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Aliases for SRR Gene

Aliases for SRR Gene

  • Serine Racemase 2 3 5
  • L-Serine Ammonia-Lyase 3 4
  • D-Serine Ammonia-Lyase 3 4
  • L-Serine Dehydratase 3 4
  • D-Serine Dehydratase 3 4
  • EC 4 58
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • ISO1 3
  • ILV1 3

External Ids for SRR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SRR Gene

  • GC17P002513
  • GC17P002158
  • GC17P002413
  • GC17P002153
  • GC17P002102
  • GC17P002212

Summaries for SRR Gene

GeneCards Summary for SRR Gene

SRR (Serine Racemase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SRR include Streptococcal Meningitis and Ataxia With Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and serine and glycine biosynthesis. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and magnesium ion binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

  • Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. D-serine is a key coagonist with glutamate at NMDA receptors. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine.

Additional gene information for SRR Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SRR Gene

Genomics for SRR Gene

Regulatory Elements for SRR Gene

Enhancers for SRR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17H002261 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 67.4 -38.3 -38282 7.3 PKNOX1 FEZF1 ZNF2 ZNF207 FOS ATF7 RUNX3 ZNF491 ZNF592 ZNF624 SRR HNRNPA1P16 SMG6 METTL16 DPH1 ENSG00000263345 TSR1 ENSG00000263050 MNT LOC105371592
GH17H002170 3.4 VISTA FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 34.7 -125.9 -125873 13.4 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ATF1 ARID4B FEZF1 YY1 ZNF121 FOS KLF7 ATF7 SRR ENSG00000236838 HIC1 ENSG00000236457 LOC101927839 OVCA2 SNORD91A SNORD91B SMG6 DPH1
GH17H002211 2.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 44.9 -88.7 -88702 6.1 HDGF PKNOX1 RB1 SIN3A RAD21 ZNF143 ZNF207 FOS ATF7 CREM SRR ENSG00000236838 SGSM2 ENSG00000263050 ENSG00000236457
GH17H002188 2.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 37.6 -111.8 -111822 5.2 RAD21 TCF12 FOS RUNX3 IKZF2 EGR2 CEBPB ZEB2 ELF1 NFIC SRR ENSG00000236838 WDR81 RN7SL624P GC17M002154
GH17H002258 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 48.3 -43.8 -43773 2.9 PKNOX1 BATF ZNF207 ATF7 ETV6 RUNX3 CREM IKZF2 SMARCA5 CBFB SRR SMG6 OVCA2 HIC1 ENSG00000236457 ENSG00000236838 SNORD91B SNORD91A SMYD4 METTL16
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around SRR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for SRR Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000090223 429 2401 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZNF121 GLIS2 ZNF143 KLF7 RUNX3 SP3

Genomic Locations for SRR Gene

Genomic Locations for SRR Gene
21,894 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for SRR Gene

Genes around SRR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SRR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SRR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SRR Gene

Proteins for SRR Gene

  • Protein details for SRR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serine racemase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DTI5
    • Q6IA55

    Protein attributes for SRR Gene

    340 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36566 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SRR Gene

neXtProt entry for SRR Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for SRR Gene


Post-translational modifications for SRR Gene

  • S-nitrosylated, leading to decrease the enzyme activity.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for SRR Gene

Gene Families for SRR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SRR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the serine/threonine dehydratase family.
  • Belongs to the serine/threonine dehydratase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SRR: view

Function for SRR Gene

Molecular function for SRR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=6.5 mM for L-serine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20106978};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-serine = D-serine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
D-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Allosterically activated by magnesium, and possibly also other divalent metal cations. Allosterically activated by ATP, ADP or GTP. Competitively inhibited by malonate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. D-serine is a key coagonist with glutamate at NMDA receptors. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SRR Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SRR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA,IDA 20106978
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0003941 L-serine ammonia-lyase activity IEA,IDA 18812225
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding ISS,IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SRR: view

Animal Models for SRR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SRR:
  • Srr tm1.2Jtc
  • Srr tm1(cre/PGR)Himo

Animal Model Products

miRNA for SRR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SRR

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SRR Gene

Localization for SRR Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SRR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 3
cytosol 2
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
nucleus 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 16314870
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IDA 17880399
GO:0045177 apical part of cell IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SRR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SRR: view

