Aliases for SST Gene
External Ids for SST Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SST Gene
The hormone somatostatin has active 14 aa and 28 aa forms that are produced by alternate cleavage of the single preproprotein encoded by this gene. Somatostatin is expressed throughout the body and inhibits the release of numerous secondary hormones by binding to high-affinity G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors. This hormone is an important regulator of the endocrine system through its interactions with pituitary growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, and most hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. Somatostatin also affects rates of neurotransmission in the central nervous system and proliferation of both normal and tumorigenic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for SST Gene
SST (Somatostatin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SST include pancreatic somatostatinoma and somatostatinoma. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SST Gene
Somatostatin inhibits the release of somatotropin
Somatostatin (somatotropin release inhibiting factor, SRIF) is an endogenous cyclic polypeptide with two biologically active forms. It is an abundant neuropeptide and has a wide range of physiological effects on neurotransmission, secretion and proliferation. The somatostatin receptor family consists of five subtypes, sst1-5, each differentially distributed throughout the central nervous system and periphery. Endogenous somatostatin receptor ligands include somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. Somatostatin receptors have diverse biological functions due to their varied distribution and the fact that they couple to different second messengers. They couple to adenylyl cyclase, PLC, K+ channels, Ca2+ channels and others. Somatostatin receptors in the hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of growth hormone secretion. Other hormones regulated by somatostatin receptors include thyrotropin and prolactin. Somatostatin has antiproliferative effects via stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity and of the MAPK signaling cascade, with subsequent induction of G1 cell cycle arrest (sst1, sst4, sst5) and promotion of apoptosis (sst2, sst3). It also exhibits antiangiogenic activity via activation of sst3. Somatostatin regulates neuronal activity by regulating AMPA/kainate-mediated responses to glutamate. Different sst subtypes have opposing effects in this system. Somatostatin receptors also play a role in blood glucose homeostasis; sst5 receptors in the pancreatic beta-cells stimulate insulin secretion, whilst sst2 receptors are involved in glucagon secretion from alpha-cells. In addition, sst2 receptors inhibit gastric acid secretion and peristalsis in the jejunum.