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

Genomics for TAS2R38 Gene

Genomic Location for TAS2R38 Gene

141,972,631 bp from pter
141,973,773 bp from pter
1,143 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TAS2R38 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TAS2R38 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAS2R38 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TAS2R38 Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TAS2R38 gene promoter:

Proteins for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Protein details for TAS2R38 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Taste receptor type 2 member 38
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1U6
    • P59552
    • Q2M3E8
    • Q645W3
    • Q86UK3

    Protein attributes for TAS2R38 Gene

    333 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37892 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Most taste cells may be activated by a limited number of bitter compounds; individual taste cells can discriminate among bitter stimuli

neXtProt entry for TAS2R38 Gene

Proteomics data for TAS2R38 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn89 and Asn178

Other Protein References for TAS2R38 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TAS2R38 Gene

Domains for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Families for TAS2R38 Gene

  • TASNR :GPCR / Unclassified : Taste receptors
  • TAS2R :Taste receptors / Type 2

Protein Domains for TAS2R38 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAS2R38 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.:
    • P59533
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAS2R38: view

Function for TAS2R38 Gene

Molecular function for TAS2R38 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TAS2R38 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0033038 bitter taste receptor activity IDA 20022913
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R38: view

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TAS2R38 Gene

Localization for TAS2R38 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TAS2R38 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAS2R38 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 3

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAS2R38 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IC 20022913
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R38: view

Pathways for TAS2R38 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAS2R38: view

Pathways by source for TAS2R38 Gene

1 KEGG pathway for TAS2R38 Gene

Interacting Proteins for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAS2R38 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001580 detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste IDA 20022913
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0050909 sensory perception of taste --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R38: view

Compounds for TAS2R38 Gene

(21) BitterDB Compounds for TAS2R38 Gene

Compound Smiles Cas Number
6-Methyl-2-thiouracil Cc1cc(O)nc(S)n1
acetylthiourea CC(=O)NC(=S)N
allyl isothiocyanate C=CCN=C=S
Caprolactam O=C1CCCCCN1
Chlorpheniramine CN(C)CCC(c1ccc(Cl)cc1)c2ccccn2
dimethylthioformamide CN(C)C=S
diphenidol OC(CCCN1CCCCC1)(c2ccccc2)c3ccccc3
diphenylthiourea,sulfocarbanilide,sym-Diphenylthiourea,thiocarbanilide S=C(Nc1ccccc1)Nc2ccccc2 102-08-9
Ethylene Thiourea,N,N-ethylene thiourea S=C1NCCN1
Ethylpyrazine CCc1cnccn1
limonin CC1(C)O[C]2CC(=O)OC[C@]23[C]4CC[C@@]5(C)[C@](OC(=O)[C]6O[C@@]56[C@]4(C)C(=O)C[C@]13)c7cocc7 1180-71-8
methimazole CN1C=CNC1=S
N-ethylthiourea CCNC(=S)N
N-methylthiourea CNC(=S)N
phenethyl isothiocyanate S=C=NCCc1ccccc1
Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) NC(=S)Nc1ccccc1 103-85-5
Propylthiouracil CCCC1=CC(=O)NC(=S)N1 51-52-5
sinigrin [K+].OC[C]1O[C@](SC(=NOS(=O)(=O)[O-])CC=C)[C](O)[C@](O)[C@]1O
sodium cyclamate [Na+].[O-]S(=O)(=O)NC1CCCCC1
sodium_thiocyanate [Na+].[S-][11C]#N
yohimbine COC(=O)[C]1[C@](O)CC[C]2CN3CCc4c([nH]c5ccccc45)[C@]3C[C]12

(2) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TAS2R38 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
phenylthiocarbamide 96.2 8
propylthiouracil 87.6 12
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAS2R38: view

Transcripts for TAS2R38 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TAS2R38 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAS2R38 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TAS2R38 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TAS2R38 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TAS2R38 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for TAS2R38 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAS2R38 Gene Hs.647085

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TAS2R38 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in gustducin-positive cells
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TAS2R38: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TAS2R38 Gene

Orthologs for TAS2R38 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TAS2R38 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAS2R38 35
  • 99.1 (n)
  • 98.2 (a)
TAS2R38 36
  • 98 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TAS2R38 35
  • 76.54 (n)
  • 68.28 (a)
TAS2R38 36
  • 69 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TAS2R38 35
  • 80.13 (n)
  • 70.83 (a)
TAS2R38 36
  • 70 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tas2r138 35
  • 76.54 (n)
  • 65.56 (a)
Tas2r138 16
Tas2r138 36
  • 66 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia T2R38 36
  • 48 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tas2r138 35
  • 76.13 (n)
  • 65.56 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TAS2R7 36
  • 21 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TAS2R38:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Tree for TAS2R38 (if available)
Gene Tree for TAS2R38 (if available)

Paralogs for TAS2R38 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TAS2R38: view

Variants for TAS2R38 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

Variations in TAS2R38 are associated with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC tasting) [MIM:171200]; also called thiourea tasting. The ability to taste the substance PTC and a number of related substances is genetically controlled. Genetic studies have demonstrated complex inheritance for this trait. For some people (and some chimpanzees also), the chemical PTC tastes very bitter. For others, it is tasteless. Actually, substantial variation in taste sensitivity exists in human. Five haplotypes arising from three coding SNPs in the TAS2R38 gene are associated with distinct phenotypes of PTC taste sensitivity

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TAS2R38 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
VAR_017860 -
VAR_017861 -
VAR_017862 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAS2R38 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831161 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv524927 CNV Gain 19592680

Relevant External Links for TAS2R38 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for TAS2R38 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for TAS2R38 Gene (607751)

(1) MalaCards Diseases for TAS2R38 Gene

Search for TAS2R38 Gene in MalaCards »

Relevant External Links for TAS2R38

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TAS2R38: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

Publications for TAS2R38 Gene

  1. Bitter taste study in a sardinian genetic isolate supports the association of phenylthiocarbamide sensitivity to the TAS2R38 bitter receptor gene. (PMID: 15466815) Prodi D.A. … Angius A. (Chem. Senses 2004) 3 23 48
  2. Functional variants in TAS2R38 and TAS2R16 influence alcohol consumption in high-risk families of African-American origin. (PMID: 17250611) Wang J.C. … Goate A.M. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2007) 3 23 48
  3. Variation in the bitter-taste receptor gene TAS2R38, and adiposity in a genetically isolated population in Southern Italy. (PMID: 18719631) Tepper B.J. … Gasparini P. (Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008) 3 23 48
  4. Identification and characterization of human taste receptor genes belonging to the TAS2R family. (PMID: 12584440) Conte C. … Andres-Barquin P.J. (Cytogenet. Genome Res. 2002) 2 3 4
  5. Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide. (PMID: 12595690) Kim U.-K. … Drayna D.T. (Science 2003) 3 4 48

Products for TAS2R38 Gene

Sources for TAS2R38 Gene

Back to Top