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Aliases for STX16 Gene

Aliases for STX16 Gene

  • Syntaxin 16 2 3 5
  • SYN16 3 4
  • Syntaxin-16 3

External Ids for STX16 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STX16 Gene

  • GC20P056955
  • GC20P057864
  • GC20P057912
  • GC20P056659
  • GC20P057226
  • GC20P054010

Summaries for STX16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STX16 Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the syntaxin or t-SNARE (target-SNAP receptor) family. These proteins are found on cell membranes and serve as the targets for V-SNARES (vesicle-SNAP receptors) permitting specific synaptic vesicle docking and fusion. A microdeletion in the region of chromosome 20 where this gene is located has been associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream aminopeptidase-like 1 (NPEPL1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GeneCards Summary for STX16 Gene

STX16 (Syntaxin 16) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with STX16 include Pseudohypoparathyroidism, Type Ib and Pseudohypoparathyroidism. Among its related pathways are Ectoderm Differentiation and Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport. GO annotations related to this gene include syntaxin binding and SNAP receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is STX16-NPEPL1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STX16 Gene

  • SNARE involved in vesicular transport from the late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network.

Gene Wiki entry for STX16 Gene

Additional gene information for STX16 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for STX16 Gene

Genomics for STX16 Gene

Regulatory Elements for STX16 Gene

Enhancers for STX16 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH20H058649 1.5 ENCODE dbSUPER 30.9 +0.8 817 5.8 MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF416 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC LOC101927932 PPP4R1L NELFCD ENSG00000254419 STX16 NPEPL1 ENSG00000270279 PIEZO1P2 ANKRD60 ENSG00000227282
GH20H058622 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 15.1 -27.4 -27447 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 SIN3A YBX1 ZBTB7B ZNF207 FOS REST SMARCB1 ZNF592 NELFCD LOC101927932 PPP4R1L STX16 ENSG00000270279 PIEZO1P2 ANKRD60 ENSG00000227282 ENSG00000254419 PIR40957
GH20H057691 1.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -955.2 -955189 8.9 PKNOX1 SIN3A YBX1 FEZF1 FOS SP3 REST TSHZ1 ZNF592 SREBF1 STX16 PMEPA1 NKILA GC20M057649
GH20H058248 0.8 ENCODE 21.1 -403.1 -403074 0.1 CTCF SIN3A ZNF140 ZNF266 RAD21 ZNF697 ZNF664 ZNF791 ZNF138 GLI2 LOC101927932 NELFCD STX16 PPP4R1L ENSG00000254419 ENSG00000270951 NPEPL1 ANKRD60
GH20H057927 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 14.8 -723.0 -723001 1.5 HDGF PKNOX1 NFIB YBX1 NFXL1 BMI1 ZBTB7B ZNF207 FOS RCOR1 STX16 RAE1 PPP4R1L LOC101927932 ENSG00000254419 ENSG00000203971 MIR4532
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around STX16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for STX16 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000139422 347 4001 MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF416 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC

Genomic Locations for STX16 Gene

Genomic Locations for STX16 Gene
28,274 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for STX16 Gene

Genes around STX16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STX16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STX16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STX16 Gene

Proteins for STX16 Gene

  • Protein details for STX16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NK32
    • A6NN69
    • A8MPP0
    • B7ZBN1
    • B7ZBN2
    • B7ZBN3
    • E1P5M0
    • E1P607
    • O14661
    • O14663
    • O60517
    • Q5W084
    • Q5W086
    • Q5W087
    • Q5XKI6
    • Q6GMS8
    • Q9H0Z0
    • Q9H1T7
    • Q9H1T8
    • Q9UIX5

    Protein attributes for STX16 Gene

    325 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37031 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with GCC2.
    • Sequence=AAB69282.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=142, 163, 165; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAB69283.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=142, 163, 165; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAC05647.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=142, 163, 165; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for STX16 Gene

neXtProt entry for STX16 Gene

Post-translational modifications for STX16 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for STX16 Gene

Domains & Families for STX16 Gene

Gene Families for STX16 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for STX16 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for STX16 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the syntaxin family.
  • Belongs to the syntaxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STX16: view

Function for STX16 Gene

Molecular function for STX16 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
SNARE involved in vesicular transport from the late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for STX16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005484 SNAP receptor activity IDA 15215310
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18195106
GO:0019905 syntaxin binding IPI 16154903
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STX16: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STX16: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for STX16 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for STX16 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for STX16:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for STX16 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target STX16

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STX16 Gene

Localization for STX16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STX16 Gene

Golgi apparatus membrane; Single-pass type IV membrane protein.
Isoform C: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STX16 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 5
mitochondrion 3
plasma membrane 2
nucleus 2
endosome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STX16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,IEA 9587053
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA,IDA 9464276
GO:0005802 trans-Golgi network IDA 16154903
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STX16: view

