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Aliases for SRM Gene

Aliases for SRM Gene

  • Spermidine Synthase 2 3
  • SPS1 3 4 6
  • Putrescine Aminopropyltransferase 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • SRML1 3 4
  • SPDSY 3 4
  • Spermidine Synthase-1 3
  • EC 2.5.1 63
  • PAPT 3

External Ids for SRM Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SRM Gene

  • SRML1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SRM Gene

  • GC01M011075
  • GC01M010958
  • GC01M010719
  • GC01M010824
  • GC01M011048
  • GC01M011037
  • GC01M010266

Summaries for SRM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SRM Gene

  • The polyamines putrescine, spermine, and spermidine are ubiquitous polycationic mediators of cell growth and differentiation. Spermidine synthase is one of four enzymes in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway and carries out the final step of spermidine biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of putrescine to spermidine using decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as the cofactor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for SRM Gene

SRM (Spermidine Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SRM include sleeping sickness and trypanosomiasis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arginine and proline metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and spermidine synthase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

  • Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SRM Gene

Genomics for SRM Gene

Regulatory Elements for SRM Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for SRM Gene

11,054,584 bp from pter
11,060,034 bp from pter
5,451 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SRM Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for SRM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SRM Gene

Proteins for SRM Gene

  • Protein details for SRM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Spermidine synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1AKP9
    • Q15511

    Protein attributes for SRM Gene

    302 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33825 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer or homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SRM Gene

neXtProt entry for SRM Gene

Proteomics data for SRM Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for SRM Gene

Post-translational modifications for SRM Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys96, Lys135, and Lys277
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for SRM Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains for SRM Gene

Protein Domains for SRM Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SRM Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P19623
  • Contains 1 PABS (polyamine biosynthesis) domain.
  • Belongs to the spermidine/spermine synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SRM: view

No data available for Gene Families for SRM Gene

Function for SRM Gene

Molecular function for SRM Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: spermidine synthetase,polyamine biosynthesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=20 uM for putrescine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17585781}; KM=0.9 uM for S-adenosylmethioninamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17585781};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + putrescine = 5-S-methyl-5-thioadenosine + spermidine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: The activity is thought to be regulated mainly by the availability of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SRM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0004766 spermidine synthase activity IDA 17585781
GO:0016740 transferase activity --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IDA 17585781
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for SRM

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Phenotypes , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for SRM Gene

Localization for SRM Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SRM Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SRM gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 2
chloroplast 1
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

Pathways for SRM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SRM: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P19623-SPEE_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amine and polyamine biosynthesis; spermidine biosynthesis; spermidine from putrescine: step 1/1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006595 polyamine metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0008295 spermidine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0034641 cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS --
GO:0044281 small molecule metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view

Compounds for SRM Gene

(6) HMDB Compounds for SRM Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-5-S-methyl-5-thio-beta-D-Ribofuranose
  • 1,5-Diaminopentane
  • 1,4-Butanediamine
  • (5-deoxy-5-adenosyl)(3-aminopropyl) methylsulfonium salt
  • 1,5,10-Triazadecane

(1) Drugbank Compounds for SRM Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • Acylcarnitine
29908-03-0 enzyme substrate

(13) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SRM Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
adodato 93.7 1
spermidine 93.3 92
1-aminooxy-3-aminopropane 89.7 1
s-adenosylmethionine 85.5 13
putrescine 84.9 5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SRM: view

Transcripts for SRM Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SRM Gene

Unigene Clusters for SRM Gene

Spermidine synthase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for SRM

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SRM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for SRM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SRM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SRM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for SRM Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SRM Gene Hs.76244

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with SRM: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SRM Gene

Orthologs for SRM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SRM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SRM 35
  • 99.23 (n)
  • 99.67 (a)
SRM 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SRM 35
  • 90.73 (n)
  • 94.37 (a)
SRM 36
  • 93 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SRM 35
  • 90.55 (n)
  • 93.93 (a)
SRM 36
  • 94 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Srm 35
  • 88.85 (n)
  • 94.7 (a)
Srm 16
Srm 36
  • 95 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SRM 36
  • 61 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SRM 36
  • 76 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100912604 35
  • 89.18 (n)
  • 95.36 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SRM 35
  • 80.95 (n)
  • 89.05 (a)
SRM 36
  • 89 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SRM 36
  • 86 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.25559 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia srm 35
  • 74.86 (n)
  • 83.62 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii srm 35
  • 72.16 (n)
  • 80 (a)
srm 36
  • 79 (a)
zgc63600 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011126 35
  • 62.49 (n)
  • 57.84 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta SpdS 35
  • 62.86 (n)
  • 56.07 (a)
SpdS 36
  • 55 (a)
CG8327 37
  • 55 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea spds-1 35
  • 58.7 (n)
  • 57.68 (a)
spds-1 36
  • 47 (a)
Y46G5A.19 37
  • 48 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL340W 35
  • 62.44 (n)
  • 55.28 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SPE3 35
  • 57.28 (n)
  • 58.1 (a)
SPE3 36
  • 56 (a)
SPE3 38
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B09372g 35
  • 58.57 (n)
  • 58.1 (a)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.2088 35
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.2891 35
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SPDS1 35
  • 55.48 (n)
  • 52.86 (a)
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6371 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.16536 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.4599 35
Os07g0408700 35
  • 54.44 (n)
  • 50.52 (a)
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.24743 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06727 35
  • 66.55 (n)
  • 60.07 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBC12C2.07c 35
  • 57.93 (n)
  • 56.29 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2167 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 58 (a)
Species with no ortholog for SRM:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for SRM Gene

Gene Tree for SRM (if available)
Gene Tree for SRM (if available)

Paralogs for SRM Gene Pseudogenes for SRM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SRM: view

No data available for Paralogs for SRM Gene

Variants for SRM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SRM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs13616 -- 11,054,883(-) CAGGC(A/C)CTGAA synonymous-codon, reference
rs743576 -- 11,059,120(+) GGCCT(C/T)GCTAG intron-variant
rs743577 -- 11,059,078(+) GCCGC(A/G)TCAGT intron-variant
rs1049932 - 11,056,694(-) CGAAG(C/G)TGACC reference, missense
rs1076859 -- 11,059,536(-) GAGCC(A/C)GAGGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SRM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv832425 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv137n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv871818 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv870986 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for SRM Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

Disorders for SRM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (4) Diseases for SRM Gene including...

Search for SRM Gene in MalaCards »

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for SRM Gene

(7) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for SRM Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
trypanosomiasis african 67.4 1
leishmaniasis 32.4 1
chagas disease 30.2 1
malaria 23.4 3
lymphoma b-cell 20 2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SRM: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

Publications for SRM Gene

  1. Human spermidine synthase: cloning and primary structure. (PMID: 2344393) Wahlfors J. … Eloranta T. (DNA Cell Biol. 1990) 2 3 4 23
  2. Human spermidine synthase gene: structure and chromosomal localization. (PMID: 2069720) Myoehaenen S. … Jaenne J. (DNA Cell Biol. 1991) 3 4 23
  3. Structure and mechanism of spermidine synthases. (PMID: 17585781) Wu H. … Plotnikov A.N. (Biochemistry 2007) 3 4 23
  4. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells. (PMID: 9020892) Nishikawa Y. … Carr B.I. (Biochem. J. 1997) 3 23
  5. Regulation of the human spermidine synthase mRNA translation by its 5'-untranslated region. (PMID: 7774716) Kauppinen L. (FEBS Lett. 1995) 3 23

Products for SRM Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for SRM

Sources for SRM Gene

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