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Aliases for STX16 Gene

Aliases for STX16 Gene

  • Syntaxin 16 2 3 5
  • SYN16 3 4

External Ids for STX16 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STX16 Gene

  • GC20P056955
  • GC20P057864
  • GC20P057912
  • GC20P056659
  • GC20P057226
  • GC20P054010

Summaries for STX16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STX16 Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the syntaxin or t-SNARE (target-SNAP receptor) family. These proteins are found on cell membranes and serve as the targets for V-SNARES (vesicle-SNAP receptors) permitting specific synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. A microdeletion in the region of chromosome 20 where this gene is located has been associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream aminopeptidase-like 1 (NPEPL1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GeneCards Summary for STX16 Gene

STX16 (Syntaxin 16) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with STX16 include Pseudohypoparathyroidism, Type Ib and Pseudohypoparathyroidism. Among its related pathways are Normal wtCFTR traffic / ER-to-Golgi and Nicotine Pathway (Dopaminergic Neuron), Pharmacodynamics. GO annotations related to this gene include syntaxin binding and SNAP receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is STX16-NPEPL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STX16 Gene

  • SNARE involved in vesicular transport from the late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network.

Gene Wiki entry for STX16 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for STX16 Gene

Genomics for STX16 Gene

Regulatory Elements for STX16 Gene

Enhancers for STX16 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around STX16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for STX16 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around STX16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for STX16 Gene

58,651,253 bp from pter
58,679,526 bp from pter
28,274 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for STX16 Gene

Genes around STX16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STX16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STX16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STX16 Gene

Proteins for STX16 Gene

  • Protein details for STX16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NK32
    • A6NN69
    • A8MPP0
    • B7ZBN1
    • B7ZBN2
    • B7ZBN3
    • E1P5M0
    • E1P607
    • O14661
    • O14663
    • O60517
    • Q5W084
    • Q5W086
    • Q5W087
    • Q5XKI6
    • Q6GMS8
    • Q9H0Z0
    • Q9H1T7
    • Q9H1T8
    • Q9UIX5

    Protein attributes for STX16 Gene

    325 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37031 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with GCC2.
    • Sequence=AAB69282.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=142, 163, 165; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAB69283.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=142, 163, 165; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAC05647.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=142, 163, 165; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for STX16 Gene

neXtProt entry for STX16 Gene

Proteomics data for STX16 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for STX16 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for STX16 Gene

Domains & Families for STX16 Gene

Gene Families for STX16 Gene

Protein Domains for STX16 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for STX16 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 t-SNARE coiled-coil homology domain.
  • Belongs to the syntaxin family.
  • Contains 1 t-SNARE coiled-coil homology domain.
  • Belongs to the syntaxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STX16: view

Function for STX16 Gene

Molecular function for STX16 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
SNARE involved in vesicular transport from the late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STX16: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for STX16 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for STX16 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for STX16:

miRNA for STX16 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target STX16

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STX16 Gene

Localization for STX16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STX16 Gene

Golgi apparatus membrane; Single-pass type IV membrane protein.
Isoform C: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for STX16 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STX16 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 5
mitochondrion 3
endosome 2
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STX16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 9587053
GO:0016020 membrane IEA,IDA 9587053
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA,IBA --
GO:0031985 Golgi cisterna IDA 17389686
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STX16: view

Pathways & Interactions for STX16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STX16: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STX16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0042147 retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi IMP 17389686
GO:0061025 membrane fusion IEA --
GO:0090161 Golgi ribbon formation IMP 23677696
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STX16: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for STX16 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for STX16 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for STX16 Gene

Unigene Clusters for STX16 Gene

Syntaxin 16:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STX16 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for STX16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for STX16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for STX16 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STX16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (17.9) and Retina (8.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for STX16 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STX16 Gene Hs.307913

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for STX16 Gene

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STX16: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for STX16 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for STX16 Gene

Orthologs for STX16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for STX16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STX16 35
  • 88.62 (n)
  • 95.08 (a)
STX16 36
  • 95 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STX16 35
  • 92.49 (n)
  • 95.68 (a)
STX16 36
  • 95 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Stx16 35
  • 87.49 (n)
  • 93.85 (a)
Stx16 16
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STX16 35
  • 99.75 (n)
  • 99.63 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Stx16 35
  • 82.25 (n)
  • 90.65 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 93 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STX16 35
  • 81.58 (n)
  • 88.58 (a)
STX16 36
  • 88 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100493473 35
  • 75.31 (n)
  • 81.57 (a)
Str.11454 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC69090 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii stx16 35
  • 74.2 (n)
  • 80.07 (a)
stx16 36
  • 79 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000850 35
  • 46.52 (n)
  • 36.94 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Syx16 35
  • 53.59 (n)
  • 46.29 (a)
Syx16 36
  • 35 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea syn-16 35
  • 44.44 (n)
  • 36.52 (a)
syx-16 36
  • 30 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL026C 35
  • 46.76 (n)
  • 33.8 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A10681g 35
  • 44.82 (n)
  • 28.09 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TLG2 35
  • 44.2 (n)
  • 29.02 (a)
TLG2 36
  • 19 (a)
TLG2 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SYP41 35
  • 50.84 (n)
  • 40.18 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04119 35
  • 46.53 (n)
  • 37.6 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes tlg2 35
  • 42.9 (n)
  • 30.56 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 50 (a)
Species with no ortholog for STX16:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for STX16 Gene

Gene Tree for STX16 (if available)
Gene Tree for STX16 (if available)

Paralogs for STX16 Gene

Paralogs for STX16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STX16: view

Variants for STX16 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STX16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv828761 CNV Loss 20364138
esv1002410 CNV Deletion 20482838

Variation tolerance for STX16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 42.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.82; 58.51% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for STX16 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for STX16 Gene

Disorders for STX16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for STX16 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pseudohypoparathyroidism, type ib
  • pseudohypoparathyroidism ib
albright's hereditary osteodystrophy
  • albright hereditary osteodystrophy
  • normocalcemic pseudohypoparathyroidism [ambiguous]
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search STX16 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B (PHP1B) [MIM:603233]: A disorder characterized by end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Patients affected with PHP1B lack developmental defects characteristic of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, and typically show no other endocrine abnormalities besides resistance to PTH. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14561710, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15800843}. Note=The gene represented in this entry is involved in disease pathogenesis. Microdeletions involving STX16 can cause loss of methylation at exon A/B of GNAS, resulting in PHP1B.

Relevant External Links for STX16

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with STX16: view

No data available for Genatlas for STX16 Gene

Publications for STX16 Gene

  1. A novel STX16 deletion in autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib redefines the boundaries of a cis-acting imprinting control element of GNAS. (PMID: 15800843) Linglart A. … Bastepe M. (Am. J. Hum. Genet. 2005) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Molecular cloning and localization of human syntaxin 16, a member of the syntaxin family of SNARE proteins. (PMID: 9464276) Tang B.L. … Ho W. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998) 2 3 23
  3. Syntaxin-16, a putative Golgi t-SNARE. (PMID: 9587053) Simonsen A. … Stenmark H. (Eur. J. Cell Biol. 1998) 2 3 23
  4. Dual roles of the mammalian GARP complex in tethering and SNARE complex assembly at the trans-golgi network. (PMID: 19620288) PAcrez-Victoria F.J. … Bonifacino J.S. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2009) 3 23
  5. Syntaxin 16 and syntaxin 5 are required for efficient retrograde transport of several exogenous and endogenous cargo proteins. (PMID: 17389686) Amessou M. … Johannes L. (J. Cell. Sci. 2007) 3 23

Products for STX16 Gene

Sources for STX16 Gene