Pathways & Interactions for STX16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STX16: view

Pathways by source for STX16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STX16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006810 transport IEA --
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport IBA --
GO:0006906 vesicle fusion IBA --
GO:0015031 protein transport IEA --
GO:0016192 vesicle-mediated transport IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STX16: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for STX16 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for STX16 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for STX16 Gene

Unigene Clusters for STX16 Gene

Syntaxin 16:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STX16 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - -
SP7: -
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for STX16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for STX16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for STX16 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STX16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (17.9) and Retina (8.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for STX16 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for STX16 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of STX16 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STX16 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for STX16 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for STX16 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Kidney(4.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for STX16 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • endocrine
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • larynx
  • neck
  • parathyroid
  • thyroid
  • heart
  • kidney
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STX16: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for STX16 Gene

Orthologs for STX16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for STX16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STX16 33
  • 99.75 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STX16 33 34
  • 92.49 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STX16 33 34
  • 88.62 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Stx16 33 16
  • 87.49 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Stx16 33
  • 82.25 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STX16 33 34
  • 81.58 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100493473 33
  • 75.31 (n)
Str.11454 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC69090 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii stx16 33 34
  • 74.2 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Syx16 33 34
  • 53.59 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000850 33
  • 46.52 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea syn-16 33
  • 44.44 (n)
syx-16 34
  • 30 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AEL026C 33
  • 46.76 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A10681g 33
  • 44.82 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TLG2 33 34 36
  • 44.2 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SYP41 33
  • 50.84 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 50 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU04119 33
  • 46.53 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes tlg2 33
  • 42.9 (n)
Species where no ortholog for STX16 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for STX16 Gene

Gene Tree for STX16 (if available)
Gene Tree for STX16 (if available)

Paralogs for STX16 Gene

Paralogs for STX16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STX16: view

Variants for STX16 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for STX16 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs111631847 Likely benign 58,678,371(+) GGAGG(A/G)GCTGG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs114786310 Likely benign 58,670,524(+) GAATC(A/G)AGAGG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs115046538 Likely benign 58,667,562(+) CAAAA(C/G/T)GGCCA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs138647604 Likely benign 58,669,353(+) TCCGA(G/T)CAGGA intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs138678203 Likely benign 58,678,190(+) CCGGA(C/T)TTCTG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STX16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv828761 CNV loss 20364138
nsv1063462 CNV gain 25217958
esv1002410 CNV deletion 20482838

Variation tolerance for STX16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 42.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.82; 58.51% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for STX16 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STX16 Gene

Disorders for STX16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(7) MalaCards diseases for STX16 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
pseudohypoparathyroidism, type ib
  • pseudohypoparathyroidism ib
pseudohypoparathyroidism ia
  • albright's hereditary osteodystrophy
  • normocalcemic pseudohypoparathyroidism [ambiguous]
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search STX16 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Pseudohypoparathyroidism 1B (PHP1B) [MIM:603233]: A disorder characterized by end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone, hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Patients affected with PHP1B lack developmental defects characteristic of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, and typically show no other endocrine abnormalities besides resistance to PTH. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14561710, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15800843}. Note=The gene represented in this entry is involved in disease pathogenesis. Microdeletions involving STX16 can cause loss of methylation at exon A/B of GNAS, resulting in PHP1B.

Relevant External Links for STX16

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with STX16: view

No data available for Genatlas for STX16 Gene

Publications for STX16 Gene

  1. A novel STX16 deletion in autosomal dominant pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib redefines the boundaries of a cis-acting imprinting control element of GNAS. (PMID: 15800843) Linglart A … Bastepe M (American journal of human genetics 2005) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Molecular cloning and localization of human syntaxin 16, a member of the syntaxin family of SNARE proteins. (PMID: 9464276) Tang BL … Hong W (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998) 2 3 4 22 60
  3. Syntaxin-16, a putative Golgi t-SNARE. (PMID: 9587053) Simonsen A … Stenmark H (European journal of cell biology 1998) 2 3 4 22 60
  4. Dual roles of the mammalian GARP complex in tethering and SNARE complex assembly at the trans-golgi network. (PMID: 19620288) Pérez-Victoria FJ … Bonifacino JS (Molecular and cellular biology 2009) 3 22 60
  5. A syntaxin 10-SNARE complex distinguishes two distinct transport routes from endosomes to the trans-Golgi in human cells. (PMID: 18195106) Ganley IG … Pfeffer SR (The Journal of cell biology 2008) 3 4 60

Products for STX16 Gene

Sources for STX16 Gene

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