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Aliases for SRR Gene

Aliases for SRR Gene

  • Serine Racemase 2 3
  • D-Serine Ammonia-Lyase 3 4
  • L-Serine Ammonia-Lyase 3 4
  • D-Serine Dehydratase 3 4
  • L-Serine Dehydratase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • ISO1 3
  • ILV1 3

External Ids for SRR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SRR Gene

  • GC17P002513
  • GC17P002158
  • GC17P002413
  • GC17P002153
  • GC17P002102
  • GC17P002212

Summaries for SRR Gene

GeneCards Summary for SRR Gene

SRR (Serine Racemase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SRR include serine deficiency and miller-dieker syndrome. Among its related pathways are Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and magnesium ion binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

  • Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. D-serine is a key coagonist with glutamate at NMDA receptors. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine.

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SRR Gene

Genomics for SRR Gene

Regulatory Elements for SRR Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for SRR Gene

2,303,371 bp from pter
2,325,260 bp from pter
21,890 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for SRR Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for SRR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SRR Gene

Proteins for SRR Gene

  • Protein details for SRR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serine racemase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DTI5
    • Q6IA55

    Protein attributes for SRR Gene

    340 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36566 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SRR Gene

neXtProt entry for SRR Gene

Proteomics data for SRR Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for SRR Gene

Post-translational modifications for SRR Gene

  • S-nitrosylated, leading to decrease the enzyme activity.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains for SRR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SRR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9GZT4
  • Belongs to the serine/threonine dehydratase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SRR: view

No data available for Gene Families for SRR Gene

Function for SRR Gene

Molecular function for SRR Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=6.5 mM for L-serine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20106978};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: L-serine = D-serine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: L-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: D-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Allosterically activated by magnesium, and possibly also other divalent metal cations. Allosterically activated by ATP, ADP or GTP. Competitively inhibited by malonate
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Catalyzes the synthesis of D-serine from L-serine. D-serine is a key coagonist with glutamate at NMDA receptors. Has dehydratase activity towards both L-serine and D-serine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SRR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IDA 20106978
GO:0003941 L-serine ammonia-lyase activity IDA 18812225
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding ISS --
GO:0005515 protein binding --
GO:0005524 ATP binding ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SRR: view

Animal Models for SRR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SRR:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SRR TF0716 Srr

No data available for miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for SRR Gene

Localization for SRR Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SRR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SRR gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
lysosome 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 16314870
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IDA 17880399
GO:0045177 apical part of cell IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

Pathways for SRR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SRR: view

Pathways by source for SRR Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for SRR Gene
1 KEGG pathway for SRR Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SRR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006520 cellular amino acid metabolic process --
GO:0006563 L-serine metabolic process IDA 11054547
GO:0007420 brain development IBA --
GO:0007568 aging IEA --
GO:0009069 serine family amino acid metabolic process ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRR: view

Compounds for SRR Gene

(6) ApexBio Compounds for SRR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AEBSF.HCl Irreversible serine protease inhibitor. [30827-99-7]
Aprotinin Aprotinin, a naturally occurring serine protease inhibitor. [9087-70-1]
BCX 1470 serine protease inhibitor. [217099-43-9]
Leupeptin, Microbial inhibitor of serine and cysteine proteases [103476-89-7]
Nafamostat Mesylate(FUT-175) inhibitor of serine protease. [82956-11-4]
PMSF irreversible inhibitor of serine proteinases. [329-98-6]

(3) HMDB Compounds for SRR Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • (2R)-2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoate
  • (-)-Serine
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
  • Apolon B6

(2) Drugbank Compounds for SRR Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • (-)-Serine
56-45-1 target
Pyridoxal Phosphate
  • Codecarboxylase
54-47-7 target cofactor

(8) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SRR Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
nmda 79 16
serine 78.6 107
glutamate 67 5
pyridoxal 5-phosphate 58.8 1
pyruvate 36 4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SRR: view

