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Aliases for SPTA1 Gene

Aliases for SPTA1 Gene

  • Spectrin, Alpha, Erythrocytic 1 2 3
  • Spectrin, Alpha, Erythrocytic 1 (Elliptocytosis 2) 2 3
  • Erythroid Alpha-Spectrin 3 4
  • Elliptocytosis 2 2 3
  • SPH3 3 6
  • SPTA 3 4
  • HPP 3 6
  • EL2 3 6
  • HS3 3 6
  • Spectrin Alpha Chain, Erythrocytic 1 3
  • Spectrin Alpha Chain, Erythrocyte 3
  • Alpha-I Spectrin 3

External Ids for SPTA1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SPTA1 Gene

  • GC01M156372
  • GC01M154312
  • GC01M155358
  • GC01M155797
  • GC01M155393
  • GC01M156846
  • GC01M129938

Summaries for SPTA1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SPTA1 Gene

  • Spectrin is an actin crosslinking and molecular scaffold protein that links the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton, and functions in the determination of cell shape, arrangement of transmembrane proteins, and organization of organelles. It is a tetramer made up of alpha-beta dimers linked in a head-to-head arrangement. This gene is one member of a family of alpha-spectrin genes. The encoded protein is primarily composed of 22 spectrin repeats which are involved in dimer formation. It forms weaker tetramer interactions than non-erythrocytic alpha spectrin, which may increase the plasma membrane elasticity and deformability of red blood cells. Mutations in this gene result in a variety of hereditary red blood cell disorders, including elliptocytosis type 2, pyropoikilocytosis, and spherocytic hemolytic anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for SPTA1 Gene

SPTA1 (Spectrin, Alpha, Erythrocytic 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SPTA1 include spherocytosis, type 3 and pyropoikilocytosis. Among its related pathways are L1CAM interactions and L1CAM interactions. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is ACTN2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SPTA1 Gene

  • Spectrin is the major constituent of the cytoskeletal network underlying the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It associates with band 4.1 and actin to form the cytoskeletal superstructure of the erythrocyte plasma membrane

Gene Wiki entry for SPTA1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SPTA1 Gene

Genomics for SPTA1 Gene

Genomic Location for SPTA1 Gene

158,610,706 bp from pter
158,686,716 bp from pter
76,011 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SPTA1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for SPTA1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SPTA1 Gene

Proteins for SPTA1 Gene

  • Protein details for SPTA1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Spectrin alpha chain, erythrocytic 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15514
    • Q5VYL1
    • Q5VYL2
    • Q6LDY5

    Protein attributes for SPTA1 Gene

    2419 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    280014 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Composed of non-homologous chains, alpha and beta, which aggregate side-to-side in an antiparallel fashion to form dimers, tetramers, and higher polymers. Interacts with FASLG.
    • This complex is anchored to the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane via another protein, ankyrin, which binds to beta-spectrin and mediates the binding of the whole complex to a transmembrane protein band 3. The interaction of erythrocyte spectrin with other proteins through specific binding domains lead to the formation of an extensive subplasmalemmal meshwork which is thought to be responsible for the maintenance of the biconcave shape of human erythrocytes, for the regulation of plasma membrane components and for the maintenance of the lipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SPTA1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for SPTA1 Gene


neXtProt entry for SPTA1 Gene

Proteomics data for SPTA1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for SPTA1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys1803
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for SPTA1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SPTA1 Gene

Domains for SPTA1 Gene

Gene Families for SPTA1 Gene

  • EFHAND :EF-hand domain containing

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P02549
  • Contains 3 EF-hand domains.
  • Contains 1 SH3 domain.
  • Belongs to the spectrin family.
  • Contains 21 spectrin repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SPTA1: view

Function for SPTA1 Gene

Molecular function for SPTA1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: spectrin,alpha,erythrocytic 1,intermediate filament associated protein (IFAP,type III),dimerizing and heteropolymerizing components of the core structure of the membrane skeleton
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Spectrin is the major constituent of the cytoskeletal network underlying the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It associates with band 4.1 and actin to form the cytoskeletal superstructure of the erythrocyte plasma membrane

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SPTA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton TAS 1634521
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12820899
GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity IEA --
GO:0051015 actin filament binding TAS 1634521
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SPTA1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SPTA1: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for SPTA1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SPTA1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for SPTA1 Gene

Localization for SPTA1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SPTA1 Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cytoplasm, cell cortex.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for SPTA1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SPTA1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SPTA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0008091 spectrin TAS 1634521
GO:0014731 spectrin-associated cytoskeleton IDA 379653
GO:0015629 actin cytoskeleton TAS 10950304
GO:0016020 membrane --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SPTA1: view

