Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for TAS2R38 Gene

Aliases for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Taste 2 Receptor Member 38 2 3 5
  • Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 38 2 3
  • Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 61 3 4
  • PTC Bitter Taste Receptor 3 4
  • T2R38 3 4
  • T2R61 3 4
  • PTC 3 4
  • Phenylthiocarbamide Tasting 2

External Ids for TAS2R38 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TAS2R38 Gene

  • PTC

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TAS2R38 Gene

  • GC00U991247
  • GC07M141002
  • GC07M141079
  • GC07M141125
  • GC07M141318
  • GC07M141672
  • GC07M135968

Summaries for TAS2R38 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

  • This gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that controls the ability to taste glucosinolates, a family of bitter-tasting compounds found in plants of the Brassica sp. Synthetic compounds phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) have been identified as ligands for this receptor and have been used to test the genetic diversity of this gene. Although several allelic forms of this gene have been identified worldwide, there are two predominant common forms (taster and non-taster) found outside of Africa. These alleles differ at three nucleotide positions resulting in amino acid changes in the protein (A49P, A262V, and V296I) with the amino acid combination PAV identifying the taster variant (and AVI identifying the non-taster variant). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

TAS2R38 (Taste 2 Receptor Member 38) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TAS2R38 include Dental Caries and Common Cold. Among its related pathways are Taste transduction and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and bitter taste receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R42.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R38 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

Genomics for TAS2R38 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TAS2R38 Gene

Enhancers for TAS2R38 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TAS2R38 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TAS2R38 gene promoter:

Genomic Location for TAS2R38 Gene

141,972,631 bp from pter
141,973,773 bp from pter
1,143 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TAS2R38 Gene

Genes around TAS2R38 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TAS2R38 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TAS2R38 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAS2R38 Gene

Proteins for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Protein details for TAS2R38 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Taste receptor type 2 member 38
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1U6
    • P59552
    • Q2M3E8
    • Q645W3
    • Q86UK3

    Protein attributes for TAS2R38 Gene

    333 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37892 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Most taste cells may be activated by a limited number of bitter compounds; individual taste cells can discriminate among bitter stimuli.

neXtProt entry for TAS2R38 Gene

Proteomics data for TAS2R38 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 89 and Asn 178
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TAS2R38 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TAS2R38 Gene

Domains & Families for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Families for TAS2R38 Gene

Protein Domains for TAS2R38 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAS2R38 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAS2R38: view

Function for TAS2R38 Gene

Molecular function for TAS2R38 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity).
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TAS2R38: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TAS2R38 Gene

Localization for TAS2R38 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TAS2R38 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAS2R38 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAS2R38 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TAS2R38 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAS2R38: view

Pathways by source for TAS2R38 Gene

Interacting Proteins for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAS2R38 Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TAS2R38 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TAS2R38 Gene

(6) Drugs for TAS2R38 Gene - From: BitterDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Propylthiouracil Approved Pharma 7
Chlorpheniramine Approved Pharma 66
Diphenidol Approved, Withdrawn Pharma 1
Methimazole Approved Pharma ICAM-1 inhibitor 0
Yohimbine Approved Pharma Antagonist 25

(16) Additional Compounds for TAS2R38 Gene - From: Novoseek and BitterDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Allyl isothiocyanate
  • 2-Propenyl isothiocyanate
  • 3-Iso-Thiocyanatoprop-1-ene
  • 3-Isothiocyanato-1-propene
  • 3-Isothiocyanatoprop-1-ene
  • AITC
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAS2R38: view

Transcripts for TAS2R38 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TAS2R38 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAS2R38 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TAS2R38 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TAS2R38 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TAS2R38 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for TAS2R38 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAS2R38 Gene Hs.647085

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TAS2R38 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in gustducin-positive cells. Expressed in testis (PubMed:16720576).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TAS2R38: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for TAS2R38 Gene

Orthologs for TAS2R38 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TAS2R38 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TAS2R38 35
  • 76.54 (n)
  • 68.28 (a)
TAS2R38 36
  • 69 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TAS2R38 35
  • 80.13 (n)
  • 70.83 (a)
TAS2R38 36
  • 70 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tas2r138 35
  • 76.54 (n)
  • 65.56 (a)
Tas2r138 16
Tas2r138 36
  • 66 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAS2R38 35
  • 99.1 (n)
  • 98.2 (a)
TAS2R38 36
  • 98 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tas2r138 35
  • 76.13 (n)
  • 65.56 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia T2R38 36
  • 48 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TAS2R7 36
  • 21 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TAS2R38:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Tree for TAS2R38 (if available)
Gene Tree for TAS2R38 (if available)

Paralogs for TAS2R38 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TAS2R38: view

Variants for TAS2R38 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

Variations in TAS2R38 are associated with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC tasting) [MIM:171200]; also called thiourea tasting. The ability to taste the substance PTC and a number of related substances is genetically controlled. Genetic studies have demonstrated complex inheritance for this trait. For some people (and some chimpanzees also), the chemical PTC tastes very bitter. For others, it is tasteless. Actually, substantial variation in taste sensitivity exists in human. Five haplotypes arising from three coding SNPs in the TAS2R38 gene are associated with distinct phenotypes of PTC taste sensitivity.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TAS2R38 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_017860 -
VAR_017861 -
VAR_017862 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAS2R38 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831161 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv524927 CNV Gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for TAS2R38 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 96.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.45; 82.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TAS2R38 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for TAS2R38 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for TAS2R38 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
dental caries
  • dental caries extending into pulp
common cold
  • acute coryza
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for TAS2R38

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TAS2R38: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TAS2R38 Gene

Publications for TAS2R38 Gene

  1. Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide. (PMID: 12595690) Kim U.-K. … Drayna D.T. (Science 2003) 3 4 48 67
  2. Variation in the gene TAS2R38 is associated with the eating behavior disinhibition in Old Order Amish women. (PMID: 19782709) Dotson C.D. … Steinle N.I. (Appetite 2010) 3 23
  3. Supertasting and PROP bitterness depends on more than the TAS2R38 gene. (PMID: 18209019) Hayes J.E. … Duffy V.B. (Chem. Senses 2008) 3 23
  4. Variation in the bitter-taste receptor gene TAS2R38, and adiposity in a genetically isolated population in Southern Italy. (PMID: 18719631) Tepper B.J. … Gasparini P. (Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008) 3 23
  5. Functional variants in TAS2R38 and TAS2R16 influence alcohol consumption in high-risk families of African-American origin. (PMID: 17250611) Wang J.C. … Goate A.M. (Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2007) 3 23

Products for TAS2R38 Gene

Sources for TAS2R38 Gene