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Aliases for TAOK2 Gene

Aliases for TAOK2 Gene

  • TAO Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • Thousand And One Amino Acid Protein Kinase 2 3 4
  • Prostate-Derived Sterile 20-Like Kinase 1 3 4
  • Prostate-Derived STE20-Like Kinase 1 3 4
  • Kinase From Chicken Homolog C 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 61
  • MAP3K17 3 4
  • HKFC-C 3 4
  • PSK-1 3 4
  • PSK1 3 4
  • PSK 3 4
  • Prostate Derived STE20-Like Kinase PSK 3
  • Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase TAO2 3
  • PSK1-BETA 3
  • EC 2.7.11 61
  • KIAA0881 4
  • TAO1 3
  • TAO2 3

External Ids for TAOK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TAOK2 Gene

  • GC16P029892
  • GC16P027646

Summaries for TAOK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAOK2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that is involved in many different processes, including, cell signaling, microtubule organization and stability, and apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for TAOK2 Gene

TAOK2 (TAO Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are MAPK signaling pathway and p38 MAPK signaling pathway (Pathway Interaction Database). GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAOK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAOK2 Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in different processes such as membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies formation DNA damage response and MAPK14/p38 MAPK stress-activated MAPK cascade. Phosphorylates itself, MBP, activated MAPK8, MAP2K3, MAP2K6 and tubulins. Activates the MAPK14/p38 MAPK signaling pathway through the specific activation and phosphorylation of the upstream MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 kinases. In response to DNA damage, involved in the G2/M transition DNA damage checkpoint by activating the p38/MAPK14 stress-activated MAPK cascade, probably by mediating phosphorylation of upstream MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 kinases. Isoform 1, but not isoform 2, plays a role in apoptotic morphological changes, including cell contraction, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies formation. This function, which requires the activation of MAPK8/JNK and nuclear localization of C-terminally truncated isoform 1, may be linked to the mitochondrial CASP9-associated death pathway. Isoform 1 binds to microtubules and affects their organization and stability independently of its kinase activity. Prevents MAP3K7-mediated activation of CHUK, and thus NF-kappa-B activation, but not that of MAPK8/JNK. May play a role in the osmotic stress-MAPK8 pathway. Isoform 2, but not isoform 1, is required for PCDH8 endocytosis. Following homophilic interactions between PCDH8 extracellular domains, isoform 2 phosphorylates and activates MAPK14/p38 MAPK which in turn phosphorylates isoform 2. This process leads to PCDH8 endocytosis and CDH2 cointernalization. Both isoforms are involved in MAPK14 phosphorylation.

Gene Wiki entry for TAOK2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TAOK2 Gene

Genomics for TAOK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TAOK2 Gene

Enhancers for TAOK2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH16F029992 1.1 ENCODE 12.2 +21.3 21283 4.8 HDGF PKNOX1 CREB3L1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 MIR762HG CA5AP1 SMG1P2 ZNF785 C16orf92 FAM57B TAOK2 CTF1 ZNF747 ENSG00000247735
GH16F029950 0.2 ENCODE 12.2 -22.1 -22052 1.5 ATF1 ZNF133 SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 GLIS2 ELK1 ZNF143 KLF7 KLF13 INO80E TAOK2 DOC2A C16orf92 HIRIP3 FAM57B CDIPT CDIPT-AS1 MVP PIR61167
GH16F029876 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 11.8 -96.6 -96599 2.1 HDGF KLF1 PKNOX1 CBX3 ZMYM3 ZNF140 ZNF384 POLR2A NFYB PRDM10 MVP NPIPB13 ZNF764 SEZ6L2 ASPHD1 ZNF785 TMEM219 TAOK2 DOC2A ZNF747
GH16F029915 0.6 ENCODE 11.4 -57.9 -57889 1.3 HDGF ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZNF48 SLC30A9 ZNF207 DEK TMEM219 INO80E HIRIP3 YPEL3 DOC2A TAOK2 C16orf92 FAM57B MVP MIR762HG
GH16F029198 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 5.2 -772.2 -772185 5.4 PKNOX1 ZFP64 INSM2 KLF17 FEZF1 THRB RARA ZNF366 SCRT2 FOS LOC101928188 LOC101928215 RRN3P2 TAOK2 INO80E ENSG00000279106 PIR33913
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around TAOK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TAOK2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000506314 859 2201 HDGF PKNOX1 CREB3L1 MLX WRNIP1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1

