Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for STS Gene

Aliases for STS Gene

  • Steroid Sulfatase 2 3 4 5
  • Arylsulfatase C 2 3 4
  • Steroid Sulfatase (Microsomal), Isozyme S 2 3
  • Steryl-Sulfate Sulfohydrolase 3 4
  • Steryl-Sulfatase 2 3
  • EC 4 58
  • ARSC1 3 4
  • ASC 3 4
  • Steroid Sulfatase (Microsomal), Arylsulfatase C, Isozyme S 2
  • Estrone Sulfatase 3
  • EC 3.1.6 58
  • ARSC 3
  • SSDD 3
  • XLI 3
  • ES 3

External Ids for STS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for STS Gene

  • ARSC1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STS Gene

  • GC0XP002655
  • GC0XP005924
  • GC0XP006533
  • GC0XP006599
  • GC0XP006997
  • GC0XP004994

Summaries for STS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STS Gene

  • This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. It belongs to the sulfatase family and hydrolyzes several 3-beta-hydroxysteroid sulfates, which serve as metabolic precursors for estrogens, androgens, and cholesterol. Mutations in this gene are associated with X-linked ichthyosis (XLI). Alternatively spliced transcript variants resulting from the use of different promoters have been described for this gene (PMID:17601726). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]

GeneCards Summary for STS Gene

STS (Steroid Sulfatase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with STS include Ichthyosis, X-Linked and Ichthyosis. Among its related pathways are Gamma carboxylation, hypusine formation and arylsulfatase activation and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include sulfuric ester hydrolase activity and steryl-sulfatase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ARSE.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STS Gene

  • Conversion of sulfated steroid precursors to estrogens during pregnancy.

Gene Wiki entry for STS Gene

Additional gene information for STS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for STS Gene

Genomics for STS Gene

Regulatory Elements for STS Gene

Enhancers for STS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH0XH007082 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.9 -62.7 -62745 2.1 HDGF TBL1XR1 BATF ZNF143 FOS ATF7 ETV6 RUNX3 IKZF2 CREM PUDP STS ENSG00000228550 GC0XP007028
GH0XH007372 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 5.3 +226.8 226759 2 ELK4 JUN MAX USF2 CEBPB EP300 JUND STAT3 MYC STS ENSG00000279682 GC0XP007237
GH0XH006748 0.5 dbSUPER 4.8 -397.7 -397675 1.7 NR2F1 IKZF1 IKZF2 SPI1 STS ENSG00000231217 GC0XP006948
GH0XH007251 0.2 Ensembl 6.3 +105.0 104984 0.2 PUDP STS GC0XP007237 ENSG00000279682
GH0XH007096 0.2 dbSUPER 5.9 -49.4 -49442 0.8 PUDP STS ENSG00000228550 GC0XP007028
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around STS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for STS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000244039 1483 2001 HDGF PKNOX1 SIN3A YY1 ZNF766 ELK1 ZNF207 ATF7 RUNX3 SMARCA4

Genomic Locations for STS Gene

Genomic Locations for STS Gene
208,294 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for STS Gene

Genes around STS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STS Gene

Proteins for STS Gene

  • Protein details for STS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RA47

    Protein attributes for STS Gene

    583 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    65492 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for STS Gene

neXtProt entry for STS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for STS Gene


Post-translational modifications for STS Gene

  • The conversion to 3-oxoalanine (also known as C-formylglycine, FGly), of a serine or cysteine residue in prokaryotes and of a cysteine residue in eukaryotes, is critical for catalytic activity.
  • Glycosylation at Asn47 and Asn259
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for STS Gene

Domains & Families for STS Gene

Gene Families for STS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the sulfatase family.
  • Belongs to the sulfatase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STS: view

Function for STS Gene

Molecular function for STS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
steroid,arylsulfatase C,X-linked,steroid sulfatase,microsomal,slow isoform,membrane bound,escaping inactivation
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
3-beta-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one 3-sulfate + H(2)O = 3-beta-hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one + sulfate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conversion of sulfated steroid precursors to estrogens during pregnancy.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for STS Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for STS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for STS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004773 steryl-sulfatase activity TAS --
GO:0008484 sulfuric ester hydrolase activity IDA 15962010
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for STS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STS Gene

Localization for STS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STS Gene

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STS gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
lysosome 5
golgi apparatus 4
endosome 4
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005764 lysosome TAS 2668275
GO:0005768 endosome TAS 2668275
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum TAS 2668275
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STS: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for STS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for STS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STS: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006687 glycosphingolipid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006706 steroid catabolic process TAS 6957717
GO:0007565 female pregnancy IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for STS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for STS Gene

(72) Drugs for STS Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Norelgestromin Approved Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 24
Estrone Approved Pharma Agonist Estrogenic hormone 22
Estrone sulfate Approved Pharma 0
Axitinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Kinase Inhibitors, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 113
Benzocaine Approved Pharma 2123

