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Aliases for SRR Gene

Aliases for SRR Gene

  • Serine Racemase 2 3 5
  • L-Serine Ammonia-Lyase 3 4
  • D-Serine Ammonia-Lyase 3 4
  • L-Serine Dehydratase 3 4
  • D-Serine Dehydratase 3 4
  • EC 5.1.1.18 4 61
  • EC 4.3.1.18 4
  • EC 4.3.1.17 4
  • ISO1 3
  • ILV1 3

External Ids for SRR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SRR Gene

  • GC17P002513
  • GC17P002158
  • GC17P002413
  • GC17P002153
  • GC17P002102
  • GC17P002212

Summaries for SRR Gene

GeneCards Summary for SRR Gene

SRR (Serine Racemase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SRR include Streptococcal Meningitis and Latent Syphilis. Among its related pathways are serine and glycine biosynthesis and Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and magnesium ion binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

  • Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. D-serine is a key coagonist with glutamate at NMDA receptors. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine.

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SRR Gene

Genomics for SRR Gene

Regulatory Elements for SRR Gene

Enhancers for SRR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around SRR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for SRR Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for SRR Gene

Chromosome:
17
Start:
2,303,371 bp from pter
End:
2,325,264 bp from pter
Size:
21,894 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for SRR Gene

Genes around SRR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SRR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SRR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SRR Gene

Proteins for SRR Gene

  • Protein details for SRR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9GZT4-SRR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine racemase
    Protein Accession:
    Q9GZT4
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DTI5
    • Q6IA55

    Protein attributes for SRR Gene

    Size:
    340 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36566 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SRR Gene

neXtProt entry for SRR Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for SRR Gene

Post-translational modifications for SRR Gene

  • S-nitrosylated, leading to decrease the enzyme activity.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for SRR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SRR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9GZT4

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SRR_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the serine/threonine dehydratase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the serine/threonine dehydratase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SRR: view

No data available for Gene Families for SRR Gene

Function for SRR Gene

Molecular function for SRR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=6.5 mM for L-serine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20106978};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-serine = D-serine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
D-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Allosterically activated by magnesium, and possibly also other divalent metal cations. Allosterically activated by ATP, ADP or GTP. Competitively inhibited by malonate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. D-serine is a key coagonist with glutamate at NMDA receptors. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SRR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IDA 20106978
GO:0003941 L-serine ammonia-lyase activity IDA 18812225
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA,ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA --
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA,ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SRR: view

Animal Models for SRR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SRR:
  • Srr tm1(cre/PGR)Himo
  • Srr tm1.2Jtc

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SRR

CRISPR Products

miRNA for SRR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SRR

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SRR Gene

Localization for SRR Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for SRR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SRR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 3
chloroplast 2
cytosol 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 16314870
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IDA 17880399
GO:0045177 apical part of cell IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SRR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SRR: view

Pathways by source for SRR Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for SRR Gene
1 KEGG pathway for SRR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006563 L-serine metabolic process IEA,IDA 11054547
GO:0007420 brain development IEA,IBA --
GO:0007568 aging IEA --
GO:0009069 serine family amino acid metabolic process IEA,ISS --
GO:0014070 response to organic cyclic compound IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SRR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SRR Gene

(10) Drugs for SRR Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Serine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target Weak endogenous glycine receptor agonist 0
Pyruvic acid Approved Nutra 0
D-serine Experimental Pharma Agonist 0
Pyridoxal Phosphate Nutra Target, cofactor 14

(3) Additional Compounds for SRR Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Ammonia
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammoniak
7664-41-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SRR: view

Transcripts for SRR Gene

Unigene Clusters for SRR Gene

Serine racemase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SRR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SRR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
SRR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
SRR

Expression for SRR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SRR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SRR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (23.2) and Fetal Brain (11.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for SRR Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for SRR Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SRR Gene:

SRR

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SRR Gene:

Hs.461954

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SRR Gene:

Q9GZT4-SRR_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Brain: expressed at high levels in hippocampus and corpus callosum, intermediate levels in substantia nigra and caudate, and low levels in amygdala, thalamus, and subthalamic nuclei. Expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SRR: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for SRR Gene

Orthologs for SRR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SRR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SRR 34
  • 88.39 (n)
  • 85.59 (a)
SRR 35
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Srr 34
  • 88.3 (n)
  • 89.97 (a)
Srr 16
Srr 35
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SRR 34
  • 99.71 (n)
  • 99.12 (a)
SRR 35
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Srr 34
  • 88.96 (n)
  • 91.57 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 35
  • 91 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 87 (a)
OneToMany
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SRR 35
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SRR 35
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SRR 34
  • 67.39 (n)
  • 71.03 (a)
SRR 35
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia srr 34
  • 66.56 (n)
  • 66.87 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch73-263o4.3 34
  • 47.37 (n)
  • 36.09 (a)
SRR (1 of 2) 35
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
SRR (2 of 2) 35
  • 24 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T01H8.2 36
  • 38 (a)
T01H8.2 35
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SRY1 34
  • 50.95 (n)
  • 42.09 (a)
SRY1 35
  • 40 (a)
OneToOne
SRY1 37
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SR 34
  • 54.88 (n)
  • 51.59 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0555900 34
  • 51.75 (n)
  • 48.25 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC320.14 34
  • 52.35 (n)
  • 41.03 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
-- 35
  • 29 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for SRR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SRR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for SRR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for SRR (if available)

Paralogs for SRR Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for SRR Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SRR: view

No data available for Paralogs for SRR Gene

Variants for SRR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SRR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs505744 -- 2,308,204(+) AAATC(A/C)TATAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs510151 -- 2,308,623(+) GGAGG(A/C)CGAGG intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs364584 -- 2,308,122(-) TCCAA(G/T)ATTTT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs391300 -- 2,312,964(-) gcaac(A/G)taagc intron-variant
rs393362 -- 2,308,049(-) TTTTT(A/T)AAAAA intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SRR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1317366 CNV insertion 17803354
nsv1067416 CNV loss 25217958
nsv469765 CNV loss 16826518
nsv574224 CNV gain 21841781
nsv833336 CNV loss 17160897
nsv960041 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for SRR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 20.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.32; 7.12% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for SRR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SRR
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
SRR

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

Disorders for SRR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for SRR Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
streptococcal meningitis
latent syphilis
  • syphilis, latent
serine deficiency
schizophrenia
  • schizophrenia 12
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SRR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for SRR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
SRR
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
SRR
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
SRR
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SRR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SRR Gene

Publications for SRR Gene

  1. A genetic variant of the serine racemase gene is associated with schizophrenia. (PMID: 17067558) Morita Y. … Kuroda S. (Biol. Psychiatry 2007) 2 3 22 46 65
  2. Characterization and localization of a human serine racemase. (PMID: 15193426) Xia M. … Connolly T.M. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 2004) 2 3 4 22 65
  3. Human serine racemase: molecular cloning, genomic organization and functional expression. (PMID: 11054547) De Miranda J. … Wolosker H. (Gene 2000) 2 3 4 22 65
  4. The structure of mammalian serine racemase: evidence for conformational changes upon inhibitor binding. (PMID: 20106978) Smith M.A. … Barker J. (J. Biol. Chem. 2010) 3 4 22 65
  5. A genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility variants for type 2 diabetes in Han Chinese. (PMID: 20174558) Tsai F.J. … Wu J.Y. (PLoS Genet. 2010) 3 22 46 65

Products for SRR Gene

Sources for SRR Gene

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