Genomic Location for TAOK2 Gene

Chromosome:
16
Start:
29,973,641 bp from pter
End:
29,992,261 bp from pter
Size:
18,621 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TAOK2 Gene

Genes around TAOK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TAOK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TAOK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAOK2 Gene

Proteins for TAOK2 Gene

  • Protein details for TAOK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9UL54-TAOK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase TAO2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9UL54
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5PKY1
    • A7MCZ2
    • B2RN35
    • B7ZM88
    • O94957
    • Q6UW73
    • Q7LC09
    • Q9NSW2

    Protein attributes for TAOK2 Gene

    Size:
    1235 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    138251 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 (By similarity). Self-associates. Interacts with tubulins through the C-terminal domain. Interacts with MAP3K7 and interfers with MAP3K7-binding to CHUK and thus prevents NF-kappa-B activation. Isoform 2 interacts with PCDH8; this complex may also include CDH2 (By similarity).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAQ89301.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=BAA74904.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for TAOK2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TAOK2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TAOK2 Gene

  • Autophosphorylated. Phosphorylated by ATM.
  • C-terminal cleavage of isoform 1 and subsequent nuclear localization requires CASP9 activity.
  • Isoform 2: Phosphorylated on Ser-1031 by MAPK14. This phosphorylation is required PCDH8 for endocytosis (By similarity).
  • Isoforms 1 and 2 are autophosphorylated.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for TAOK2 Gene

Gene Families for TAOK2 Gene

Protein Domains for TAOK2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAOK2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9UL54

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TAOK2_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAOK2: view

Function for TAOK2 Gene

Molecular function for TAOK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Selectively inhibited by the enantiopure organoruthenium inhibitor 9E1. Activated following arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) treatment.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in different processes such as membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies formation DNA damage response and MAPK14/p38 MAPK stress-activated MAPK cascade. Phosphorylates itself, MBP, activated MAPK8, MAP2K3, MAP2K6 and tubulins. Activates the MAPK14/p38 MAPK signaling pathway through the specific activation and phosphorylation of the upstream MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 kinases. In response to DNA damage, involved in the G2/M transition DNA damage checkpoint by activating the p38/MAPK14 stress-activated MAPK cascade, probably by mediating phosphorylation of upstream MAP2K3 and MAP2K6 kinases. Isoform 1, but not isoform 2, plays a role in apoptotic morphological changes, including cell contraction, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies formation. This function, which requires the activation of MAPK8/JNK and nuclear localization of C-terminally truncated isoform 1, may be linked to the mitochondrial CASP9-associated death pathway. Isoform 1 binds to microtubules and affects their organization and stability independently of its kinase activity. Prevents MAP3K7-mediated activation of CHUK, and thus NF-kappa-B activation, but not that of MAPK8/JNK. May play a role in the osmotic stress-MAPK8 pathway. Isoform 2, but not isoform 1, is required for PCDH8 endocytosis. Following homophilic interactions between PCDH8 extracellular domains, isoform 2 phosphorylates and activates MAPK14/p38 MAPK which in turn phosphorylates isoform 2. This process leads to PCDH8 endocytosis and CDH2 cointernalization. Both isoforms are involved in MAPK14 phosphorylation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TAOK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TAOK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IEA,IDA 10660600
GO:0004702 signal transducer, downstream of receptor, with serine/threonine kinase activity IBA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016301 kinase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAOK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TAOK2: view

Animal Models for TAOK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TAOK2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TAOK2

miRNA for TAOK2 Gene

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TAOK2 Gene

Localization for TAOK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAOK2 Gene

