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Aliases for SRM Gene

Aliases for SRM Gene

  • Spermidine Synthase 2 3 5
  • Putrescine Aminopropyltransferase 3 4
  • EC 2.5.1.16 4 61
  • SRML1 3 4
  • SPDSY 3 4
  • SPS1 3 4
  • Spermidine Synthase-1 3
  • EC 2.5.1 61
  • PAPT 3

External Ids for SRM Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for SRM Gene

  • SRML1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SRM Gene

  • GC01M011075
  • GC01M010958
  • GC01M010719
  • GC01M010824
  • GC01M011048
  • GC01M011037
  • GC01M010266

Summaries for SRM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SRM Gene

  • The polyamines putrescine, spermine, and spermidine are ubiquitous polycationic mediators of cell growth and differentiation. Spermidine synthase is one of four enzymes in the polyamine-biosynthetic pathway and carries out the final step of spermidine biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of putrescine to spermidine using decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as the cofactor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for SRM Gene

SRM (Spermidine Synthase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SRM include Sleeping Sickness and Leishmaniasis. Among its related pathways are Glutathione metabolism and Arginine and proline metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and spermidine synthase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

  • Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SRM Gene

Genomics for SRM Gene

Regulatory Elements for SRM Gene

Enhancers for SRM Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH01G010429 1.1 ENCODE 6 +629.4 629416 2.1 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 PGD ENSG00000271989 ENSG00000226849 EXOSC10 CENPS SRM CENPS-CORT
GH01G011245 0.5 ENCODE 10.9 -186.2 -186158 2.0 ZNF121 MNT ZNF507 MTOR SRM MTOR-AS1 RNU6-537P C1orf127 ENSG00000226849 RPL39P6
GH01G011052 0.8 ENCODE 0.4 +7.0 6976 0.2 CTCF AGO1 MAX POLR2A ZBTB48 PATZ1 KDM5B ZBTB10 RNF2 ZBTB2 ENSG00000226849 SRM MASP2
GH01G011053 0.7 ENCODE 0.4 +6.1 6056 0.2 SAP130 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF7 ZNF121 POLR2A ZSCAN5C ZNF143 KLF13 MIER1 MASP2 SRM
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around SRM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for SRM Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000001374 134 2201 CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZNF143 FOS KLF13 SP3 MXD4

Genomic Location for SRM Gene

Chromosome:
1
Start:
11,054,584 bp from pter
End:
11,060,034 bp from pter
Size:
5,451 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for SRM Gene

Genes around SRM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SRM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SRM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SRM Gene

Proteins for SRM Gene

  • Protein details for SRM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P19623-SPEE_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Spermidine synthase
    Protein Accession:
    P19623
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1AKP9
    • Q15511

    Protein attributes for SRM Gene

    Size:
    302 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    33825 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer or homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SRM Gene

neXtProt entry for SRM Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for SRM Gene

P19623:
  • GGGDGGVLREV
  • IGGGDGG
  • VLIIGGGDG
  • IPTYPSG
  • IGFMLCS

Post-translational modifications for SRM Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys96, Lys135, and Lys277
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for SRM Gene

Domains & Families for SRM Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SRM Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P19623

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SPEE_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the spermidine/spermine synthase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the spermidine/spermine synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SRM: view

No data available for Gene Families for SRM Gene

Function for SRM Gene

Molecular function for SRM Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
spermidine synthetase,polyamine biosynthesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=20 uM for putrescine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17585781}; KM=0.9 uM for S-adenosylmethioninamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17585781};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine + putrescine = 5-S-methyl-5-thioadenosine + spermidine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
The activity is thought to be regulated mainly by the availability of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for SRM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004766 spermidine synthase activity TAS --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21044950
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 17585781
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IDA 17585781
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SRM: view

Animal Model Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SRM
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for SRM

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SRM Gene

Localization for SRM Gene

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SRM gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
extracellular 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SRM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SRM: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P19623-SPEE_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Amine and polyamine biosynthesis; spermidine biosynthesis; spermidine from putrescine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SRM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006595 polyamine metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006596 polyamine biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0008295 spermidine biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SRM: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SRM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SRM Gene

(7) Drugs for SRM Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
S-Adenosylmethionine Approved Nutra Enzyme, substrate 0
spermine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist 0
putrescine Experimental Pharma Antagonist, Pore Blocker 0
spermidine Experimental Pharma Antagonist, Pore Blocker 0

