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Aliases for STAR Gene

Aliases for STAR Gene

  • Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein 2 3 5
  • StAR Related Lipid Transfer (START) Domain Containing 1 2 3
  • START Domain-Containing Protein 1 3 4
  • Steroidogenic Acute Regulator 2 3
  • STARD1 3 4
  • StAR-Related Lipid Transfer (START) Domain Containing 1 3
  • Testis Secretory Sperm-Binding Protein Li 241mP 3
  • Mitochondrial Steroid Acute Regulatory Protein 3
  • Steroid Acute Regulatory Protein 3
  • START Domain Containing 1 3
  • Cholesterol Trafficker 3
  • STAR 4

External Ids for STAR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for STAR Gene

  • GC08P037424
  • GC08M038129
  • GC08M037742
  • GC08M038018
  • GC08M036535

Summaries for STAR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for STAR Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene plays a key role in the acute regulation of steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone. This protein permits the cleavage of cholesterol into pregnenolone by mediating the transport of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mutations in this gene are a cause of congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), also called lipoid CAH. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for STAR Gene

STAR (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with STAR include Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia and Star Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism and Corticotropin-releasing hormone. GO annotations related to this gene include lipid binding and cholesterol transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is STARD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STAR Gene

  • Plays a key role in steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the metabolism of cholesterol into pregnenolone. Mediates the transfer of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it is cleaved to pregnenolone.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for STAR Gene

Genomics for STAR Gene

Regulatory Elements for STAR Gene

Enhancers for STAR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around STAR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for STAR Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around STAR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for STAR Gene

38,142,700 bp from pter
38,151,265 bp from pter
8,566 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for STAR Gene

Genes around STAR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
STAR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for STAR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for STAR Gene

Proteins for STAR Gene

  • Protein details for STAR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q16396

    Protein attributes for STAR Gene

    285 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    31914 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • May interact with TSPO.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for STAR Gene

neXtProt entry for STAR Gene

Proteomics data for STAR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for STAR Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for STAR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for STAR (STAR)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for STAR Gene

Domains & Families for STAR Gene

Gene Families for STAR Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 START domain.
  • Contains 1 START domain.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with STAR: view

Function for STAR Gene

Molecular function for STAR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
steroidogenic acute regulatory protein,mediating rapid increase in pregnenolone synthesis by tropic hormones,also involved in the activity of the mitochondrial cholesterol metabolizing enzymes,acting on the outside of mitochondria to stimulate the steroidogenesis regulated by CEBPB and repressed by DAX1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Plays a key role in steroid hormone synthesis by enhancing the metabolism of cholesterol into pregnenolone. Mediates the transfer of cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it is cleaved to pregnenolone.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with STAR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for STAR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for STAR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for STAR:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for STAR Gene

Localization for STAR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for STAR Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for STAR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for STAR gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 3
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for STAR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005758 mitochondrial intermembrane space IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STAR: view

Pathways & Interactions for STAR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with STAR: view

Pathways by source for STAR Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for STAR Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for STAR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P49675-STAR_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Steroid metabolism; cholesterol metabolism.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for STAR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006082 organic acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006694 steroid biosynthetic process IEA,TAS 7761400
GO:0006699 bile acid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006700 C21-steroid hormone biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006701 progesterone biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with STAR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for STAR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for STAR Gene

(37) Drugs for STAR Gene - From: ClinicalTrials and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cisplatin Approved Pharma Inhibits DNA synthesis,chemotherapy drug, Platinum 2569
Etoposide Approved Pharma Topo II inhibitor, Topoisomerase 2 Inhibitors, Topoisomerase II inhibitor 1189
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic Pharma 5324
Etoposide phosphate Pharma 1189
Topoisomerase Inhibitors Pharma 4798

(39) Additional Compounds for STAR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with STAR: view

Transcripts for STAR Gene

Unigene Clusters for STAR Gene

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for STAR Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: -
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for STAR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for STAR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for STAR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for STAR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x47.5) and Ovary (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for STAR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (36.4) and Fetal testis (20.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for STAR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for STAR Gene Hs.521535

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for STAR Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in gonads, adrenal cortex and kidney.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with STAR: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for STAR Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

Orthologs for STAR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for STAR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia STAR 35
  • 87.37 (n)
  • 87.72 (a)
  • 88 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia STAR 35
  • 88.89 (n)
  • 91.58 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Star 35
  • 83.57 (n)
  • 87.32 (a)
Star 16
Star 36
  • 87 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia STAR 35
  • 99.3 (n)
  • 99.65 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Star 35
  • 84.74 (n)
  • 88.03 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia STAR 36
  • 83 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 82 (a)
-- 36
  • 79 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves STAR 35
  • 74.79 (n)
  • 72.36 (a)
  • 72 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100492318 35
  • 67.84 (n)
  • 69.12 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia star-A 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii star 35
  • 66.91 (n)
  • 65.09 (a)
star 36
  • 62 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.86 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Start1 36
  • 10 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tag-340 36
  • 10 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for STAR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for STAR Gene

Gene Tree for STAR (if available)
Gene Tree for STAR (if available)

Paralogs for STAR Gene

Paralogs for STAR Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for STAR Gene using alignment to 8 proteins: Pseudogenes for STAR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with STAR: view

Variants for STAR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for STAR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_005627 Adrenal hyperplasia 1 (AH1)
rs1042854 - 38,146,005(-) CATGG(A/C)CACAG reference, missense
VAR_014236 Adrenal hyperplasia 1 (AH1)
VAR_014237 Adrenal hyperplasia 1 (AH1)
VAR_014238 Adrenal hyperplasia 1 (AH1)

Variation tolerance for STAR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 67% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.58; 30.49% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for STAR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for STAR Gene

Disorders for STAR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(16) MalaCards diseases for STAR Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search STAR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Adrenal hyperplasia 1 (AH1) [MIM:201710]: The most severe form of adrenal hyperplasia. It is a condition characterized by onset of profound adrenocortical insufficiency shortly after birth, hyperpigmentation reflecting increased production of pro-opiomelanocortin, elevated plasma renin activity as a consequence of reduced aldosterone synthesis, and male pseudohermaphroditism resulting from deficient fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. Affected individuals are phenotypic females irrespective of gonadal sex, and frequently die in infancy if mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid replacement are not instituted. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10566637, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8948562, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9097960}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for STAR Gene

congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia,with neonatal onset of severe adrenal insufficiency and male pseudohermaphroditism

Relevant External Links for STAR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with STAR: view

Publications for STAR Gene

  1. Human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein: functional activity in COS-1 cells, tissue-specific expression, and mapping of the structural gene to 8p11.2 and a pseudogene to chromosome 13. (PMID: 7761400) Sugawara T. … Stocco D.M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1995) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Mitochondrial cholesterol transporter, StAR, inhibits human THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophage apoptosis. (PMID: 19946756) Bai Q. … Yin L. (Lipids 2010) 3 23
  3. The mechanism of specific binding of free cholesterol by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein: evidence for a role of the C-terminal alpha-helix in the gating of the binding site. (PMID: 18729825) Roostaee A. … LeHoux J.G. (Biosci. Rep. 2009) 3 23
  4. Overexpression of mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, StAR, decreases intracellular lipids and inflammatory factors secretion in macrophages. (PMID: 18945429) Ning Y. … Yin L. (Atherosclerosis 2009) 3 23
  5. Prostaglandin E2 via steroidogenic factor-1 coordinately regulates transcription of steroidogenic genes necessary for estrogen synthesis in endometriosis. (PMID: 19001523) Attar E. … Bulun S.E. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2009) 3 23

Products for STAR Gene

Sources for STAR Gene