Pathways for SPTA1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SPTA1: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SPTA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002260 lymphocyte homeostasis IEA --
GO:0006779 porphyrin-containing compound biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0007009 plasma membrane organization IEA --
GO:0007015 actin filament organization TAS 1634521
GO:0007411 axon guidance TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SPTA1: view

Compounds for SPTA1 Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for SPTA1 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
calcium 0 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SPTA1: view

Transcripts for SPTA1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for SPTA1 Gene

Spectrin, alpha, erythrocytic 1 (elliptocytosis 2):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for SPTA1

Primer Products

  • OriGene qSTAR qPCR primer pairs in human,mouse,rat for SPTA1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SPTA1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SPTA1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SPTA1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for SPTA1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SPTA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (26.7), Spleen (7.0), and Testis (4.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, and MaxQB for SPTA1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SPTA1 Gene Hs.119825

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with SPTA1: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SPTA1 Gene

Orthologs for SPTA1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for SPTA1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SPTA1 35
  • 98.61 (n)
  • 97.56 (a)
SPTA1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SPTA1 35
  • 83.95 (n)
  • 79.04 (a)
SPTA1 36
  • 79 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SPTA1 35
  • 82.22 (n)
  • 78.95 (a)
SPTA1 36
  • 83 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Spta1 35
  • 81.89 (n)
  • 80.71 (a)
Spta1 16
Spta1 36
  • 81 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SPTA1 36
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SPTA1 36
  • 68 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Spta1 35
  • 81.97 (n)
  • 80.59 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 12 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii syne1a 36
  • 5 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C50C3.2 37
  • 18 (a)
Species with no ortholog for SPTA1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SPTA1 Gene

Gene Tree for SPTA1 (if available)
Gene Tree for SPTA1 (if available)

Paralogs for SPTA1 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for SPTA1 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SPTA1: view

Variants for SPTA1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SPTA1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1616 -- 158,622,665(-) GTTGT(A/C)CCTGT intron-variant
rs1619 -- 158,622,726(+) TCCTC(C/T)TGTTC intron-variant
rs12601 -- 158,610,969(-) TTGCA(C/T)GTCTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs90078 -- 158,676,510(+) ATGAA(C/T)GTTCT intron-variant
rs167818 -- 158,675,539(-) tctgc(A/T)gtttc intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SPTA1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv394n71 CNV Loss 21882294
esv1958503 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2718607 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1284753 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv9069 CNV Loss 19470904

Relevant External Links for SPTA1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SPTA1 Gene

Disorders for SPTA1 Gene

(3) OMIM Diseases for SPTA1 Gene (182860)


  • Elliptocytosis 2 (EL2) [MIM:130600]: A Rhesus-unlinked form of hereditary elliptocytosis, a genetically heterogeneous, autosomal dominant hematologic disorder. It is characterized by variable hemolytic anemia and elliptical or oval red cell shape. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1541680, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1638030, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1679439, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1878597, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2384601, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2568861, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2568862, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2794061, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7772539, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8018926, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8193371, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8364215}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP) [MIM:266140]: Autosomal recessive hematologic disorder characterized by hemolytic anemia, microspherocytosis, poikilocytosis, and an unusual thermal sensitivity of red cells. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1878597}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Spherocytosis 3 (SPH3) [MIM:270970]: Spherocytosis is a hematologic disorder leading to chronic hemolytic anemia and characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. SPH3 is characterized by severe hemolytic anemia. Inheritance is autosomal recessive. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for SPTA1 Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for SPTA1 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
elliptocytosis hereditary 90.2 3
spherocytosis hereditary 83.9 2

Relevant External Links for SPTA1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SPTA1: view

Publications for SPTA1 Gene

  1. The complete cDNA and polypeptide sequences of human erythroid alpha- spectrin. (PMID: 1689726) Sahr K.E. … Forget B.G. (J. Biol. Chem. 1990) 3 4 23
  2. The first human alpha-spectrin structural domain begins with serine. (PMID: 7929303) Lusitani D.M. … Fung L.W.-M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994) 3 4 23
  3. Low expression allele alpha LELY of red cell spectrin is associated with mutations in exon 40 (alpha V/41 polymorphism) and intron 45 and with partial skipping of exon 46. (PMID: 8486776) Wilmotte R. … Alloisio N. (J. Clin. Invest. 1993) 3 4 23
  4. Spectrin mutations in hereditary elliptocytosis and hereditary spherocytosis. (PMID: 8844207) Maillet P. … Delaunay J. (Hum. Mutat. 1996) 3 4 23
  5. Dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the human erythroid alpha spectrin (SPTA1) locus. (PMID: 1339473) Hentati A. … Siddique T. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1992) 3 23

Products for SPTA1 Gene

Sources for SPTA1 Gene

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