Cytoplasmic vesicle membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Nucleus. Note=Catalytically active full-length phosphorylated isoform 1 localizes to microtubules in the cytoplasm predominantly on microtubule cables positioned around the nucleus. A C-terminally truncated form of isoform 1 is present in the nucleus; isoform 2 and kinase-defective, as well as full-length isoform 1 are excluded from the nucleus.
Isoform 2: Cell projection, dendrite. Note=In dendrites, colocalizes with PCDH8. {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TAOK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAOK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 3

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAOK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAOK2: view

Pathways & Interactions for TAOK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAOK2: view

Pathways by source for TAOK2 Gene

2 BioSystems pathways for TAOK2 Gene
1 KEGG pathway for TAOK2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for TAOK2 Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAOK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000186 activation of MAPKK activity IDA 10660600
GO:0001558 regulation of cell growth NAS 10660600
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0006612 protein targeting to membrane NAS 10660600
GO:0006915 apoptotic process NAS 10660600
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAOK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for TAOK2 Gene

(4) Drugs for TAOK2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0
Phosphonoserine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Magnesium Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for TAOK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAOK2: view

Transcripts for TAOK2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TAOK2 Gene

TAO kinase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAOK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TAOK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TAOK2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TAOK2

Expression for TAOK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TAOK2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TAOK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (21.3), Urine (10.7), and Heart (6.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TAOK2 Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TAOK2 Gene:

TAOK2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAOK2 Gene:

Hs.291623

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TAOK2 Gene:

Q9UL54-TAOK2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed, with a higher level of expression in testis and brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TAOK2: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for TAOK2 Gene

Orthologs for TAOK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TAOK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TAOK2 35
  • 96 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TAOK2 35
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TAOK2 34 35
  • 93.2 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Taok2 34 16 35
  • 90.1 (n)
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAOK2 35
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TAOK2 35
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TAOK2 35
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia taok2 34
  • 75.25 (n)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii taok2b 34 35 35
  • 72.65 (n)
taok2a 35
  • 56 (a)
OneToMany
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Tao 35
  • 39 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea kin-18 35
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for TAOK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TAOK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TAOK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TAOK2 (if available)

Paralogs for TAOK2 Gene

Paralogs for TAOK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TAOK2: view

Variants for TAOK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TAOK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs10445105 -- 29,988,167(+) GTCAC(G/T)CTGTG intron-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs10673322 -- 29,982,582(+) AGAAA(-/ATT)ATTGT intron-variant
rs10871451 -- 29,974,884(+) ACCGG(C/G)GTTCA intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B
rs111456458 -- 29,979,949(+) AGAAG(G/T)CCTCC intron-variant
rs11150577 -- 29,975,204(+) ATGGT(A/G)TCAAT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAOK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3638378 CNV loss 21293372
esv997840 CNV deletion 20482838

Variation tolerance for TAOK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 1.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.36; 41.90% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TAOK2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TAOK2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAOK2 Gene

Disorders for TAOK2 Gene

Relevant External Links for TAOK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TAOK2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TAOK2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
TAOK2

No disorders were found for TAOK2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TAOK2 Gene

Publications for TAOK2 Gene

  1. The prostate-derived sterile 20-like kinase (PSK) regulates microtubule organization and stability. (PMID: 12639963) Mitsopoulos C. … Morris J.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 2003) 3 4 22 64
  2. PSK, a novel STE20-like kinase derived from prostatic carcinoma that activates the JNK MAPK pathway and regulates actin cytoskeletal organisation. (PMID: 10660600) Moore T.M. … Morris J.D.H. (J. Biol. Chem. 2000) 3 4 22 64
  3. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro. (PMID: 10048485) Nagase T. … Ohara O. (DNA Res. 1998) 2 3 4 64
  4. Association and mutation analyses of 16p11.2 autism candidate genes. (PMID: 19242545) Kumar R.A. … Christian S.L. (PLoS ONE 2009) 3 46 64
  5. TAO kinases mediate activation of p38 in response to DNA damage. (PMID: 17396146) Raman M. … Cobb M.H. (EMBO J. 2007) 3 4 64

Products for TAOK2 Gene

Sources for TAOK2 Gene

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