(34) Additional Compounds for STS Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Sulfate (ion 2-)
  • Sulfate anion
  • Sulfate anion(2-)
  • Sulfate dianion
  • Sulfate ion
3beta-Hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one sulfate
Androsterone sulfate
  • 3alpha-Sulfate-5alpha-androstan-17-one
  • 5alpha-Androsterone sulfate
  • 5alpha-Androsterone sulphate
  • Andros-S
  • Androsterone 3alpha-sulfate
Cholesterol sulfate
  • 5-Cholesten-3b-yl sulfate
  • 5-Cholesten-3b-yl sulphate
  • Cholest-5-en-3b-ol sulfate
  • Cholest-5-en-3b-ol sulphate
  • Cholesterol 3-sulfate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with STS: view

Transcripts for STS Gene

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for STS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for STS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for STS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (37.8) and Placenta (28.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for STS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of STS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for STS Gene

  • Liver(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.2)
  • Skin(2.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for STS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • eye
  • head
  • testicle
  • nail
  • hair
  • skin
  • sweat gland
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STS: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for STS Gene

Orthologs for STS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for STS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STS 33 34
  • 99.65 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STS 33 34
  • 79.27 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STS 33 34
  • 77.11 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 73 (a)
-- 34
  • 73 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia STS 34
  • 71 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sts 33
  • 63.37 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STS 33 34
  • 67.97 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia STS 34
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia sts 33
  • 62.92 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.32728 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sts 33 34
  • 62.05 (n)
sec61a 33
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea sul-2 34
  • 29 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 33 (a)
Species where no ortholog for STS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for STS Gene

Gene Tree for STS (if available)
Gene Tree for STS (if available)

Paralogs for STS Gene

Paralogs for STS Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for STS Gene using alignment to 5 proteins: Pseudogenes for STS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STS: view

Variants for STS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for STS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 0X pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs137853165 Pathogenic, Ichthyosis, X-linked (IXL) [MIM:308100] 7,325,356(+) ACAAC(A/T)GGGAA reference, missense
rs137853166 Pathogenic, Ichthyosis, X-linked (IXL) [MIM:308100] 7,334,066(+) TTACT(A/G)CAACG reference, missense
rs137853167 Pathogenic, Ichthyosis, X-linked (IXL) [MIM:308100] 7,305,109(+) CACAT(C/T)GGACC reference, missense
rs137853168 Pathogenic, Ichthyosis, X-linked (IXL) [MIM:308100] 7,325,357(+) CAACT(C/G)GGAAG reference, missense
rs137853169 Pathogenic, Ichthyosis, X-linked (IXL) [MIM:308100] 7,334,060(+) CTTCC(A/G)TTACT reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv9931 CNV gain 18304495
esv3576757 CNV gain 25503493
esv3573513 CNV loss 25503493
esv3573512 CNV loss 25503493
esv2758858 CNV loss 17122850
esv2678334 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2657313 CNV deletion 23128226

Variation tolerance for STS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 88.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.18; 23.82% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for STS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STS Gene

Disorders for STS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(24) MalaCards diseases for STS Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
ichthyosis, x-linked
  • x-linked ichthyosis
  • ichthyoses
pre-descemet corneal dystrophy
  • pdcd
ichthyosis vulgaris
  • dominant congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma
smith-lemli-opitz syndrome
  • rutledge lethal multiple congenital anomaly syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search STS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Ichthyosis, X-linked (IXL) [MIM:308100]: A keratinization disorder manifesting with mild erythroderma and generalized exfoliation of the skin within a few weeks after birth. Affected boys later develop large, polygonal, dark brown scales, especially on the neck, extremities, trunk, and buttocks. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10679952, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10844566, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1539590, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9252398}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for STS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with STS: view

No data available for Genatlas for STS Gene

Publications for STS Gene

  1. Association of the steroid sulfatase (STS) gene with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (PMID: 18937300) Brookes KJ … Kent L (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008) 3 22 45 60
  2. Genes for enzymes regulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfonation are associated with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in polycystic ovary syndrome. (PMID: 17426092) Goodarzi MO … Azziz R (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2007) 3 22 45 60
  3. Structure of human estrone sulfatase suggests functional roles of membrane association. (PMID: 12657638) Hernandez-Guzman FG … Ghosh D (The Journal of biological chemistry 2003) 3 4 22 60
  4. PCR diagnosis of X-linked ichthyosis: identification of a novel mutation (E560P) of the steroid sulfatase gene. (PMID: 10679952) Sugawara T … Fujimoto S (Human mutation 2000) 3 4 22 60
  5. Increased estrogen sulfatase (STS) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1(17beta-HSD1) following neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy in breast cancer patients. (PMID: 20151319) Chanplakorn N … Sasano H (Breast cancer research and treatment 2010) 3 22 60

Products for STS Gene

Sources for STS Gene

Loading form....