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Aliases for TAS2R31 Gene

Aliases for TAS2R31 Gene

  • Taste 2 Receptor Member 31 2 3 5
  • Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 44 2 3
  • Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 31 2 3
  • Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 44 3 4
  • Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 53 3 4
  • TAS2R44 3 4
  • T2R31 3 4
  • T2R44 3 4
  • T2R53 3 4

External Ids for TAS2R31 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TAS2R31 Gene

  • TAS2R44

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TAS2R31 Gene

  • GC00U991286
  • GC12U900761
  • GC12M011078
  • GC12M011183
  • GC12M010911

Summaries for TAS2R31 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAS2R31 Gene

  • TAS2R44 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). For further information on TAS2Rs, see MIM 604791.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R31 Gene

TAS2R31 (Taste 2 Receptor Member 31) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Taste transduction and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and bitter taste receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R42.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R31 Gene

  • Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity). Activated by the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame K.

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R31 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TAS2R31 Gene

Genomics for TAS2R31 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TAS2R31 Gene

Enhancers for TAS2R31 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TAS2R31 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TAS2R31 Gene

Chromosome:
12
Start:
11,030,387 bp from pter
End:
11,031,407 bp from pter
Size:
1,021 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for TAS2R31 Gene

Genes around TAS2R31 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TAS2R31 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TAS2R31 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAS2R31 Gene

Proteins for TAS2R31 Gene

  • Protein details for TAS2R31 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P59538-T2R31_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Taste receptor type 2 member 31
    Protein Accession:
    P59538
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P59547
    • Q17R84
    • Q645X5

    Protein attributes for TAS2R31 Gene

    Size:
    309 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    35278 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    Miscellaneous:
    • Most taste cells may be activated by a limited number of bitter compounds; individual taste cells can discriminate among bitter stimuli.

neXtProt entry for TAS2R31 Gene

Proteomics data for TAS2R31 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TAS2R31 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 161
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TAS2R31 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TAS2R31 Gene

Domains & Families for TAS2R31 Gene

Gene Families for TAS2R31 Gene

Protein Domains for TAS2R31 Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAS2R31 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P59538

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

T2R31_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAS2R31: view

Function for TAS2R31 Gene

Molecular function for TAS2R31 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity). Activated by the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame K.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TAS2R31: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TAS2R31 Gene

Localization for TAS2R31 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R31 Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TAS2R31 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAS2R31 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAS2R31 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TAS2R31 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAS2R31: view

Pathways by source for TAS2R31 Gene

Interacting Proteins for TAS2R31 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAS2R31 Gene

None

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TAS2R31 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TAS2R31 Gene

(4) Drugs for TAS2R31 Gene - From: BitterDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Diphenidol Approved, Withdrawn Pharma 1
Famotidine Approved Pharma Histamine H2-receptor antagonist 57
Quinine Approved Pharma Pore Blocker 42
Parthenolide Pharma 4

(4) Additional Compounds for TAS2R31 Gene - From: BitterDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
acesulfame K
aloin
  • 10-(1',5'-Anhydroglucosyl)aloe-emodin-9-anthrone
  • 10-b-D-Glucopyranosyl-1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone, 9CI
  • Aloin a
  • Aloin [ban]
  • Aloinum
8015-61-0
Aristolochic acid
Saccharin
  • 1, 2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one, 1,1-dioxide
  • 1, 2-Benzisothiazolin-3-one 1,1-dioxide
  • 1, 2-Dihydro-2-ketobenzisosulfonazole
  • 1,1-Diox-1,2-benzisothiazol-3-one
  • 1,1-Dioxide-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one
81-07-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAS2R31: view

Transcripts for TAS2R31 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TAS2R31 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAS2R31 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TAS2R31 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TAS2R31
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TAS2R31

Expression for TAS2R31 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TAS2R31 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TAS2R31 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for TAS2R31 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAS2R31 Gene Hs.688197

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TAS2R31 Gene

P59538-T2R31_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in gustducin-positive cells.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TAS2R31: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TAS2R31 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TAS2R31 Gene

Orthologs for TAS2R31 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for TAS2R31 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tas2r136 35
  • 65.12 (n)
  • 48.5 (a)
Tas2r136 16
Tas2r120 36
  • 52 (a)
ManyToMany
Tas2r136 36
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAS2R31 35
  • 98.17 (n)
  • 95.79 (a)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tas2r136 35
  • 66.2 (n)
  • 49.48 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 57 (a)
ManyToMany
TAS2R46 36
  • 56 (a)
ManyToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CAFA-T2R43 36
  • 53 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia T2R23 36
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
T2R24 36
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
T2R25 36
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for TAS2R31:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TAS2R31 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TAS2R31 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TAS2R31 (if available)

Paralogs for TAS2R31 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TAS2R31: view

Variants for TAS2R31 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TAS2R31 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_030684 -
VAR_030685 -
VAR_030686 -
VAR_030687 -
VAR_030688 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAS2R31 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv475e1 CNV Complex 17122850
essv11102 CNV CNV 17122850
dgv476e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv428272 CNV Gain+Loss 18775914
nsv832330 CNV Gain 17160897
esv2745546 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv8289 CNV Loss 19470904
nsv898780 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2664609 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2670207 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv265e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv35e19 CNV Loss 19470904
nsv8917 CNV Loss 18304495
esv24685 CNV Loss 19812545
dgv191e201 CNV Deletion 23290073
dgv266e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv267e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv436149 CNV Deletion 17901297

Variation tolerance for TAS2R31 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 98.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.37; 81.66% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TAS2R31 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TAS2R31

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R31 Gene

Disorders for TAS2R31 Gene

Relevant External Links for TAS2R31

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TAS2R31

No disorders were found for TAS2R31 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TAS2R31 Gene

Publications for TAS2R31 Gene

  1. Evolution of bitter taste receptors in humans and apes. (PMID: 15496549) Fischer A. … Paeaebo S. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 2005) 3 4 67
  2. Quinine Bitterness and Grapefruit Liking Associate with Allelic Variants in TAS2R31. (PMID: 26024668) Hayes J.E. … McGeary J.E. (Chem. Senses 2015) 3
  3. Bitterness of the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium varies with polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31. (PMID: 23599216) Allen A.L. … Hayes J.E. (Chem. Senses 2013) 3
  4. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior? (PMID: 23878414) Hayes J.E. … Allen A.L. (Food Qual Prefer 2013) 3
  5. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31. (PMID: 24187601) Allen A.L. … Hayes J.E. (Chemosens Percept 2013) 3

Products for TAS2R31 Gene

Sources for TAS2R31 Gene

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