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Aliases for STARD4 Gene

Aliases for STARD4 Gene

  • StAR Related Lipid Transfer Domain Containing 4 2 3 5
  • START Domain Containing 4, Sterol Regulated 2
  • START Domain-Containing Protein 4 4
  • StARD4 4

External Ids for STARD4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STARD4 Gene

  • GC05M110457
  • GC05M111277
  • GC05M110864
  • GC05M110910
  • GC05M110861
  • GC05M106012

Summaries for STARD4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STARD4 Gene

  • Cholesterol homeostasis is regulated, at least in part, by sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding proteins (e.g., SREBP1; MIM 184756) and by liver X receptors (e.g., LXRA; MIM 602423). Upon sterol depletion, LXRs are inactive and SREBPs are cleaved, after which they bind promoter SREs and activate genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake. Sterol transport is mediated by vesicles or by soluble protein carriers, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR; MIM 600617). STAR is homologous to a family of proteins containing a 200- to 210-amino acid STAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, including STARD4 (Soccio et al., 2002 [PubMed 12011452]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GeneCards Summary for STARD4 Gene

STARD4 (StAR Related Lipid Transfer Domain Containing 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Cholesterol and Sphingolipids transport / Distribution to the intracellular membrane compartments (normal and CF) and Metabolism of steroid hormones. GO annotations related to this gene include lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is STARD6.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STARD4 Gene

  • May be involved in the intracellular transport of sterols or other lipids. May bind cholesterol or other sterols (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for STARD4 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for STARD4 Gene

Genomics for STARD4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for STARD4 Gene

Enhancers for STARD4 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around STARD4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for STARD4 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around STARD4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for STARD4 Gene

111,496,033 bp from pter
111,512,590 bp from pter
16,558 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for STARD4 Gene

Genes around STARD4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STARD4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STARD4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STARD4 Gene

Proteins for STARD4 Gene

  • Protein details for STARD4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    StAR-related lipid transfer protein 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q86TN9

    Protein attributes for STARD4 Gene

    205 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23517 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for STARD4 Gene


neXtProt entry for STARD4 Gene

Proteomics data for STARD4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for STARD4 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 13 and Lys 28
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for STARD4 Gene

Domains & Families for STARD4 Gene

Gene Families for STARD4 Gene

Protein Domains for STARD4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for STARD4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 START domain.
  • Contains 1 START domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STARD4: view

Function for STARD4 Gene

Molecular function for STARD4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May be involved in the intracellular transport of sterols or other lipids. May bind cholesterol or other sterols (By similarity).
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STARD4: view

Animal Models for STARD4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for STARD4:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STARD4 Gene

Localization for STARD4 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for STARD4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STARD4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STARD4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for STARD4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STARD4: view

Interacting Proteins for STARD4 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 1 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000296632 for STARD4 Gene via STRING

Symbol External ID(s) Details

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STARD4 Gene


No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for STARD4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for STARD4 Gene

(1) Drugs for STARD4 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(2) Additional Compounds for STARD4 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with STARD4: view

Transcripts for STARD4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for STARD4 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 4:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STARD4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d · 5e · 5f ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: - -
SP8: - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: - - -

Relevant External Links for STARD4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for STARD4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for STARD4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STARD4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal testis (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, and MaxQB for STARD4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STARD4 Gene Hs.93842

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STARD4: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for STARD4 Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for STARD4 Gene

Orthologs for STARD4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for STARD4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STARD4 35
  • 90.24 (n)
  • 88.78 (a)
  • 88 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STARD4 35
  • 87.48 (n)
  • 86.34 (a)
  • 85 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Stard4 35
  • 85.69 (n)
  • 86.83 (a)
Stard4 16
Stard4 36
  • 79 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STARD4 35
  • 99.67 (n)
  • 99.51 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Stard4 35
  • 84.72 (n)
  • 88.78 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 63 (a)
-- 36
  • 77 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia STARD4 36
  • 45 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STARD4 35
  • 72.03 (n)
  • 75.61 (a)
  • 75 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia STARD4 36
  • 74 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100490743 35
  • 65.17 (n)
  • 66 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.18908 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:112466 35
  • 60.23 (n)
  • 60.4 (a)
  • 60 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 25 (a)
-- 36
  • 22 (a)
Species with no ortholog for STARD4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for STARD4 Gene

Gene Tree for STARD4 (if available)
Gene Tree for STARD4 (if available)

Paralogs for STARD4 Gene

Paralogs for STARD4 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for STARD4 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STARD4: view

Variants for STARD4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for STARD4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs31315 -- 111,500,587(+) TCCAA(C/T)GGCAG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, utr-variant-3-prime
rs977928 -- 111,509,631(+) CTCCC(A/G)TTTAA intron-variant
rs152879 -- 111,510,194(+) TAATC(A/G)TTGCC intron-variant
rs152880 -- 111,509,560(+) AACCT(G/T)GGTTA intron-variant
rs152883 -- 111,505,183(+) TCTCT(A/G)TGAAG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STARD4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv518727 CNV Gain 19592680
nsv830449 CNV Gain+Loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for STARD4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 41.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.84; 17.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for STARD4 Gene

Disorders for STARD4 Gene

Relevant External Links for STARD4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for STARD4 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for STARD4 Gene

Publications for STARD4 Gene

  1. The cholesterol-regulated StarD4 gene encodes a StAR-related lipid transfer protein with two closely related homologues, StarD5 and StarD6. (PMID: 12011452) Soccio R.E. … Breslow J.L. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2002) 2 3 4 67
  2. Differential gene regulation of StarD4 and StarD5 cholesterol transfer proteins. Activation of StarD4 by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and StarD5 by endoplasmic reticulum stress. (PMID: 15760897) Soccio R.E. … Breslow J.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 3 23
  3. The StarD4 subfamily of steroidogenic acute regulatory-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins: new players in cholesterol metabolism. (PMID: 24440759) Calderon-Dominguez M. … RodrA-guez-Agudo D. (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2014) 3
  4. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche. (PMID: 25231870) Perry J.R. … Ong K.K. (Nature 2014) 3
  5. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC. (PMID: 23033213) Garbarino J. … Breslow J.L. (J. Lipid Res. 2012) 3

Products for STARD4 Gene

Sources for STARD4 Gene