Pathways by source for SRR Gene

1 Cell Signaling Technology pathway for SRR Gene
1 BioSystems pathway for SRR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006563 L-serine metabolic process IEA,IDA 11054547
GO:0007420 brain development IEA --
GO:0007568 aging IEA --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SRR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SRR Gene

(11) Drugs for SRR Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Serine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 0
Ammonia Approved Pharma 0
Pyruvic acid Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
D-serine Experimental Pharma Agonist 0
Pyridoxal Phosphate Nutra Target, cofactor 16

(2) Additional Compounds for SRR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SRR: view

Transcripts for SRR Gene

Unigene Clusters for SRR Gene

Serine racemase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SRR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SRR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SRR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SRR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SRR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (23.2) and Fetal Brain (11.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for SRR Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for SRR Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SRR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SRR Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SRR Gene:

Tissue specificity: Brain: expressed at high levels in hippocampus and corpus callosum, intermediate levels in substantia nigra and caudate, and low levels in amygdala, thalamus, and subthalamic nuclei. Expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SRR Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SRR: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SRR Gene

Orthologs for SRR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SRR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SRR 34 33
  • 99.71 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 91 (a)
-- 34
  • 87 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Srr 33
  • 88.96 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SRR 34 33
  • 88.39 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Srr 16 34 33
  • 88.3 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SRR 34
  • 78 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SRR 34
  • 71 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SRR 33 34
  • 67.39 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia srr 33
  • 66.56 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch73-263o4.3 33
  • 47.37 (n)
SRR (1 of 2) 34
  • 29 (a)
SRR (2 of 2) 34
  • 24 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T01H8.2 35 34
  • 38 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SRY1 33 34 36
  • 50.95 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SR 33
  • 54.88 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0555900 33
  • 51.75 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC320.14 33
  • 52.35 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 30 (a)
-- 34
  • 29 (a)
Species where no ortholog for SRR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SRR Gene

Gene Tree for SRR (if available)
Gene Tree for SRR (if available)

Paralogs for SRR Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for SRR Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SRR: view

No data available for Paralogs for SRR Gene

Variants for SRR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SRR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000166151 -- 2,307,520(+) AATTT(C/T)GGAGG intron-variant
rs1000180220 -- 2,317,729(+) TGCAC(A/G)TGAGA intron-variant
rs1000210601 -- 2,322,271(+) AGCAG(-/T)TTACA intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B
rs1000340736 -- 2,313,745(+) ACAAC(-/A)AAAAA intron-variant
rs1000424070 -- 2,318,084(+) TGTGG(A/G)AAGTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SRR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv960041 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv833336 CNV loss 17160897
nsv574224 CNV gain 21841781
nsv469765 CNV loss 16826518
nsv1067416 CNV loss 25217958
esv1317366 CNV insertion 17803354

Variation tolerance for SRR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 20.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.32; 7.12% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for SRR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

Disorders for SRR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for SRR Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
streptococcal meningitis
ataxia with isolated vitamin e deficiency
  • familial isolated deficiency of vitamin e
serine deficiency
  • schizophrenia 12
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SRR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for SRR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SRR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SRR Gene

Publications for SRR Gene

  1. A genetic variant of the serine racemase gene is associated with schizophrenia. (PMID: 17067558) Morita Y … Kuroda S (Biological psychiatry 2007) 2 3 22 45 60
  2. Characterization and localization of a human serine racemase. (PMID: 15193426) Xia M … Connolly TM (Brain research. Molecular brain research 2004) 2 3 4 22 60
  3. Human serine racemase: moleular cloning, genomic organization and functional analysis. (PMID: 11054547) De Miranda J … Wolosker H (Gene 2000) 2 3 4 22 60
  4. The structure of mammalian serine racemase: evidence for conformational changes upon inhibitor binding. (PMID: 20106978) Smith MA … Barker J (The Journal of biological chemistry 2010) 3 4 22 60
  5. A genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility variants for type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese. (PMID: 20174558) Tsai FJ … Wu JY (PLoS genetics 2010) 3 22 45 60

Products for SRR Gene

Sources for SRR Gene

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