Transcripts for SRR Gene

Unigene Clusters for SRR Gene

Serine racemase:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for SRR

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SRR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SRR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SRR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SRR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for SRR Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SRR Gene Hs.461954

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SRR Gene

Tissue specificity: Brain: expressed at high levels in hippocampus and corpus callosum, intermediate levels in substantia nigra and caudate, and low levels in amygdala, thalamus, and subthalamic nuclei. Expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with SRR: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for SRR Gene

Orthologs for SRR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SRR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SRR 35
  • 99.71 (n)
  • 99.12 (a)
SRR 36
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SRR 35
  • 88.39 (n)
  • 85.59 (a)
SRR 36
  • 86 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 91 (a)
-- 36
  • 87 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Srr 35
  • 88.3 (n)
  • 89.97 (a)
Srr 16
Srr 36
  • 90 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SRR 36
  • 71 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SRR 36
  • 78 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Srr 35
  • 88.96 (n)
  • 91.57 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SRR 35
  • 67.39 (n)
  • 71.03 (a)
SRR 36
  • 67 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia srr 35
  • 66.56 (n)
  • 66.87 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch73-263o4.3 35
  • 47.37 (n)
  • 36.09 (a)
SRR (1 of 2) 36
  • 29 (a)
SRR (2 of 2) 36
  • 24 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T01H8.2 36
  • 38 (a)
T01H8.2 37
  • 38 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SRY1 35
  • 50.95 (n)
  • 42.09 (a)
SRY1 36
  • 40 (a)
SRY1 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SR 35
  • 54.88 (n)
  • 51.59 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0555900 35
  • 51.75 (n)
  • 48.25 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC320.14 35
  • 52.35 (n)
  • 41.03 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 30 (a)
-- 36
  • 29 (a)
Species with no ortholog for SRR:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SRR Gene

Gene Tree for SRR (if available)
Gene Tree for SRR (if available)

Paralogs for SRR Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for SRR Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SRR: view

No data available for Paralogs for SRR Gene

Variants for SRR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SRR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs364584 -- 2,308,122(-) TCCAA(G/T)ATTTT intron-variant
rs391300 -- 2,312,964(-) gcaac(A/G)taagc intron-variant
rs393362 -- 2,308,049(-) TTTTT(A/T)AAAAA intron-variant
rs505744 -- 2,308,204(+) AAATC(A/C)TATAA intron-variant
rs510151 -- 2,308,623(+) GGAGG(A/C)CGAGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SRR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv833336 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv469765 CNV Complex 16826518
esv1317366 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv907529 CNV Gain 21882294

Relevant External Links for SRR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

Disorders for SRR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (4) Diseases for SRR Gene including...

Search for SRR Gene in MalaCards »

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for SRR Gene

(5) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for SRR Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
schizophrenia 49.9 16
neurodegenerative diseases 28.9 1
glioblastoma 22.8 3
alzheimers disease 14.4 1
stroke 0 2

Relevant External Links for SRR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SRR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRR Gene

Publications for SRR Gene

  1. Characterization and localization of a human serine racemase. (PMID: 15193426) Xia M. … Connolly T.M. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 2004) 2 3 4 23
  2. A genetic variant of the serine racemase gene is associated with schizophrenia. (PMID: 17067558) Morita Y. … Kuroda S. (Biol. Psychiatry 2007) 2 3 23 48
  3. No association between the serine racemase gene (SRR) and bipolar disorder in a German case-control sample. (PMID: 17413456) Schirmbeck F. … Rietschel M. (Psychiatr. Genet. 2007) 3 23 48
  4. Identification of multiple serine racemase (SRR) mRNA isoforms and genetic analyses of SRR and DAO in schizophrenia and D-serine levels. (PMID: 15953485) Yamada K. … Yoshikawa T. (Biol. Psychiatry 2005) 2 3 23
  5. Human serine racemase: molecular cloning, genomic organization and functional expression. (PMID: 11054547) De Miranda J. … Wolosker H. (Gene 2000) 3 4 23

Products for SRR Gene

Sources for SRR Gene

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