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Aliases for STARD4 Gene

Aliases for STARD4 Gene

  • StAR Related Lipid Transfer Domain Containing 4 2 3 5
  • START Domain Containing 4, Sterol Regulated 2
  • START Domain-Containing Protein 4 4
  • StARD4 4

External Ids for STARD4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STARD4 Gene

  • GC05M110457
  • GC05M111277
  • GC05M110864
  • GC05M110910
  • GC05M110861
  • GC05M106012

Summaries for STARD4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STARD4 Gene

  • Cholesterol homeostasis is regulated, at least in part, by sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding proteins (e.g., SREBP1; MIM 184756) and by liver X receptors (e.g., LXRA; MIM 602423). Upon sterol depletion, LXRs are inactive and SREBPs are cleaved, after which they bind promoter SREs and activate genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake. Sterol transport is mediated by vesicles or by soluble protein carriers, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR; MIM 600617). STAR is homologous to a family of proteins containing a 200- to 210-amino acid STAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, including STARD4 (Soccio et al., 2002 [PubMed 12011452]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GeneCards Summary for STARD4 Gene

STARD4 (StAR Related Lipid Transfer Domain Containing 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Cholesterol and Sphingolipids transport / Distribution to the intracellular membrane compartments (normal and CF) and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is STARD5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STARD4 Gene

  • May be involved in the intracellular transport of sterols or other lipids. May bind cholesterol or other sterols (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for STARD4 Gene

Additional gene information for STARD4 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for STARD4 Gene

Genomics for STARD4 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for STARD4 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for STARD4 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05I111510 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 576.1 +0.2 231 4.3 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 STARD4 STARD4-AS1 WDR36 GC05M111479
GH05I111574 Enhancer 0.4 FANTOM5 51.4 -62.4 -62429 0.3 CREB1 ATF7 ATF2 STARD4 WDR36 HMGN1P13 STARD4-AS1 GC05M111608
GH05I111529 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 13.2 -18.2 -18249 2.2 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT POLR2B CBX5 GATA2 ZNF143 ATF7 NCOA1 STARD4 SNORA13 RPS3AP21 WDR36 GC05M111479 STARD4-AS1 ENSG00000251099
GH05I111929 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.6 -418.0 -417962 3 JUND POLR2A HLF CEBPB FOS CEBPG EP300 STARD4 NREP-AS1 NREP
GH05I111947 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 4.9 -436.1 -436085 2.3 JUND POLR2A FOS BATF STARD4 NREP-AS1 NREP
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around STARD4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the STARD4 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for STARD4 Gene

Genomic Locations for STARD4 Gene
16,558 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for STARD4 Gene

Genes around STARD4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STARD4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STARD4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STARD4 Gene

Proteins for STARD4 Gene

  • Protein details for STARD4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    StAR-related lipid transfer protein 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q86TN9

    Protein attributes for STARD4 Gene

    205 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23517 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for STARD4 Gene


neXtProt entry for STARD4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for STARD4 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=213 and posLast=2828

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for STARD4 Gene

Domains & Families for STARD4 Gene

Gene Families for STARD4 Gene

Protein Domains for STARD4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for STARD4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STARD4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STARD4 Gene

Function for STARD4 Gene

Molecular function for STARD4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May be involved in the intracellular transport of sterols or other lipids. May bind cholesterol or other sterols (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for STARD4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for STARD4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008289 lipid binding IEA --
GO:0015485 cholesterol binding IDA 18403318
GO:0017127 cholesterol transporter activity IDA 18403318
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STARD4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STARD4: view

Animal Models for STARD4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for STARD4:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STARD4 Gene

Localization for STARD4 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STARD4 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 4
endoplasmic reticulum 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STARD4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA --
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle IDA 21767660
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STARD4: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STARD4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for STARD4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STARD4: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STARD4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006810 transport IEA --
GO:0006869 lipid transport IEA --
GO:0010873 positive regulation of cholesterol esterification IDA 18403318
GO:0010879 cholesterol transport involved in cholesterol storage IDA 18403318
GO:0032367 intracellular cholesterol transport IDA 18403318
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STARD4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for STARD4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for STARD4 Gene

(1) Drugs for STARD4 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(2) Additional Compounds for STARD4 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with STARD4: view

Transcripts for STARD4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for STARD4 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 4:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STARD4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d · 5e · 5f ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: - -
SP8: - -
SP9: - - - - - - -
SP10: - - -

Relevant External Links for STARD4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for STARD4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for STARD4 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STARD4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal testis (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for STARD4 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for STARD4 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of STARD4 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STARD4 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for STARD4 Gene

  • Liver(4.4)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STARD4: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for STARD4 Gene

Orthologs for STARD4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for STARD4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STARD4 33 34
  • 99.67 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STARD4 33 34
  • 90.24 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STARD4 33 34
  • 87.48 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Stard4 33 16 34
  • 85.69 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Stard4 33
  • 84.72 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 77 (a)
-- 34
  • 63 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia STARD4 34
  • 45 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STARD4 33 34
  • 72.03 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia STARD4 34
  • 74 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100490743 33
  • 65.17 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.18908 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii zgc:112466 33
  • 60.23 (n)
  • 60 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 25 (a)
-- 34
  • 22 (a)
Species where no ortholog for STARD4 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for STARD4 Gene

Gene Tree for STARD4 (if available)
Gene Tree for STARD4 (if available)

Paralogs for STARD4 Gene

Paralogs for STARD4 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for STARD4 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STARD4: view

Variants for STARD4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for STARD4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000181162 -- 111,502,580(-) G/C intron_variant
rs1000232732 -- 111,505,809(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000365692 -- 111,498,021(-) A/G 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000735976 -- 111,496,640(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000842576 -- 111,499,756(-) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STARD4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv518727 CNV gain 19592680
nsv830449 CNV gain+loss 17160897
nsv950113 CNV duplication 24416366

Variation tolerance for STARD4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 41.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.84; 17.52% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for STARD4 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STARD4 Gene

Disorders for STARD4 Gene

Additional Disease Information for STARD4

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for STARD4 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for STARD4 Gene

Publications for STARD4 Gene

  1. The cholesterol-regulated StarD4 gene encodes a StAR-related lipid transfer protein with two closely related homologues, StarD5 and StarD6. (PMID: 12011452) Soccio RE … Breslow JL (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002) 2 3 4 58
  2. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58
  3. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Differential gene regulation of StarD4 and StarD5 cholesterol transfer proteins. Activation of StarD4 by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and StarD5 by endoplasmic reticulum stress. (PMID: 15760897) Soccio RE … Breslow JL (The Journal of biological chemistry 2005) 3 22 58
  5. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58

Products for STARD4 Gene

Sources for STARD4 Gene

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