(10) Additional Compounds for SRM Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
5'-Methylthioadenosine
  • 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-5-S-methyl-5-thio-beta-D-Ribofuranose
  • 1-(6-Amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-5-S-methyl-5-thio-beta-delta-Ribofuranose
  • 5'-(Methylthio)-5'-deoxyadenosine
  • 5'-(Methylthio)adenosine
  • 5'-Deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine
2457-80-9
Aminopropylcadaverine
  • 3-Apcad
  • N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,5-Pentanediamine
  • N-(3-Aminopropyl)cadaverine
  • N-3-Aminopropyl-1,5-diaminopentane
56-19-9
cadaverine
  • 1,5-Diaminopentane
  • 1,5-Diaminopentane dihydrochloride
  • 1,5-Pentamethylenediamine
  • 1,5-Pentanediamine
  • Cadaverin
462-94-2
S-Adenosylmethioninamine
  • (5-deoxy-5-adenosyl)(3-aminopropyl) methylsulfonium salt
  • DAdoMet
  • Decarboxylated AdoMet
  • Decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine
  • Decarboxylated SAM
22365-13-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SRM: view

Transcripts for SRM Gene

Unigene Clusters for SRM Gene

Spermidine synthase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SRM
  • Applied Biological Materials Clones for SRM

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SRM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: -
SP5:
SP6:

Relevant External Links for SRM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
SRM
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
SRM

Expression for SRM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SRM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SRM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow stromal cell (8.2), Oral epithelium (7.4), and Lymph node (7.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for SRM Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for SRM Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SRM Gene:

SRM

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SRM Gene:

Hs.76244

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SRM Gene

  • Skin(4.6)
  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Muscle(2.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SRM: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SRM Gene

Orthologs for SRM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SRM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SRM 34 35
  • 99.23 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SRM 34 35
  • 90.73 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SRM 34 35
  • 90.55 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100912604 34
  • 89.18 (n)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Srm 34 16 35
  • 88.85 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SRM 35
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SRM 35
  • 61 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SRM 34 35
  • 80.95 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SRM 35
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia srm 34
  • 74.86 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.25559 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii srm 34 35
  • 72.16 (n)
zgc63600 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta SpdS 34 35
  • 62.86 (n)
CG8327 36
  • 55 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011126 34
  • 62.49 (n)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea spds-1 34 35
  • 58.7 (n)
Y46G5A.19 36
  • 48 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADL340W 34
  • 62.44 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B09372g 34
  • 58.57 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SPE3 34 35 37
  • 57.28 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SPDS1 34
  • 55.48 (n)
soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.2891 34
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.2088 34
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0408700 34
  • 54.44 (n)
Os.4599 34
barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6371 34
wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.24743 34
corn
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.16536 34
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06727 34
  • 66.55 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPBC12C2.07c 34
  • 57.93 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2167 34
Species where no ortholog for SRM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for SRM Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for SRM (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for SRM (if available)

Paralogs for SRM Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for SRM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SRM: view

No data available for Paralogs for SRM Gene

Variants for SRM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SRM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000416974 -- 11,055,970(+) CCTGC(C/T)CCACC intron-variant
rs1001030484 -- 11,057,272(+) TACCC(A/C/G)CTCCT intron-variant
rs1001310289 -- 11,061,461(+) TCTCA(A/C)AAAAA upstream-variant-2KB
rs1001482683 -- 11,057,471(+) TTTTT(A/T)TTTTT intron-variant
rs1001509124 -- 11,056,881(+) TTTTT(-/TTA)TTATT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SRM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv474577 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv545407 CNV gain 21841781
nsv832425 CNV loss 17160897
nsv953456 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for SRM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 32.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.49; 10.73% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for SRM Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
SRM

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SRM Gene

Disorders for SRM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for SRM Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
sleeping sickness
  • african sleeping sickness
leishmaniasis
  • post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis
malaria
  • malaria, severe
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SRM in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for SRM

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
SRM
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SRM: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SRM Gene

Publications for SRM Gene

  1. Human spermidine synthase: cloning and primary structure. (PMID: 2344393) Wahlfors J. … Eloranta T. (DNA Cell Biol. 1990) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Structure and mechanism of spermidine synthases. (PMID: 17585781) Wu H. … Plotnikov A.N. (Biochemistry 2007) 3 4 22 64
  3. Human spermidine synthase gene: structure and chromosomal localization. (PMID: 2069720) Myoehaenen S. … Jaenne J. (DNA Cell Biol. 1991) 3 4 22 64
  4. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  5. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells. (PMID: 9020892) Nishikawa Y. … Carr B.I. (Biochem. J. 1997) 3 22 64

Products for SRM Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for SRM

Sources for SRM Gene

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