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Aliases for TAS2R16 Gene

Aliases for TAS2R16 Gene

  • Taste 2 Receptor Member 16 2 3 5
  • Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 16 2 3
  • T2R16 3 4
  • Candidate Taste Receptor T2R16 3

External Ids for TAS2R16 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TAS2R16 Gene

  • GC07M121112
  • GC07M122175
  • GC07M122189
  • GC07M122228
  • GC07M122421
  • GC07M122634
  • GC07M116997

Summaries for TAS2R16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAS2R16 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of a family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These family members are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. Each of these apparently intronless genes encodes a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is clustered with another 3 candidate taste receptor genes in chromosome 7 and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R16 Gene

TAS2R16 (Taste 2 Receptor Member 16) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TAS2R16 include Alcohol Dependence and Nicotine Dependence, Protection Against. Among its related pathways are Taste transduction and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and bitter taste receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R42.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R16 Gene

  • Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5.

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R16 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TAS2R16 Gene

Genomics for TAS2R16 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TAS2R16 Gene

Enhancers for TAS2R16 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TAS2R16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TAS2R16 Gene

122,994,704 bp from pter
122,995,700 bp from pter
997 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TAS2R16 Gene

Genes around TAS2R16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TAS2R16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TAS2R16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAS2R16 Gene

Proteins for TAS2R16 Gene

  • Protein details for TAS2R16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Taste receptor type 2 member 16
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D0X2
    • Q502V3
    • Q549U8
    • Q645W1

    Protein attributes for TAS2R16 Gene

    291 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33986 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with RTP3 and RTP4.
    • Confers bitter perception of salicin to non-taster mice.
    • Several bitter taste receptors are expressed in a single taste receptor cell.

neXtProt entry for TAS2R16 Gene

Proteomics data for TAS2R16 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TAS2R16 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 80 and Asn 163
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TAS2R16 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TAS2R16 Gene

Domains & Families for TAS2R16 Gene

Gene Families for TAS2R16 Gene

Protein Domains for TAS2R16 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAS2R16 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAS2R16: view

Function for TAS2R16 Gene

Molecular function for TAS2R16 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Gustducin-coupled receptor implicated in the perception of bitter compounds in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract. Signals through PLCB2 and the calcium-regulated cation channel TRPM5.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TAS2R16: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TAS2R16 Gene

Localization for TAS2R16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R16 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TAS2R16 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAS2R16 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
golgi apparatus 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAS2R16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane IDA 16720576
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R16: view

Pathways & Interactions for TAS2R16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAS2R16: view

Pathways by source for TAS2R16 Gene

Interacting Proteins for TAS2R16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAS2R16 Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TAS2R16 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TAS2R16 Gene

(6) Drugs for TAS2R16 Gene - From: PharmGKB, ApexBio, BitterDB, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ethanol Approved Pharma 1924
Probenecid Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor 27
Diphenidol Approved, Withdrawn Pharma 1
Arbutin Pharma 0
Sodium Benzoate Pharma 15

(5) Additional Compounds for TAS2R16 Gene - From: BitterDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Amygdalin, D
Phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside
  • 1-Thio-b-D-glucopyranose 1-[N-(sulfooxy)-3-butenimidate], 9CI
  • 2-Phenylethyl glucosinolate
  • Allyl glucosinolate
  • Myronate
  • Myronic acid

(1) ApexBio Compounds for TAS2R16 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Probenecid 57-66-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAS2R16: view

Transcripts for TAS2R16 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TAS2R16 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Additional mRNA sequences :
(2) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for TAS2R16 Gene

Taste receptor, type 2, member 16:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAS2R16 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TAS2R16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TAS2R16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TAS2R16 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAS2R16 Gene Hs.272395

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TAS2R16 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in a subset of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells of the tongue. Expressed in circumvallate papillae and testis (PubMed:16720576).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TAS2R16: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for TAS2R16 Gene

Orthologs for TAS2R16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TAS2R16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TAS2R16 35
  • 73.2 (n)
  • 57.39 (a)
TAS2R16 36
  • 56 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tas2r118 35
  • 70.51 (n)
  • 53.85 (a)
Tas2r118 16
Tas2r118 36
  • 52 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAS2R16 35
  • 99.43 (n)
  • 98.96 (a)
TAS2R16 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tas2r118 35
  • 69.35 (n)
  • 52.8 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TAS2R16 36
  • 36 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia T2R62 36
  • 39 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 30 (a)
-- 36
  • 29 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TAS2R7 36
  • 21 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TAS2R16:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TAS2R16 Gene

Gene Tree for TAS2R16 (if available)
Gene Tree for TAS2R16 (if available)

Paralogs for TAS2R16 Gene Pseudogenes for TAS2R16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TAS2R16: view

Variants for TAS2R16 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R16 Gene

The Lys-172 polymorphism in TAS2R16 is associated with genetic susceptibility to alcoholism [MIM:103780].

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TAS2R16 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs860170 - 122,994,970(-) AGCGC(A/G)CTTCA reference, missense
rs846664 - 122,995,119(-) GAAAA(G/T)TTTCA reference, missense
rs978739 -- 122,995,846(-) CCTAC(A/G)TTCAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs1204014 -- 122,994,789(-) CCTAC(A/G)TTGAA reference, synonymous-codon
rs28371571 -- 122,995,334(-) TTACC(A/G/T)TGTTC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAS2R16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv524192 CNV Gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for TAS2R16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 75.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.73; 15.50% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TAS2R16 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for TAS2R16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for TAS2R16 Gene - From: OMIM, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
alcohol dependence
  • alcohol dependence, protection against
nicotine dependence, protection against
  • nicotine dependence
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Relevant External Links for TAS2R16

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TAS2R16: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TAS2R16 Gene

Publications for TAS2R16 Gene

  1. A novel family of mammalian taste receptors. (PMID: 10761934) Adler E. … Zuker C.S. (Cell 2000) 2 3 4 67
  2. Principal component analysis of binding energies for single-point mutants of hT2R16 bound to an agonist correlate with experimental mutant cell response. (PMID: 25393978) Chen D.E. … Floriano W.B. (J. Comput. Biol. 2015) 3
  3. Origin and differential selection of allelic variation at TAS2R16 associated with salicin bitter taste sensitivity in Africa. (PMID: 24177185) Campbell M.C. … Tishkoff S.A. (Mol. Biol. Evol. 2014) 3
  4. Limited evidence for adaptive evolution and functional effect of allelic variation at rs702424 in the promoter of the TAS2R16 bitter taste receptor gene in Africa. (PMID: 24785689) Campbell M.C. … Tishkoff S.A. (J. Hum. Genet. 2014) 3
  5. Bitter taste receptor polymorphisms and human aging. (PMID: 23133589) Campa D. … Barale R. (PLoS ONE 2012) 3

Products for TAS2R16 Gene

Sources for TAS2R16 Gene