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Aliases for TARS Gene

Aliases for TARS Gene

  • Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Threonine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • EC 4 61
  • ThrRS 3 4
  • Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Threonine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3

External Ids for TARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TARS Gene

  • GC05U990056
  • GC05P033887
  • GC05P033440
  • GC05P033486

Summaries for TARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TARS Gene

TARS (Threonyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TARS include Kidney Lipoma and Antisynthetase Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Gene Expression and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TARSL2.

Gene Wiki entry for TARS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TARS Gene

Genomics for TARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for TARS Gene

Enhancers for TARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH05G033439 1.4 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.2 +0.6 592 4.3 CREB3L1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC TBX21 ZNF610 ENSG00000249572 TARS RXFP3 RPS8P8 GC05P033478
GH05G033444 0.8 Ensembl dbSUPER 10.5 +3.6 3605 0.2 PRDM6 SAP130 ZNF10 RBFOX2 TARS GC05P033478
GH05G033432 0.8 ENCODE 10.5 -7.7 -7673 0.6 ELF3 FOXA2 ATF1 YY1 RARA CREM MIXL1 PPARG CEBPA ETV4 RXFP3 TARS PIR33729 GC05M033441 GC05M033421
GH05G033446 0.6 dbSUPER 10.5 +6.9 6850 1.4 SCRT1 CHD7 ZNF316 MAFF POU5F1 ZBTB33 MAFK EMSY RBFOX2 ENSG00000249572 TARS GC05P033478
GH05G033408 0.7 ENCODE 8.3 -31.3 -31289 1.8 FOXA2 NFIA HLF PPARG NR2F2 JUND CEBPA TCF7 NR2F6 CREM ENSG00000249572 TARS GC05M033421 PIR55286
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000179204 504 3201 CREB3L1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC TBX21 ZNF610

Genomic Location for TARS Gene

33,440,696 bp from pter
33,469,539 bp from pter
28,844 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TARS Gene

Genes around TARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TARS Gene

Proteins for TARS Gene

  • Protein details for TARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Threonine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8I1
    • B4DEG8
    • Q96FP5
    • Q9BWA6

    Protein attributes for TARS Gene

    723 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    83435 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Sequence=AAB04939.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TARS Gene


neXtProt entry for TARS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TARS Gene


Post-translational modifications for TARS Gene

  • ISGylated.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=55, Lys65, Lys222, isoforms=2223, Lys279, Lys288, Lys504, Lys549, Lys611, posLast=636636, posLast=645645, Lys660, posLast=681681, posLast=712712, and isoforms=2717
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for TARS Gene

Gene Families for TARS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TARS: view

Function for TARS Gene

Molecular function for TARS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
threonyl-tRNA synthetase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-threonine + tRNA(Thr) = AMP + diphosphate + L-threonyl-tRNA(Thr).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004829 threonine-tRNA ligase activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016874 ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TARS: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for TARS

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TARS Gene

Localization for TARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TARS gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm NAS,IEA 2033077
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0015629 actin cytoskeleton IDA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for TARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TARS: view

Pathways by source for TARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for TARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS 2033077
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006435 threonyl-tRNA aminoacylation NAS,IEA 2033077
GO:0043039 tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TARS Gene

(8) Drugs for TARS Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Threonine Approved Nutra Target 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Borrelidin Pharma Antiangiogenic; inhibits threonyl-tRNA synthetase 0

(4) Additional Compounds for TARS Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi

(1) ApexBio Compounds for TARS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Borrelidin 7184-60-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TARS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for TARS Gene

Threonyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for TARS

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TARS Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d · 2e ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c · 7d ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - -
SP10: - -

ExUns: 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22

Relevant External Links for TARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TARS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (8.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TARS Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TARS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TARS Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Skin(3.1)
  • Kidney(3)
  • Liver(2.7)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Bone(2.1)
  • Spleen(2.1)
  • Heart(2)
  • Stomach(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TARS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TARS Gene

Orthologs for TARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TARS 34 35
  • 99.69 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TARS 35
  • 92 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TARS 35
  • 92 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TARS 34 35
  • 91.7 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TARS 34 35
  • 90.96 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tars 34
  • 87.48 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tars 34 16 35
  • 86.98 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TARS 34 35
  • 79.51 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tars 34
  • 77.37 (n)
Str.1862 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.9104 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tars 34 35
  • 76.35 (n)
wufb07c05 34
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2257 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-thr 36 34 35
  • 66.92 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008929 34
  • 65.17 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trs-1 36
  • 63 (a)
tars-1 34 35
  • 61.55 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes THS1 34 35 37
  • 59.08 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F05918g 34
  • 58.87 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ACL039W 34
  • 58.14 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT5G26830 34
  • 58.18 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.595 34
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os08g0295300 34
  • 58.6 (n)
Os.19842 34
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6106 34
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 66 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes trs1 34
  • 57.32 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02380 34
  • 56.85 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.10053 34
Species where no ortholog for TARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TARS Gene

Gene Tree for TARS (if available)
Gene Tree for TARS (if available)

Paralogs for TARS Gene

Paralogs for TARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TARS: view

Variants for TARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000068110 -- 33,462,508(+) TTTCT(A/G)GTAAC intron-variant
rs1000081682 -- 33,448,011(+) AGTGT(A/G)TTGTT intron-variant
rs1000121512 -- 33,462,836(+) TCATA(C/T)TGATT intron-variant
rs1000518298 -- 33,457,738(+) TAAAA(C/T)GTGGA intron-variant
rs1000534134 -- 33,452,778(+) TTTTT(A/T)TTTCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv699n27 CNV gain 19166990
dgv9716n54 CNV gain 21841781
esv2762514 CNV gain 21179565
esv3604646 CNV gain 21293372
nsv471010 CNV gain 18288195
nsv522715 CNV gain 19592680

Variation tolerance for TARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.94; 67.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TARS Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TARS Gene

Disorders for TARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for TARS Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
kidney lipoma
  • lipoma of kidney
antisynthetase syndrome
  • anti-jo1 syndrome
  • inflammatory disorder of muscle
  • amyopathic dermatomyositis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TARS

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TARS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TARS Gene

Publications for TARS Gene

  1. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of human threonyl-tRNA synthetase reveals extensive homology to the Escherichia coli and yeast enzymes. (PMID: 2033077) Cruzen M.E. … Arfin S.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1991) 3 4 22 64
  2. Proteomic identification of proteins conjugated to ISG15 in mouse and human cells. (PMID: 16139798) Giannakopoulos N.V. … Zhang D.E. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005) 3 4 64
  3. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T. … Sugano S. (Nat. Genet. 2004) 3 4 64
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  5. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 7626230) Freist W. … Gauss D.H. (Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 1995) 3 22 64

Products for TARS Gene

Sources for TARS Gene

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